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Chapter 4:

At the close of the spring of 1862, the Federal army in South Carolina, under General Hunter, had not made lodgment on the mainland. The enemy's gunboats, commanding the waters surrounding the islands, made ineffectual attacks on several of the batteries on shore.

On May 29th, a small force under Colonel Christ, of the Fiftieth Pennsylvania regiment, a company of cavalry and one company of the Eighth Michigan regiment, crossing at Port Royal ferry, made an attack at Old Pocotaligo with a view of reaching and cutting the Charleston & Savannah railroad. This force was met by the Rutledge mounted riflemen, Capt. W. L. Trenholm, and two companies, A and D, of the First battalion of South Carolina cavalry, the whole under Maj. J. H. Morgan. A spirited engagement followed along the banks of Screven's canal, but the Confederates, numbering only seventy-six men, were forced back to a point three-quarters of a mile beyond Old Pocotaligo, where they took up a strong position.

Col. W. S. Walker, commanding the Third military district, having arrived on the field, directed this movement and awaited the second attack. The first attack had been made at 10:30 a. m., and the Confederates were not dislodged until 1 o'clock. At 4 o'clock Captain Elliott brought up three pieces of his Beaufort battery, and Captains Izard and Wyman, with their companies [77] (I and F) of the Eleventh South Carolina, also reinforced Walker. Later Col. J. H. Means, with his regiment, 400 strong, came up to Colonel Walker's aid. But his dispositions were not to be tried by the Federals. Colonel Christ, though he had now with him a reinforcement of Connecticut artillery, determined not to attack, and being covered by the woods in his retreat, was far on his way to Garden's corners before Walker got information of it and began the pursuit. He succeeded in crossing Port Royal ferry at night in flats which were in readiness, before he could be engaged by the Confederates.

Elliott put his guns in position at the ferry next morning and battered the ferry-house which sheltered the Federal picket, and destroyed the flats. In this affair Christ reported a loss of 2 killed and 9 wounded, and Walker, 2 killed, 6 wounded and 1 missing. The Federal commander estimated the Confederate force at from 600 to 800, but in the actual engagement along Screven's canal, Walker had only 76 men, rank and file; 110 men, armed for the most part only with sabers, being held a mile in rear with the horses, under orders to charge in case of a disaster in front.

Colonel Walker, in his official report, mentions in special praise the conduct of Capt. W. L. Trenholm and his riflemen; Lieut. R. M. Skinner and his small command of the First battalion cavalry; Captain Elliott, of the Beaufort artillery; Capt. W. W. Elliott, acting ordnance officer; Lieut. L. J. Walker, of the Rutledge riflemen; Lieut. E. H. Barnwell, acting assistant adjutant-general; Corp. W. H. Jeffers, and Privates J. D. Taylor and W. K. Steadman of the riflemen.

This attempt, like all others, failed to reach the railroad, and served only to inspire Walker and other commanders along its line to increased watchfulness. Thus closed the spring campaign on the coast of South Carolina.

An event occurred in Charleston harbor on the morning [78] of May 13th which, no doubt, determined the movement of a large force against the Confederate position on James island. This was the abduction of the steamer Planter by a portion of the crew, who took the steamer out of the harbor and turned her over to the Federal fleet. The Planter was a swift, light-draught vessel, employed in transporting ordnance and stores to the forts and batteries of the harbor and the vicinity. She had a white captain, mate and engineer, and a crew of eight intelligent negroes. The day before her abduction she had been loaded at Southern wharf with heavy ordnance for the Middle Ground battery in the harbor, consisting of a banded rifle 42, an 8-inch columbiad, an 8-inch howitzer, and a 32-pounder. She carried for her own defense a 32-pounder and a 24-pounder howitzer. The captain, mate and engineer, contrary to written orders, were in the city, when four of the crew, under the leadership of one of their number, Jacob Small, fired up and boldly ran out of the harbor before daylight, the Planter being taken for a guard boat by the forts and allowed to pass. The crew were well-informed men and thoroughly acquainted with the situation around Charleston, and especially with the recent removal of the guns from the Georgetown defenses and from Cole's island, at the mouth of Stono river.

