Chapter 5: civil History.
It has already been mentioned in the preceding chapter, that Mr. Hooker and a large proportion of his church removed from New Town in 1635 and 1636; and that Mr. Shepard with another company purchased their houses and lands. Among “the reasons which swayed him to come to New England,” Mr. Shepard says in his Autobiography, “Divers people in Old England of my dear friends desired me to go to New England there to live together, and some went before and writ to me of providing a place for a company of us, one of which was John Bridge, and I saw divers families of my Christian friends, who were resolved thither to go with me.” Accordingly “in the year 1634, about the beginning of the winter,” he embarked at Harwich, having with him “brother Champney, Frost, Goffe, and divers others, most dear saints,” who afterwards were inhabitants of Cambridge. They were driven back by stress of weather, and the voyage was abandoned. But “about the 10th of August, 1635,” he again embarked; “land so the Lord, after many sad storms and wearisome days and many longings to see the shore, brought us to the sight of it upon Oct. 2, 1635, and upon Oct. the 3d, we arrived with my wife, child, brother Samuel, Mr. Harlakenden, Mr. Cooke, &c., at Boston.—When we had been here two days, upon Monday Oct. 5, we came (being sent for by friends at Newtown) to them, to my brother Mr. Stone's house; and that congregation being upon their removal to Hartford at Connecticut, myself and those that came with me found many houses empty and many persons willing to sell, and here our company bought off their houses to dwell in until we should see another place fit to remove into; but having been here some time, divers of our brethren did desire to sit still and not to remove farther, partly because of the fellowship of the churches, partly because they thought their lives were short and removals to near plantations full of troubles, partly because they found  sufficient for themselves and their company,” 1 Besides those who are here named by Mr. Shepard, another Mr. Cooke and William French came in the same ship (The Defence) with him; and the larger portion of those whose names first appear in 1635 and 1636 may safely be regarded as members of his company, to wit:—
Immediately after the arrival of Mr. Shepard's company, they became prominent in municipal affairs, although the larger part of Mr. Hooker's company did not remove until six months afterwards. I quote again from the Town Records:—
With a change of government came a change of customs. Some of the common planting fields became private property. Thus the Old Field, containing about sixty-three acres, was divided between Edward Goffe, Samuel Shepard, and Joseph Cooke. Small-lot-Hill, in like manner, passed into fewer hands. Farms were granted to such as desired them, both on the south side of the River, and in the territory now embraced in Arlington and Lexington. Much the larger portion of the inhabitants continued to reside in the “town,” and “West end,” very few venturing beyond the line of Sparks, Wyeth, and Garden Streets; but provision was made for the suitable care of their cattle, on the commons, by keepers specially appointed. Rules were adopted to promote the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants, and to protect them against annoyance by undesirable  associates. A few extracts from the Records may help to exhibit their condition.
At the same meeting grants of farms were made to other persons, to wit: to Samuel Shepard 400 acres adjoining and beyond the farm of Joseph Cooke; to Capt. George Cooke, 600 acres; to Edward Goffe, 600 acres; to John Bridge, 350 acres; severally “about the outside of the bounds between Watertowne, Concord, and Charlestowne.” During this period, the General Court passed several orders, affecting the comfort and prosperity of the people dwelling here:—
Under date of March, 1639, Winthrop says, “a printing-house was begun at Cambridge by one Daye, at the charge of Mr. Glover, who died on sea hitherward. The first thing which was printed was the freeman's oath; the next was an almanac made for New England by Mr. William Peirce, mariner; the next was the Psalms newly turned into metre.” 88 Many years ago, the late Thaddeus William Harris, M. D., then Librarian of Harvard College, gave me a copy of an ancient document preserved in the archives of that institution, which manifestly relates to this affair, though, perhaps for prudential reasons, no mention is made in it concerning printing. It is a bond in the usual form, given by Stephen Day89 of Cambridge, county of Cambridge, locksmith90 to Josse Glover,91 clerk, in the penal sum of one hundred pounds, and dated June 7, 1638. The condition is thus stated:
The condition of this obligation is such, that, whereas the above named Josse Glover hath undertaken and promised to bear the charges of and for the transportation of the above bounden Stephen Day and Rebecca his wife, and of Matthew92 and Stephen Day, their children, and of William Bordman,93 and three menservants, which are to be transported with him the said Stephen to New England in America, in the ship called the John of London; and whereas the transportation of all the said parties will cost the sum of forty and four pounds, which is to be disbursed by the said Joos Glover; and whereas the said Joos Glover hath delivered to the said Stephen Day kettles and other iron tools to the value of seven pounds, both which sums amount to the sum of fifty and one pounds; If,  therefore, the said Stephen Day do and shall with all speed94 ship himself and his said wife and children and servants, and the said William Bordman in the same ship, and cause him and themselves to be transported in the said ship to New England aforesaid, with as much speed as wind and weather will permit; and also if the said Stephen Day, his executors, administrators or assigns do truly pay or cause to be paid to the said Josse Glover his executors or assigns the sum of [fifty] and one pounds, of lawful [money of] England within twenty and four months next after the arrival of the said Stephen Day the father in New England aforesaid, or within thirty days next after the decease of the said Stephen Day the father, which of the said times shall first and next happen to come or be after the date above written; and also if the said Stephen Day the father and his servants and every of them do and shall from time to time labor and work with and for the said Josse Glover and his assigns in the trade which the said Stephen the father now useth in New England aforesaid, at such rates and prices as is usually paid and allowed for the like work in the country there; and also if the said Stephen the father, his executors or administrators, do and shall, with the said sum of fifty and one pounds, pay and allow unto the said Joos Glover, his executors or assigns, for the loan, adventure and forbearance of the same sum, such recompense, damage and consideration as two indifferent men in New England aforesaid, to be chosen for that purpose, shall think fit, set down, and appoint; and lastly, if the said Joos Glover, his executors and assigns shall and may from time to time detain and take to his and their own uses, towards the payment of the said sum of money, and allowances aforesaid, all such part and so much of the wages and earnings which shall be earned by the works and labors aforesaid, (not exceeding the principal sum aforesaid) as the said Joos, his executors or assignes shall think fit; that then this obligation to be void, or else it to stand in force and virtue.