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Chapter 5: civil History.

  • Arrival of Shepard's company, and some of their names.
  • -- New municipal officers. -- New division of lands. -- monthly meetings. -- ferry. -- Lectures. -- Cow Common. -- goats. -- herd of cows. -- weir for taking alewives. -- herd on the south side of the river. -- herd of swine. -- fowls not permitted to enter gardens. -- cartway to the weir. -- pound. -- Stumps. -- neither houses nor lands to be sold or let, without consent of the Townsmen. -- strangers not to be harbored. -- grant of land to the Drummer. -- Fort Hill. -- grant of land at Vine Brook. -- swine to be yoked and ringed. -- apple trees and other quickset to be preserved from damage by goats. -- Births, marriages, and burials to be recorded. -- Farms granted. -- grant of money by the General Court for a College. -- organization of the militia. -- the College to be at New Town. -- Marshal General. -- the New Town named Cambridge. -- printing-press. -- Bond of Stephen Daye to Jose Glover.
    It has already been mentioned in the preceding chapter, that Mr. Hooker and a large proportion of his church removed from New Town in 1635 and 1636; and that Mr. Shepard with another company purchased their houses and lands. Among “the reasons which swayed him to come to New England,” Mr. Shepard says in his Autobiography, “Divers people in Old England of my dear friends desired me to go to New England there to live together, and some went before and writ to me of providing a place for a company of us, one of which was John Bridge, and I saw divers families of my Christian friends, who were resolved thither to go with me.” Accordingly “in the year 1634, about the beginning of the winter,” he embarked at Harwich, having with him “brother Champney, Frost, Goffe, and divers others, most dear saints,” who afterwards were inhabitants of Cambridge. They were driven back by stress of weather, and the voyage was abandoned. But “about the 10th of August, 1635,” he again embarked; “land so the Lord, after many sad storms and wearisome days and many longings to see the shore, brought us to the sight of it upon Oct. 2, 1635, and upon Oct. the 3d, we arrived with my wife, child, brother Samuel, Mr. Harlakenden, Mr. Cooke, &c., at Boston.—When we had been here two days, upon Monday Oct. 5, we came (being sent for by friends at Newtown) to them, to my brother Mr. Stone's house; and that congregation being upon their removal to Hartford at Connecticut, myself and those that came with me found many houses empty and many persons willing to sell, and here our company bought off their houses to dwell in until we should see another place fit to remove into; but having been here some time, divers of our brethren did desire to sit still and not to remove farther, partly because of the fellowship of the churches, partly because they thought their lives were short and removals to near plantations full of troubles, partly because they found [35] sufficient for themselves and their company,” 1 Besides those who are here named by Mr. Shepard, another Mr. Cooke and William French came in the same ship (The Defence) with him; and the larger portion of those whose names first appear in 1635 and 1636 may safely be regarded as members of his company, to wit:—

    Immediately after the arrival of Mr. Shepard's company, they became prominent in municipal affairs, although the larger part of Mr. Hooker's company did not remove until six months afterwards. I quote again from the Town Records:—

    Nov. 23, 1635.

    At a general meeting of the whole town, there was then chosen, to order the business of the whole town for the year following, and until new be chosen in their room, Mr. Roger Harlakenden, William Spencer, Andrew Warner, Joseph Cooke, John Bridge, Clement Chaplin, Nicholas Danforth, Thomas Hosmer, William Andrews: which nine men are to have the power of the Town as those formerly chosen had, as may appear in the order made the 3d Feb. 1634. (1634-5.)

    Further, there was chosen and sworn William Andrews, constable for the year following, and until a new be chosen.

    Further, there was then chosen for the year following Barnabas Lambson to be surveyor of the highways.

    It is further ordered, That the Town Book shall be at William Spencer's house.