All this information was, of course, carried to the Federal commanders. Great excitement followed in the city, and all the troops and posts were ordered to be ready for attack, especially by way of the land. The abandonment of Fort Palmetto at the mouth of the Stono left the way open to the Federal fleet to enter that river, and to General Hunter to land a large force on James island. Following the plan which he had adopted after the fall of Port Royal harbor, General Pemberton gave up the defense of the sea islands and the harbor of Georgetown, and made the Charleston & Savannah railroad his main line south of Charleston, drawing in the [79] defenses on James island to a line running across the island from Secessionville on its left to Fort Pemberton, on the Stono, on its right.

This policy was unpopular with the governor, the military generally and the people, and made General Pemberton, an honest and patriotic soldier, both unpopular and mistrusted. The idea was abroad that he did not mean to defend the city to the last; that he was not confident of success, and that he was not equal to the emergency. These sentiments were freely communicated to General Lee and to President Davis by the governor and by prominent citizens of the State. General Ripley, who commanded the harbor defenses and the forces on James island, regarded the abandonment of Fort Palmetto as a fatal mistake, and at his request, he was ordered to join General Lee in front of Richmond. General Ripley had shown great energy and unusual ability as an artillery officer, and possessed the full confidence of the military and the people. He had made the Palmetto a strong battery and had put in command an accomplished officer, Maj. J. J. Lucas, with his artillery battalion supported by infantry. Cole's island, on which Fort Palmetto was situated, was surrounded by creeks and marshes, and the causeway in its rear ran along the river to Battery island, and thence by causeway to James island. Battery island was immediately on the river and was also strongly fortified. General Pemberton was satisfied that the Federal boats could run by both forts, and with their superior guns command the approach from James island so effectually as to make it impossible to send relief to either point. In this view of the situation he was fortified by the judgment of General Lee. Possessing the courage of his military convictions, the heavy guns from both positions were removed early in May, and by General Ripley's order were put in position at Elliott's cut and on the lines east of James Island creek. Cole's island was occupied by a battalion of the Twenty-fourth [80] South Carolina volunteer infantry, in observation, under Lieut.-Col. Ellison Capers, with instructions to prevent barges or small boats entering the Stono, or landing detachments on either Cole's or Battery island.

How far Major-General Pemberton communicated his views respecting the immediate defense of Charleston to his subordinates or to Governor Pickens, is not known, but to General Lee he wrote, on May 21st, after the gunboats had entered the Stono and anchored off Battery island, that he favored the abandonment of Forts Sumter and Moultrie and the defense of Charleston from the city itself. This remarkable judgment was expressed to General Lee in an official letter dated at Charleston, May 21, 1862, addressed to Col. A. L. Long, military secretary. The following are extracts:

I don't suppose there is any immediate intention of attacking Charleston. . . . Our land defenses on James island, however, are very strong. The battery constructed at Elliott's cut, on Stono river (not yet entirely completed), mounts only eight guns. I desire to make it twenty, but under present arrangements cannot effect it. [This battery, gradually strengthened, became a splendid fort, and as its history will show, did gallant service against repeated attacks. It was named Fort Pemberton, in honor of the major-general commanding.] I do not regard Charleston as strong. What under the old system of warfare was our strength, is now our great weakness. The many approaches by water and the recent proof of the practicability of their gunboats passing our batteries [Port Royal] have made the defense of this city a very difficult problem to solve. To obstruct 2,000 yards of channel (and this with relation to the forts, Sumter and Moultrie, is decided upon as the most feasible) looks almost like an impossibility. Every effort, however, is being made to accomplish it. I am decidedly of the opinion that the most effectual defense of the city of Charleston can and should be made from and around the city itself. I believe that when the enemy is prepared to assault the forts at the entrance of the harbor, he will do so with such force and with such appliances as will reduce it to a question of time only. Our great [81] reliance being in these works, when they fall our means of defense will be inadequate to hold the city; but with the guns now within their walls, I am satisfied that however great might be the injury to the city itself from bombardment, his fleet could be kept from polluting its streets. This has been for some time my opinion, and I am glad to find many gentlemen of eminence and intelligence who entirely concur with me. . . . The forts should not only be dismounted, but destroyed. They will be of no use after the termination of this war in their present condition, for I take it, impregnable ironclad batteries must take the place of stone and mortar. I propose this subject for the serious consideration of the department.

