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Thirty-first regiment Massachusetts Infantry.

Col. Oliver P. Gooding, Bvt. Maj. Gen. U. S. Vols.

Field and Staff.Line.companies.Unassigned Recruits.Totals.
Number on regimental rolls,—
Enlisted men,11414613713713513712610712312914661,343
Enlisted men (included above) commissioned in regiment.24122221112119
Enlisted men (included above) serving elsewhere within regiment.211511112
Actual total of members of regiment,—
Enlisted men,31014313413412813512510612112614461,312

The 31st Mass. Infantry, under the name of the Western Bay State Regiment, was raised in the autumn and winter of 1861-62 by General Butler, was in camp at Pittsfield, Mass., and moved in February to Camp Chase, Lowell. It left the State February 21 to join the Department of the Gulf, under command of Col. Oliver P. Gooding, a graduate of West Point, and first lieutenant 10th U. S. Infantry. General Butler and his staff embarked at Fortress Monroe on the ‘Mississippi,’ which carried the regiment to Ship Island, where they landed March 23, having been delayed by storms and accident on the passage. Soon after the arrival of the regiment its designation was changed to the 31st Mass. Infantry. Assigned to General Williams's Brigade, it took part in the operations against New Orleans, was the first regiment to enter the city after the surrender, and was stationed on provost and guard duty in the city and at the forts in the vicinity during the summer and autumn. On the organization of the 19th Army Corps, in January, 1863, seven companies of the regiment, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hopkins, became part of the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, with Colonel Gooding as brigade commander, the three remaining companies having been stationed at Fort Pike. The main body of the regiment joining the forces at Baton Rouge March 6, took part on the 14th in the advance made to assist the naval forces in passing Port Hudson. It joined in the Teche expedition, being engaged at Fort Bisland April 13, and took up its position before Port Hudson May 23, sharing in the engagements of May 25, 27 and June 14, and was active during the siege. After the surrender on July 9 it moved as part of Weitzel's forces to Donaldsonville. In December, joined by the companies at Fort Pike, it was armed and equipped as cavalry and stationed at Carrollton, being familiarly known as the 6th Mass. Cavalry.

It took part in the Red River campaign, and was engaged with loss at Sabine Cross Roads, April 8, 1864, under command of Captain Nettleton. Many of the regiment had re-enlisted during the winter, and embarked July 21 for their furlough in Massachusetts, returning September 19, those not re-enlisted having remained during their absence on guard duty at New Orleans, under Captain Morse. The regiment, still serving as cavalry, was stationed at Donaldsonville in November, two companies being detached at Plaquemine. In February the regiment was organized as a battalion of five companies, those whose term of service had expired having been mustered out, and, joined by the detachment at Plaquemine, took part with Lieutenant-Colonel Nettleton in the operations against Mobile, Ala., and occupied the city after the surrender until the close of its service. It was mustered out Sept. 9, 1865, and received its final discharge and payment at Gallop's Island, Boston harbor, Sept. 30, 1865.

1 Including non-commissioned staff.

2 Including non-commissioned staff.

3 Including non-commissioned staff.

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Oliver P. Gooding (3)
Nettleton (2)
Butler (2)
Robert Williams (1)
Weitzel (1)
Augustus Morse (1)
Charles Russell Lowell (1)
Hopkins (1)
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