    With a change of government came a change of customs. Some of the common planting fields became private property. Thus the Old Field, containing about sixty-three acres, was divided between Edward Goffe, Samuel Shepard, and Joseph Cooke. Small-lot-Hill, in like manner, passed into fewer hands. Farms were granted to such as desired them, both on the south side of the River, and in the territory now embraced in Arlington and Lexington. Much the larger portion of the inhabitants continued to reside in the “town,” and “West end,” very few venturing beyond the line of Sparks, Wyeth, and Garden Streets; but provision was made for the suitable care of their cattle, on the commons, by keepers specially appointed. Rules were adopted to promote the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants, and to protect them against annoyance by undesirable [37] associates. A few extracts from the Records may help to exhibit their condition.

    Dec. 7, 1635.

    It is ordered, That the monthly meeting, every first Monday [in the month], according to the first order, shall [be continued;] and whosoever appears not within half an hour after the ringing of the bell, shall pay for the first day vid., and [for the second] day xiid., and so to double it every day, [unless he have] a just excuse, such as may give satisfaction to the rest of the company.71

    It is further ordered, That there shall be a sufficient bridge made down to low-water mark on this side the River, and a broad ladder [set up] on the farther side the River, for convenience [of] landing; and Mr. Chaplin, Mr. Danforth and Mr. Cooke to see it made.72

    Jan. 4, 1635-6,

    It is ordered, That Mr. Joseph Cooke shall keep the ferry, and have a penny over, and a half a penny on Lecture days.73

    It is further ordered, That there shall be a double rail set up from the Pine Swamp fence to West-end Field fence, for the milch cows to lie in, on nights, and that no other cattle whatever to go there, either swine, goats, mares, or the like.74

    Feb. 8, 1635-6,

    Agreed with Mr. Chapline, that his man [38] shall keep the goats, and to have three half pence a week for one goat, and a penny a week for wethers or kids; to begin next Monday.

    March 1, 1635-6.

    Agreed with Richard Rice to keep 100 cows for the space of three months, to begin when he shall be appointed; and is to have ten pounds paid him within ten days after the ships be come in, or in June. Also he is to have 2 men to help him keep them the first 14 days, and one man the next 7 days; also to have them kept 2 sabbath days, and he one, during the time. Also he is to fetch the cows into the town every morning out of the common, half an hour after the sun is up, at the farthest, and to bring them into the town half an hour before the sun goeth down, and to pay IIId. a cow for every night he leaveth out any. Also he is not to keep any cattle for any man except he have leave from the Townsmen, upon the forfeiture of vs. a cow he shall so keep. Also he hath liberty to keep his own heifer without pay.

    Agreed with John Clarke to make a sufficient weir to catch alewives upon Menotomies River in the bounds of this town, before the 12th of April next, and shall sell and deliver unto the inhabitants of the town and no other, except for bait, all the alewives he shall take at IIIs., 6d. per thousand, and shall at all times give such notice to the persons that shall be appointed to fetch them away as he shall be directed, who shall discharge the said John Clarke of them within 24 hours after notice, or else he to have liberty to sell them to whom he can. Provided, and it is the meaning of the Townsmen, that if any shall desire to have some to eat before the great quantity cometh, then he is to have iid. a score and fetch them there, or IIId. a score and he bring them home. Further the Townsmen do promise in the behalf of the town to make good all those fish that he shall be damnified by the Indians, that is, shall himself deliver unto them, being appointed before by the Townsmen how many he shall deliver. Also to save him harmless from any damage he shall sustain by Wattertowne, provided it be not his own fault. He is to have his money within 14 days after he hath done fishing.

    March 13, 1635-6

    Agreed with William Patten to keep 100 cattle on the other side the River for the space of seven months, to begin when the Town shall appoint him, and to have twenty pounds, the one half paid him in money when he hath keep half his time, and the other half in corn when he hath done keeping, at the price which the common rate of corn goeth when [39] he is to be paid. And he is to have a man to help him the first 14 days, he paying him for one week, the Town for the other; also he is to lodge there except once a week, and to have a man to keep them every other sabbath day; and he to pay xs. a beast for every beast he shall lose; and to keep no cattle of any man, except the Townsmen give leave, upon the forfeiture of 5s. a head for every head he shall so keep.