These views of General Pemberton were certainly known to the ‘eminent gentlemen’ who agreed in them, but they were not shared by Governor Pickens and his able council, nor by the military, nor by the citizens generally. Forts Sumter and Moultrie, garrisoned by well drilled and disciplined soldiers, commanded by accomplished and gallant officers, were the pride and hope of old Charleston, as they stood on either side of her great sea gate equipped and eager for her defense. Their history was destined to prove how well this confidence was placed.

Members of the governor's council addressed a communication to General Pemberton, which expressed the apprehensions as well as the fixed purpose of the State authorities. The members of the council proposed to the general specific interrogatories, to which they asked, in the most respectful terms, his immediate reply. He was asked: (1) If in the event of his determining, for military considerations, to retire the Confederate troops from Charleston, would he consider it an interference with his authority for the governor and council to undertake its defense? (2) Would he be willing to advise the governor and council in such an emergency? (3) Would he be willing to give any assistance in his power?

General Pemberton replied promptly, assuring the [82] gentlemen who had addressed him the interrogations of his appreciation of the situation and of his hearty willingness to promote in any way the defense of the city, and asking that any plans for defensive works undertaken by the governor and council be submitted to him. Meanwhile he was doing all in his power to strengthen the defenses on James island and to hold his forces well in hand to be concentrated at the point of attack. General Pemberton had under his command for the defense of Charleston and on the line of the Charleston & Savannah railroad, about 20,000 effectives, and in the department of Georgia about 10,000 from which he could draw reinforcements in the event of an attack on Charleston.

General Hunter, commanding the Federal forces in South Carolina, reported an aggregate of 16,989 effectives, stationed along the coast from Tybee, Ga., to Edisto island. These troops were commanded by Brigadier-Generals Benham, Viele, Stevens, Wright and Gilmore, and were mainly concentrated on Daufuskie island, at Hilton Head and Beaufort, and on Edisto island. The Federal force was greatly overestimated by the Confederates, and it was believed that an army of at least 25,000 or 30,000 could be thrown upon James or John's island in an advance upon Charleston from that direction, while a powerful fleet of armored vessels might be expected to attack by the harbor. The Federal commander, with a similar overestimate of the Confederate forces, wrote to Washington in the latter part of April, 1862, rating General Pemberton's forces as follows: At Savannah, 30,000; at Charleston, 25,000; at Augusta, 10,000; a total of 65,000 He was doubtless better informed by the intelligent crew of the Planter, and then determined upon the occupation of James island.

The Planter was stolen by her negro crew on the 13th of May, and two gunboats entered the Stono on the 20th following. The channel was open, the guns were all gone from the forts on Cole's and Battery islands, and the [83] gunboats threw their 11-inch shells with perfect impunity on the right and left as they ran up the river. They anchored beyond Battery island, which would have effectually cut off the retreat of the battalion under Colonel Capers, if no other means of escape had been provided. By the energy and forethought of Col. C. H. Stevens, commanding the Twenty-fourth volunteers, an interior causeway had been thrown up, and bridges built, running from Cole's island to James island, right through the marsh and over the creeks, and by this causeway Colonel Capers retreated without the loss of a man, having burned the military barracks at Fort Palmetto and removed the small supply of stores. It was now evident that the Federals planned a lodgment on James island, for the number of their boats increased gradually in the river, and on the 2d of June, General Benham landed a part of his command at Battery island, under Brig.-Gen. I. I. Stevens. Here they were secure under the guns of the fleet in the Stono. By June 5th another division under Gen. H. G. Wright, having marched across Seabrook and John's island from North Edisto, had crossed the Stono from Legareville to Grimball's on James island. These two divisions constituted the force of General Benham, that of Wright covering his left on the Stono, and that of Stevens his right, immediately in front of Secessionville. The gunboats in the Stono, firing by signals from the Federal camps and advance pickets, enfiladed their front and afforded effective support.

On the early morning of June 3d, the day after General Stevens had landed, the first affair of the James island campaign took place. The One Hundredth Pennsylvania regiment had been advanced as far as the causeway crossing the marsh at Rivers' place, where the Charleston Riflemen and the Beauregard light infantry, Lieutenant Lynch and Captain White commanding, were on outpost duty. On the causeway in their front, three seacoast 24-pounder howitzers, of Captain Chichester's [84] battery, were bogged so badly in an attempt to take them across, the evening before, that they had been left in this position, and were now covered by the rifles of the Pennsylvanians.

