Whene'er with haggard eyes I viewTo the majority of Harvard graduates the chief association with Gottingen is Canning's once-famous squib, of which this is the first verse, in the “Anti-Jacobin.” But the historical tie between the two universities is far too close to be forgotten; and I have lately come into possession of some quite interesting letters which demonstrate this. They show conclusively how much the development of Harvard College was influenced, nearly a century ago, by the German models, and how little in comparison by Oxford and Cambridge; and as the letters are all from men afterwards eminent, and pioneers in that vast band of American students who have since studied in Germany, their youthful opinions will possess a peculiar interest. The three persons through whom this influence  most came were Joseph Green Cogswell, Edward Everett, and George Ticknor, all then studying at Gottingen. It happens that they had all been intimate in my father's family, and as he was very much interested in the affairs of the college,--of which he became in 1818 the “Steward and Patron,” and practically, as the Reverend A. P. Peabody assures us,1 the Treasurer,--they sent some of their appeals and arguments through him. This paper will consist chiefly of extracts from these letters, which speak for themselves as to the point of view in which the whole matter presented itself. It will be well to bear in mind the following details as to the early history of these three men, taking them in order of age. Cogswell was born in 1786, graduated (Harvard) in 1806, was tutor in 1814-15 (having previously tried mercantile life), and went abroad in 1816. Ticknor was born in 1791, graduated (Dartmouth) in 1807, went to Germany in 1815, and was appointed professor of Modern Languages at Harvard in 1817. Everett was born in 1794, graduated (Harvard) in 1811, and went abroad on his appointment as Greek professor (Harvard) in 1815. The first of these letters is from George  Ticknor, and is a very striking appeal in behalf of the Harvard College Library, which then consisted of less than 20,000 volumes, although the largest in the United States, with perhaps one exception.
This dungeon that I'm rotting in,
I think of those companions true
Who studied with me at the U-
niversity of Gottingen,
niversity of Gottingen.
The next extract is from a letter of Cogswell's, and gives a glimpse at the actual work done by these young men:
The following is from Ticknor again, and shows, though without giving details, that the young men had extended their observations beyond Gottingen:--
This is from Cogswell again, and is certainly a clarion appeal as to the need of thoroughness in teaching and learning:--
The following from Edward Everett carries the war yet farther into Africa, and criticises not merely American colleges, but also secondary schools:-- 
The following letter transfers Edward Everett to Oxford, and gives in a somewhat trenchant way his unfavorable criticisms on the English universities of that day. He subsequently sent his son to Cambridge, England, but it was forty years later:--
This letter from Cogswell refers to George Bancroft, who was subsequently sent out by Harvard College, after his graduation in 1817, that he might be trained for the service of the institution.
It appears from a letter of my father's, fourteen years later (November 21, 1833), that, after four years abroad, Mr. Bancroft's college career was a disappointment, and he was evidently regarded as a man spoiled by vanity and self-consciousness, and not commanding a strong influence over his pupils. My father wrote of these two teachers:--
From whatever cause, he remained as tutor for one year only (1822-23), leaving Cambridge for the Round Hill School. It would be curious to dwell on the later influence upon the college of the other men from whom so much was reasonably expected. Ticknor, the only one who was not a Harvard graduate, probably did most for Harvard of them all, for he became professor of Modern Languages, and introduced in that department the elective system, which there became really the nucleus of the expanded system of later days. Everett, when President, actually set himself against that method when the attempt had been made to enlarge it under Quincy. Cogswell was librarian from 1821 to 1823; left Harvard for the Round Hill School, and became ultimately the organizer of the Astor Library. Frederic  Henry Hedge, who had studied in Gottingen as a schoolboy and belonged to a younger circle, did not become professor until many years later. But while the immediate results of personal service to the college on the part of this group of remarkable men may have been inadequate, --since even Ticknor, ere parting, had with the institution a disagreement never yet fully elucidated,--yet their collective influence both on Harvard University and on American education was enormous. They helped to break up that intellectual sterility which had begun to show itself during the isolation of a merely colonial life; they prepared the way for the vast modern growth of colleges, schools, and libraries in this country, and indirectly helped that birth of a literature which gave us Irving, Cooper, Bryant, and the North American Review ; and culminated later in the brilliant Boston circle of authors, almost all of whom were Harvard men, and all of whom had felt the Harvard influence.