    The hog-keeper began to keep on the first of April, being the fifth day of the week, at 10s. per week so long as the Townsmen please to have him keep them; and he is to keep them at Rocky Meadow.

    April 4, 1636.

    Agreed with John Talcott and William Wadsworth to have their house at Rocky Meadow this year, for the hog-keeper to abide in; and they are to have their cattle go free from paying towards the pound for dry cattle this year.

    It is ordered, That Richard Rice shall begin to keep the cows the 11th of April, 1636.

    It is ordered, That William Pattine shall begin to keep the dry cattle the 14th of April.

    Ordered, That whosoever finds a cock, hen, or turkey, in a garden, it shall be lawful for them to require three pence of the owner; and if they refuse to pay, then to kill the same.

    Andrew Warner and Joseph Cooke to make a rate for the division of the alewives.75

    April 23, 1636.

    Agreed with Andrew Warner to fetch home the alewives from the weir; and he is to have xvid. a thousand, and load them himself, for carriage; and to have power to take any man to help him, he paying of him for his work.

    Andrew Warner appointed to see a cartway made to the weir.

    William Reskie appointed to make a pound.

    Oct. 3, 1636.

    Agreed with Mr. Cooke to take up all the stubs that are within the bounds of the town, that is, within the town gates;76 and he is to have ixd. apiece for taking up the same, [40] and filling up the holes, all above III. inches [deep], which he is to do before the first of December, or else to forfeit 5l.

    Dec. 5, 1636.

    Ordered, That no man inhabiting or not inhabiting within the bounds of the town shall let or sell any house or land unto any, without the consent of the Townsmen then in place, unless it be to a member of the congregation; and lest any one shall sustain loss thereby, they shall come and proffer the same unto them, upon a day of the monthly meeting, and at such a rate as he shall not sell or let for a lesser price unto any than he offereth unto them, and to leave the same in their hands, in liking, until the next meeting day in the next month, when, if they shall not take it, paying the price within some convenient time, or provide him a chapman, he shall then be free to sell or let the same unto any other, provided the Townsmen think them fit to be received in.

    Ordered, That whosoever entertains any stranger into the town, if the congregation desire it, he shall set the town free of them again within one month after warning given them, or else he shall pay 19s. 8d. unto the townsmen as a fine for his default, and as much for every month they shall there remain.

    There is granted unto Frances Greshold, the Drummer, 2 acres of land, lying at the end of Barnebe Lambson's pale towards Charlestowne, in regard of his service amongst the soldiers upon all occasions, as long as he stayeth, with condition, if he depart the town and leave off that service within two years, he shall leave it unto the town at the charge it hath cost him in building and enclosing.

    Jan. 2, 1636-7.

    It is granted unto Joseph Cooke to have the hill by his house, which have been hitherto preserved for a place to build a fort upon for defence, with all the lane leading thereunto; provided if the town shall ever make use of it for that end, he shall yield it again; or else to remain to him and his heirs forever.77

    Granted to Mr. Richard Harlakingden six hundred acres of upland and meadow, at the place called Vine Brook, in the midway between Newtowne and Concord, upon condition he sendeth over his man, or ordereth that some other may build upon it and [41] improve it for him the next summer after this next ensuing, and now, this spring, [give] certain intelligence he will do so; and upon condition likewise that he cometh himself the next summer after being the third from this time; and if he shall fail in all or any one of these three conditions, then this grant to be void.78

    Jan. 14, 1638-9.

    Ordered, there being found much damage done by swine in this town, since the order of the General Court was repealed, and they left at liberty for each town to order,— it is therefore ordered, at a general meeting of the Townsmen, with a general consent of the inhabitants then present, that is to say, that none, either rich or poor, shall keep above two swine abroad on the common, one sow hog and a barrow, or 2 barrows; and these to be sufficiently yoked and ringed, after the judgment of the two brethren that are appointed to see to the execution of this order, and to bring in a note of such defaults as they find. And if any be found defective, to break this order, either by keeping more than 2 hogs, and such hogs, so let abroad, if not sufficiently [yoked and ringed] after the order, shall pay for every breach of this order 2s., unless in case there should be any failing by unexpected providence, and can be so proved by sufficient evidence; in that case there may be mitigation of this fine, otherwise to take place without all excuses, to the end that each man and this commonweal may be preserved from damage by that creature in this our town.