Lieut.-Col. Ellison Capers, with four companies of the Twenty-fourth volunteers, was sent before day, on the 3d, to extricate the guns. He found Captain White and Lieutenant Lynch holding the Federal regiment in check, and, ordering them to join his command, at once made his dispositions for attack. A sharp conflict in the pines beyond the causeway drove the enemy back to the cover of a ditch and bank beyond, and this position being assaulted and carried, the Federals fell back across an old field and took shelter in a row of negro houses at Legare‘s place. At this point of the engagement, Lieut.-Col. P. C. Gaillard, commanding the Charleston battalion, came up to the support of Colonel Capers. The following is his report to Colonel Capers of the affair which followed his arrival:

Learning on Tuesday morning, the 3d instant, that you were engaged with the enemy at Legare‘s, and that they were in larger force than yourself, I assembled the five companies of my battalion (one, the Charleston Riflemen, being already with you) to reinforce you. . . . Soon after joining, you called upon me for three companies to join in a charge upon the buildings occupied by the enemy. The Irish Volunteers, Sumter Guards and Calhoun Guards were designated for that duty, and well did they respond. . . . I joined in the charge also, but seeing you up with them, I fell back (by your order) to take charge of the line in rear.

The three companies named above, with the Evans Guard of the Twenty-fourth volunteers, the Charleston Riflemen and Beauregard light infantry, were led in the charge on the houses by their gallant officers, Captain Gooding, Lieutenant Lynch, Captain Ryan, Captain White, Lieut. Ward Hopkins and Captain Miles, and stormed and silenced the Federals at the houses. Some of [85] them surrendered, but most retreated to their supports in the direction of Battery island. The gunboats, in full view in the Stono, opened a fire on the Confederates, and the enemy's supports, Twenty-eighth Massachusetts and Eighth Michigan, coming rapidly up, a retreat was ordered, and with a Federal captain and 20 other prisoners, Colonel Capers fell back to the position held by Colonel Gaillard. The enemy did not advance further than Legare‘s, and the affair was over. The adjutant of the Charleston battalion, Lieut. Henry Walker, was wounded at the houses and fell into the enemy's hands. In this affair 9 men of the Twenty-fourth and 8 of the Charleston battalion were wounded.

The engagement just described, and a reconnoissance in front of Grimball's on the 10th of June, gallantly made by the Forty-seventh Georgia regiment, fully developed the positions and force of the Federal army on James island. General Pemberton was active and efficient in strengthening the lines of defense and in concentrating troops on the island. By June 15th a force fully equal to that of the Federal army was encamped behind the batteries, and on the lines of defense from Fort Pemberton on the Stono, at Elliott's cut, to Secessionville on the extreme east, under Brig.-Gens. N. G. Evans, W. D. Smith and S. R. Gist, the former in chief command. Col. Johnson Hagood, First volunteers, commanded the advance guard, composed of his own regiment, the Twenty-fourth, Col. C. H. Stevens; the Eutaw battalion, Lieut.-Col. C. H. Simonton, and the Fourth Louisiana battalion, Lieut.-Col. J. McEnery. This force was encamped outside the line of defense, and was charged with guarding the front of the Confederate line, except the immediate front of Secessionville, which was protected by its own outposts.

Secessionville is situated on a peninsula cut from the east side of the island by an arm of Lighthouse creek, a bold tidewater stream which empties into the harbor of [86] Charleston, east of Fort Johnson. At the point of the peninsula of Secessionville where the battery was erected, the peninsula is narrowest, probably not more than half regimental front, and on either side of it run the tidewaters of Lighthouse creek and Big Folly creek, bordered by impracticable marshes. The banks of the peninsula in front and in rear of the battery were fringed by a thick growth of myrtle bushes. Col. T. G. Lamar was in command of the fort at Secessionville (afterward called Fort Lamar, in his honor) and its infantry supports. The garrison consisted of Companies I and B of Lamar's regiment of South Carolina artillery, Capts. G. D. Keitt and Samuel J. Reid; and the infantry support was composed of two battalions of infantry, the Charleston battalion, Lieut.-Col. P. C. Gaillard, and the Pee Dee battalion, Lieut.-Col. A. D. Smith. The battery mounted an 8-inch columbiad, two 24-pounder rifles, several 18-pounders, and a mortar. A gunboat battery on the east bank, anchored in Big Folly creek, and commanded by Capt. F. N. Bonneau, would have been an effective ally, had not its guns just been moved on shore to be added to those of the fort.