    Oct. 1, 1639.

    Ordered, for the preservation of apple-trees and all other kind of quick-set, in men's yards or elsewhere, and for preventing all other damage by them and harm to themselves by skipping over pales, That no goats shall be suffered to go out of the owner's yard without a keeper; but if it appeareth to be willingly, they shall pay unto any one that will put them to pound two pence for every goat, beside damage and poundage. And because the charge would be too great if only a part of them be kept, it is therefore also ordered, that whosoever shall not put forth their goats shall notwithstanding pay to the keeper within one third part as much for every goat as they that do put them out, until the first of March; and after that day, to the full as much as any do for those that are with the herd.

    March, 1639-40.

    Ordered, That William Towne shall register [42] every birth, marriage, and burial, according to the order of Court in that case provided, and give it in, once every year, to be delivered by the Deputies to the Recorder; and shall gather for every particular entrance 1 penny for the Recorder's fees, and xiid. for himself.


    Granted unto Joseph Cooke a farm of 400 acres of the nearest upland adjoining to his meadow lying beyond Cheesecake Brook79 and between that and Charles River; and also liberty to go with a straight line, (on the hithermost side of his meadow on this side Cheesecake Brook), down by the edge of the highland, to Charles River.

    At the same meeting grants of farms were made to other persons, to wit: to Samuel Shepard 400 acres adjoining and beyond the farm of Joseph Cooke; to Capt. George Cooke, 600 acres; to Edward Goffe, 600 acres; to John Bridge, 350 acres; severally “about the outside of the bounds between Watertowne, Concord, and Charlestowne.”

    During this period, the General Court passed several orders, affecting the comfort and prosperity of the people dwelling here:—

    Oct. 28, 1636.

    The Court agreed to give 400l. towards a school or college, whereof 200l. to be paid the next year, and 200l. when the work is finished, and the next Court to appoint where and what building.80

    Dec. 13, 1636.

    It is ordered, That all military men in this jurisdiction shall be ranked into three regiments, viz., Boston, Roxberry, Dorchester, Weimoth, Hingham, to be one regiment, whereof John Winthrope, senior, Esquire, shall be colonel, and Tho. Dudley, Esquire, lieftenant colonel:

    Charlestowne, Newetowne, Watertowne, Concord, and Deddam, to be another regiment, whereof John Haynes, Esqr. shall be colonel, and Roger Herlakenden Esqr. lieftenant colonel: [43]

    Saugust, Salem, Ipswich, and Neweberry, to be another regiment, whereof John Endecot Esqr. shall be colonel, and John Winthrope, junior, leiftenant colonel:

    And the Governor for the time being shall be chief general.81

    March 9, 1636-7.

    For Newetowne, Mr. George Cooke chosen captain; Mr. Willi: Spencer, leiftenant; Mr. Sam: Shepard, ensign.82

    Nov. 15, 1637.

    The College is ordered to be at Newetowne.83

    Nov. 20, 1637.

    For the College, the Governor, Mr. Winthrope, the Deputy, Mr. Dudley, the Treasurer, Mr. Bellingham, Mr. Humfrey, Mr. Herlakenden, Mr. Staughton, Mr. Cotton, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Damport, Mr. Wells, Mr. Sheopard, and Mr. Peters, these or the greater part of them, whereof Mr. Winthrope, Mr. Dudley, or Mr. Bellingham, to be alway one, to take order for a College at Newetowne.

    Edward Michelson, being appointed marshall of the Court, is appointed to have for any execution 12d. in the pound for the first ten pounds, and 6d. in the pound to 40l., and after, 3d. in the pound to a hundred pounds, and 1d. in the pound for all above 100l., to be paid out of the estate which the execution is served upon. For every attachment of goods or persons the marshall is to have 2s. 6d.; and if he goeth any way, he is to have 12d. a mile beside. And the marshall is to have 2s. 6d. for every commitment in Court, and 10l. stipend for this year to come.84

    May 2, 1638.