In the early morning of June 16th, the Secessionville picket was on duty at Rivers' place, a mile in front of the fort, and the Twenty-fourth, with six companies of the First South Carolina and one of the Forty-seventh Georgia, was covering the front of the east-lines, under command of Col. C. H. Stevens. In the fort a gun detachment was awake and on the watch, but the remainder of the garrison was fast asleep.

At 1 o'clock a. m., Gen. N. G. Evans had started 100 picked men from Colonel Goodlett's Twenty-second regiment, under Capt. Joshua Jamison, as a fatigue party, to go over the bridge to Fort Lamar and assist in mounting Captain Bonneau's guns in the fort. These men reached the fort about daylight. Just at dawn the Secessionville picket was surprised and several of them captured. [87] The main picket force ran in and gave the first notice to Lamar of the enemy's rapid advance on his position. The garrison was aroused and at the guns and on the flanks just in time to meet the gallant assault of the Eighth Michigan, Seventh Connecticut, Seventy-ninth New York, Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, One Hundredth Pennsylvania and Forty-sixth New York, with Rockwell's and Strahan's light batteries and a company of engineers. The six regiments were moved forward in two lines, both under the immediate direction of Gen. I. I. Stevens, and each commanded by its senior colonel. As they advanced the peninsula narrowed, and when within short range of the works, the left regiment of the front line, the Seventh Connecticut, was crowded into the marsh. Just at this juncture Lamar fired the 8-inch columbiad charged with canister, and in rapid succession the 24's and 18's, and the mortar opened. The whole line wavered and was broken in some confusion. Urged on by their officers, the Connecticut, Michigan and New York regiments pressed forward, the latter two in larger numbers gaining ground. Groups of men and officers of these two regiments gained the ditch and both flanks of the work, and some of them mounted the work. They were met by the galling fire of the infantry of Gaillard and Smith, and were either killed or captured. Meanwhile the 100 men under Jamison, sent to mount Bonneau's guns, arrived and promptly took their places on the parapet, adding their rifles to the fire of the Charleston and Pee Dee battalions.

A number of the assaulting force, moving along the marsh under cover of the myrtle bushes, gained a lodgment on the right flank and in rear of the work, and were doing serious execution by their fire, hid as they were, and shielded by the bank of the peninsula. But they were soon dislodged by the rifles of the Fourth Louisiana battalion, sent by Colonel Hagood to reinforce the garrison as soon as he learned that the fort was being attacked. [88] The Louisianians coming up at a run were promptly put into position by their gallant commander, Colonel Mc-Enery, and drove the Federals from the myrtles into the marsh or out into the field. Two 24-pounders, in battery on the west flank of the fort and west of the creek and marsh, had been silent up to this moment. Colonel Hagood, who had moved promptly down the Battery Island road to check any advance by that way, and protect the right front of the fort, noting the silence of the flank battery, dispatched Lieutenant-Colonel Capers to open the fire of these guns. Finding a small detachment of Lamar's artillery at the guns, under Lieutenant Kitching, a prompt and gallant response to the order to open fire was made, and under the direction of Colonel Capers solid shot and shell were delivered along the line of the myrtles, and into the regiments vainly endeavoring to form on the field in front of the work. The sun was now fully up and Lamar's victory was achieved, though both sides continued to fire until the Federal regiments had withdrawn from range.

During the assault upon the fort, a column of forty companies of infantry, two batteries of artillery and a squadron of cavalry, about 2,500 strong, under Brigadier-General Wright, advanced along the Battery Island road and up the west side of Lighthouse creek, as a covering force for the protection of the left and rear of the troops assaulting Secessionville. This force was made up of the Third New Hampshire, and companies of the Third Rhode Island, Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania, Sixth Connecticut, Forty-seventh New York, Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, and First New York engineers. The advance of Hagood down the Battery Island road, with a portion of the First and Twenty-fourth South Carolina and the Eutaw battalion, brought him in contact with General Wright's advance, which he checked and repelled. The Eutaw battalion was placed behind an obstruction of felled timber on the east of the road, and four companies [89] of the Twenty-fourth still further to the left and immediately in front of the enemy's advance. One piece of Boyce's battery, under Lieutenant Jeter, was put in position immediately on the right of the Twenty-fourth and the four companies of the First south of the road. Jeter opened fire on the enemy, in full view at Hill's place, and immediately Wright's artillery replied, shelling the whole front of Hagood's force and throwing solid shot at Jeter's gun. The Third Rhode Island advanced to charge the position, but was handsomely repulsed by Colonels Stevens and Simonton and the effective fire of Jeter. By this time the contest in front of Secessionville having been determined, General Wright retired his troops to their intrenched positions, and the battle of Secessionville was ended.

After the first repulse, the fort was again in danger from the fire of infantry and artillery in its rear and right flank by a portion of Wright's column, which had marched up the west bank of Lighthouse creek and were in position south and east of Hill's negro houses. It was this force that McEnery attacked as he came up, firing at short range across the creek. They were ultimately driven off by the fire of the 24-pounders in front of Clark's house, above alluded to, and by Hagood's troops. The latter were well posted, and when assaulted easily repulsed the attack. Lieutenant Jeter with his guns did good service in this affair; indeed, the position of General Wright's column at Hill's houses, though for a short time it took the work at Secessionville in flank and rear, was between the infantry fire of McEnery at the fort and Hagood's force and the 24-pounder battery at Clark's house. If Colonel Hagood had had his whole advance guard under his command, with Boyce's entire battery, he could have moved immediately against General Wright's column, striking him in flank and rear. On the contrary, if Wright had known that Hagood had with him only the total strength of a good regiment, with one piece of artillery, [90] he would doubtless have attacked with his entire force instead of with a portion of the Rhode Island regiment only.

The force assaulting the fort numbered, of all arms, 3,562. It was defended by two companies of artillery, three battalions of infantry, and 100 picked men under Captain Jamison, a total of less than 1,000 men. Wright's column could not have been less than 2, 5000 to 3,000 of all arms. Hagood's force did not exceed 700 men, with one piece of artillery. The Confederate troops actually engaged did not exceed 1,800.

General Stevens reported a loss of 529 men and officers in his assaulting column; General Wright, 129; making an aggregate of 658. Colonel Hagood took 12 prisoners and counted 2 dead in front of Colonel Stevens' four companies, and 8 in front of the Eutaw battalion. More than the number reported by General Stevens were buried on the field, and while that general reports 1 officer and 30 men made prisoners, by actual count the Confederates took 65 wounded and 42 unwounded prisoners. The total Federal loss could not have been less than 750 to 800.

The Confederates lost in killed, wounded and missing, 204 officers and men, as follows: Forty-seventh Georgia, 1 killed; Fourth Louisiana, 6 killed, 22 wounded; Lamar's artillery, 15 killed, 39 wounded, 1 missing; Charleston battalion, 10 killed, 40 wounded, 2 missing; Pee Dee battalion, 3 killed, 23 wounded, 3 missing; First volunteers, 1 wounded; Twenty-second volunteers, 10 killed, 8 wounded; Twenty-fourth volunteers, 3 killed, 7 wounded, 2 missing; Eutaw battalion, 4 killed, 14 wounded; total, 5 officers and 47 men killed, 12 officers and 132 men wounded, 8 missing; aggregate 204.

Among the gallant dead were Capt. Henry C. King and Lieut. John J. Edwards, of the Charleston battalion; Capt. Samuel J. Reed, of Lamar's artillery; Lieut. Richard W. Greer, of the Eutaw battalion, and Lieut. [91] B. A. Graham, of the Forty-seventh Georgia. Colonel Lamar and Lieutenant-Colonel Gaillard were both wounded severely. Also among the wounded were Captain Walker, of the Fourth Louisiana; Capts. J. A. Blake, F. T. Miles and R. P. Smith, and Lieuts. J. W. Axson, George Brown, John Burke and F. R. Lynch of the Charleston battalion; Lieut. J. G. Beatty of the Pee Dee battalion; Lieut. F. W. Andrews of the Twenty-fourth, and Lieut. Samuel J. Berger of the Eutaw battalion.

It was a gallant assault on the part of the Federals and came near being a complete surprise. But for the heroic conduct of the garrison in standing to their guns, and the persistent and gallant support of the Charleston and Pee Dee battalions and Jamison's men, who fought on the parapet and on the flanks, the Michigan and New York regiments and the Seventh Connecticut would have swarmed over the work at the first assault, closely followed by their supports.