    It is ordered, That Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge.85

    Dec. 4, 1638.

    The town of Cambridge was fined 10s. for want of a watch-house, pound, and stocks; and time was given them till the next Court.86


    March 13, 1638-9.

    It is ordered, That the College agreed upon formerly to be built at Cambridge shall be called Harvard College.87

    Under date of March, 1639, Winthrop says, “a printing-house was begun at Cambridge by one Daye, at the charge of Mr. Glover, who died on sea hitherward. The first thing which was printed was the freeman's oath; the next was an almanac made for New England by Mr. William Peirce, mariner; the next was the Psalms newly turned into metre.” 88 Many years ago, the late Thaddeus William Harris, M. D., then Librarian of Harvard College, gave me a copy of an ancient document preserved in the archives of that institution, which manifestly relates to this affair, though, perhaps for prudential reasons, no mention is made in it concerning printing. It is a bond in the usual form, given by Stephen Day89 of Cambridge, county of Cambridge, locksmith90 to Josse Glover,91 clerk, in the penal sum of one hundred pounds, and dated June 7, 1638. The condition is thus stated:

    The condition of this obligation is such, that, whereas the above named Josse Glover hath undertaken and promised to bear the charges of and for the transportation of the above bounden Stephen Day and Rebecca his wife, and of Matthew92 and Stephen Day, their children, and of William Bordman,93 and three menservants, which are to be transported with him the said Stephen to New England in America, in the ship called the John of London; and whereas the transportation of all the said parties will cost the sum of forty and four pounds, which is to be disbursed by the said Joos Glover; and whereas the said Joos Glover hath delivered to the said Stephen Day kettles and other iron tools to the value of seven pounds, both which sums amount to the sum of fifty and one pounds; If, [45] therefore, the said Stephen Day do and shall with all speed94 ship himself and his said wife and children and servants, and the said William Bordman in the same ship, and cause him and themselves to be transported in the said ship to New England aforesaid, with as much speed as wind and weather will permit; and also if the said Stephen Day, his executors, administrators or assigns do truly pay or cause to be paid to the said Josse Glover his executors or assigns the sum of [fifty] and one pounds, of lawful [money of] England within twenty and four months next after the arrival of the said Stephen Day the father in New England aforesaid, or within thirty days next after the decease of the said Stephen Day the father, which of the said times shall first and next happen to come or be after the date above written; and also if the said Stephen Day the father and his servants and every of them do and shall from time to time labor and work with and for the said Josse Glover and his assigns in the trade which the said Stephen the father now useth in New England aforesaid, at such rates and prices as is usually paid and allowed for the like work in the country there; and also if the said Stephen the father, his executors or administrators, do and shall, with the said sum of fifty and one pounds, pay and allow unto the said Joos Glover, his executors or assigns, for the loan, adventure and forbearance of the same sum, such recompense, damage and consideration as two indifferent men in New England aforesaid, to be chosen for that purpose, shall think fit, set down, and appoint; and lastly, if the said Joos Glover, his executors and assigns shall and may from time to time detain and take to his and their own uses, towards the payment of the said sum of money, and allowances aforesaid, all such part and so much of the wages and earnings which shall be earned by the works and labors aforesaid, (not exceeding the principal sum aforesaid) as the said Joos, his executors or assignes shall think fit; that then this obligation to be void, or else it to stand in force and virtue.

    1 Life of Shepard, edition of 1832, pp. 42-58.

    2 Removed to Hingham.

    3 Remained here.

    4 Remained here.

    5 Removed to Hartford.

    6 Remained here.

    7 Remained here.

    8 Remained here.

    9 Removed to Hartford.

    10 Removed to Hartford.

    11 Remained here.

    12 Remained here.

    13 Remained here.

    14 Remained here.

    15 Remained here.

    16 Remained here.

    17 Remained here.

    18 Remained here.

    19 Remained here.

    20 Remained here.

    21 Remained here.

    22 Remained here.

    23 Remained here.

    24 Remained here.

    25 Removed to Charlestown.

    26 Remained here.

    27 Remained here.

    28 Remained here.

    29 Removed to Hartford.

    30 Remained here.

    31 Remained here.

    32 Removed to Hartford. Two of the same name were here.

    33 Removed to Hartford.

    34 Remained here.

    35 Remained here.

    36 Remained here.

    37 Remained here.

    38 Afterwards settled in the ministry at Scituate.

    39 Removed to Ipswich.

    40 Remained here.

    41 Removed to Concord.

    42 Removed to Scituate or Duxbury; afterwards to Sudbury.

    43 Removed to Ipswich.

    44 Removed to Concord.

    45 Removed to Hartford.

    46 Remained here.

    47 Remained here.

    48 Removed to Hingham.

    49 Remained here.

    50 Remained here.

    51 Remained here.

    52 Remained here.

    53 Removed to Duxbury.

    54 A proprietor; but resided in Boston.

    55 Remained here.

    56 Remained here.

    57 Names soon disappeared.

    58 Remained here.

    59 Removed to Charlestown.

    60 Remained here.

    61 Remained here.

    62 Removed to Concord.

    63 Names soon disappeared.

    64 Names soon disappeared.

    65 Remained here.

    66 Removed to Duxbury.

    67 Remained here.

    68 Remained here.

    69 Removed to Hartford.

    70 A proprietor; but resided in Watertown.

    71 This order would seem to require a monthly meeting of all the inhabitants; but the records indicate that only the Townsmen thus met. A general town meeting was seldom held, except annually in November, for the election of officers.

    72 This bridge, or causeway, was at the southerly end of Dunster Street. Traces of the old road on the south side of the river were visible not long ago (and perhaps still remain), several rods east of the present road leading from the Great Bridge to Brighton. Connected with this causeway was the ferry, named in the next order.

    73 Although there were then few, if any, inhabitants of the New Town residing on the south side of the River, yet many persons crossed the ferry, in going from town to town, especially on Lecture-days. Winthrop tells us, in 1634,— “It being found that the four Lectures did spend too much time, and proved overburden — some to the ministers and people, the ministers, with the advice of the magistrates, and with the consent of their congregations, did agree to reduce them to two days, viz.: Mr. Cotton one Thursday, or the 5th day of the week, and Mr. Hooker at New Town the next 5th day; and Mr. Warham at Dorchester one 4th day of the week, and Mr. Welde at Roxbury, the next 4th day.” This arrangement was not effectual; for Winthrop adds five years later, in 1639, “there were so many Lectures now in the country, and many poor persons would usually resort to two or three in the week, to the great neglect of their affairs, and the damage of the public,” etc. The General Court attempted to correct the evil; but the Elders, or Pastors of Churches, manifested such a keen jealousy of their rights, that the attempt was abandoned, and all evidence of it was suppressed, or excluded from the records. Savage's Winthrop, i. 144, 324-326.

    74 This fence was where Linnaean Street now is, and was the northern boundary of the cow-common; the other sides were bounded by the present Garden Street and North Avenue.

    75 It was customary to put one or more alewives in each hill of corn, and to use them otherwise for the enrichment of the soil. They were considered of so much value for this purpose as to be divided ratably. As late as June 10, 1649, it was “ordered, by the Townsmen, that all persons provide that their dogs may do no harm in corn or gardens, by scraping up the fish, upon the penalty of 3d. for every dog that shall be taken damage peasant, with all other just damages.”

    76 “Town gates” then stood across Harvard Street, near Linden Street; across Brattle Street, probably near Ash Street; and across the street between the College yard and the Burial-place. Besides these, there were other gates to protect the cow-common; one across Kirkland Street, near Oxford Street; one across Garden Street, at the west end of Linnaean Street, and probably another at its east end, across North Avenue.

    77 The house of Joseph Cooke stood at the northeasterly corner of Holyoke Street and Holyoke Place; and it is believed by some that a portion of it still remains. The hill reserved for a fort is the high land at the southeasterly angle of Holyoke Place. Mr. Cooke's lot contained five acres, lying east of Holyoke Street, and south of Mount Auburn Street.

    78 Richard Harlakenden was elder brother to Roger Harlakenden, and had been very kind to Mr. Shepard in England. He did not comply with the conditions of this grant; and the same land was assigned, April 2, 1638, to Roger Harlakenden, in lieu of five hundred acres previously granted to him on the south side of the river. Vine Brook passes through the central portion of Lexington.

    79 Cheesecake Brook is in the westerly part of Newton.

    80 Mass. Col. Rec., i. 183. President Quincy (Hist. Harv. Coll., i. 1), states that this foundation of the College was laid Sept. 8, 1636, overlooking the fact that the General Court, which met on that day, adjourned until October, and made this grant on the 28th day of that month. The College was ordered to be established at Newtown, Nov. 15, 1637, and the town granted “to the Professor” 2 2/3 acres of land, on which Holworthy, Stoughton, and Hollis Halls are supposed to stand. This grant to the Professor, made May 11, 1638, is defined on the record to be “to the Town's use forever, for a public school or college; and to the use of Mr. Nathaniel Eaton as long as he shall be employed in that work; so that at his death, or ceasing from that work, he or his shall be allowed according to the charges he hath been at, in building or fencing.”

    81 Mass. Coll. Rec., i. 186, 187.

    82 Ibid., i. 190.

    83 Ibid., i. 208. In his Wonder-Working Providence, Johnson says concerning the College: “To make the whole world understand that spiritual learning was the thing they chiefly desired, to sanctify the other and make the whole lump holy, and that learning being set upon its right object, might not contend for error instead of truth, they chose this place, being then under the orthodox and soul-flourishing ministry of Mr. Thomas Shepheard, of whom it may be said, without any wrong to others, the Lord by his ministry hath saved many hundred souls.” Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., XVII. 27, 28.

    84 Mass. Col. Rec., i. 217. Mr. Mitchelson held this office, equivalent to that of High Sheriff, until 1681, when he died and was succeeded by his son-in-law, John Green.

    85 Ibid., i. 228. This name is supposed to have been selected, because a place of the same name is the seat of a university in England, where several of the Magistrates and Elders had been educated.

    86 Ibid., i. 247.

    87 Mass. Col. Rec., i. 253. So called in honor of Rev. John Harvard, who endowed the college with half of his estate together with the whole of his library.

    88 Savages' Winthrop, i. 289.

    89 He wrote his name Daye.

    90 Although Daye was recognized by the General Court, Dec. 10, 1641, as “the first that set upon printing,” he was a locksmith, and not a printer, by trade. Perhaps his son Matthew had already received some instruction as a printer. It is not probable that his successor, Samuel Green, had much knowledge of the printer's mystery, at the time of his appointment. I think that Marmaduke Johnson, who came to assist in printing the Indian Bible, was the first thoroughly instructed printer in New England.

    91 The true name of Mr. Glover was Jose.

    92 Matthew Daye was a printer, and the first known Steward of Harvard College. He died 10th May, 1649.

    93 William Boardman was son of Stephen Daye's wife by a former husband, and was both Steward of the College and the progenitor of at least four stewards. He died 25th March, 1685, aged 71.

    94 He appears to have arrived in New England with the printing-press, about four months after the date of this bond. In a letter, dated at Salem, Oct. 10, 1638, Hugh Peter says: “We have a printery here, and think to go to work with some special things.” —Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., XXXVI. 99.

    The business of printing was conducted exclusively at Cambridge for nearly half a century, during which time the Indian Bible was printed; after about the year 1700, very little if any work of this kind was performed here (except by Samuel Hall in 1775-76), until 1800, when a printing press was established by William Hilliard.—Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., VII. 19.

    During the present century, the printers of Cambridge have constantly held a very high comparative rank, for both the quantity and the quality of their work.

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