The news of the victory at Secessionville was heralded to every quarter of the State and the Confederacy, and filled the hearts of soldiers and people with joy and thanksgiving. General Pemberton congratulated the troops engaged in orders, and especially acknowledged the heroism and ability of Lamar and his garrison. In published orders, the following officers and soldiers were specially mentioned for good conduct: Col. T. G. Lamar, Lieut.-Cols. P. C. Gaillard, A. D. Smith, John McEnery and Ellison Capers; Majs. David Ramsay and J. H. Hudson; Capts. Samuel J. Reed, Henry C. King, F. T. Miles, G. D. Keitt, W. W. McCreery, F. N. Bonneau, R. E. Elliott, S. J. Corrie, H. W. Carr, Joshua Jamison, Samuel S. Tompkins and W. H. Ryan; Asst. Surg. James Evans; Lieutenants Hall and Matthews, C. S. N.; Adjt. E. J. Frederick; Lieuts. W. H. Rodgers, J. B. Kitching, J. B. Humbert, W. S. Barton, J. W. Moseley, T. P. Oliver, John A. Bellinger, W. M. Johnson, J. W. [92] Lancaster, L. S. Hill, H. H. Sally, J. B. Cobb, William Beckham, George Brown, A. A. Allemand, James Campbell and R. A. Blum; Sergt. W. H. Hendricks, and Privates Joseph Tennent, J. Campbell Martin, and T. Grange Simons, Jr.

Maj. David Ramsay, who succeeded to the command of the Charleston battalion on the wounding of Lieutenant-Colonel Gaillard, closes his brief report with this appropriate and just tribute, applicable to each of the commands engaged in the battle of Secessionville. ‘I have mentioned those especially noticeable, but can only repeat that I refrain from enumerating others because it would be to furnish a roll of those engaged.’

Signally repulsed at Secessionville, and convinced of the strength of the line of defense across the island, the Federal commander-in-chief abandoned the campaign, evacuated James island the last of June, and aggregated the main portion of his troops at Hilton Head, Beaufort and North Edisto. There were left only the gunboats in the lower Stono, and the blockading fleet off the bar to menace Charleston. The troops which had reinforced the command of General Gist on James island were returned to their former stations on the coast and at Savannah, and the heroes of Secessionville were toasted on every hand.

During the remainder of the summer, several affairs occurred along the coast which illustrated the watchfulness and gallantry of the South Carolina soldiers. An expedition to Fenwick's island was organized and successfully conducted by Maj. R. J. Jeffords, commanding the Sixth battalion South Carolina cavalry, and the enemy's positions in the surrounding waters and on the adjacent islands fully reported to Col. W. S. Walker, commanding the Third district. On the 14th of August, the Federal gunboats, having entered Winyaw bay, steamed up Black river as far as Mrs. Sparkman's planta-tion, 20 miles above Georgetown. Maj. W. P. Emanuel, [93] commanding in that quarter, with a section of Wood's battery and all his troops south of the river, marched at once to Mrs. Sparkman's and boldly attacked the boats with rifles and battery. The enemy's force that had landed was compelled to re-embark, and the boats soon steamed down the river, shelling the banks on their way. Major Emanuel threw his mounted infantry forward at every available bluff, and gave the boats a spirited fight on their return to Georgetown. A picket force on Pinckney island was surprised and captured at dawn of the 21st of August, by Captains Elliott and Mickler. This was an incursion far into the enemy's lines, and at the risk of being cut off by his gunboats, which were in the immediate vicinity. The lieutenant commanding the Federal picket was killed, with 14 of his men, and 36 were captured, 4 of whom were wounded. The expedition left Bear island in nine boats, 120 strong, detachments from the Eleventh volunteers, Captains Mickler, Leadbetter and Wescoat commanding, and from the Beaufort artillery, Lieutenant Stuart commanding, the whole directed by Capts. Stephen Elliott and John H. Mickler. The affair was well planned and gallantly executed, with the loss of only 8 men wounded on the part of the Confederates. [94]

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James Island (South Carolina, United States) (16)
Secessionville (South Carolina, United States) (13)
South Carolina (South Carolina, United States) (5)
Lighthouse Creek (South Carolina, United States) (4)
Stono River (South Carolina, United States) (3)
Pee Dee (S. C.) (South Carolina, United States) (3)
Savannah (Georgia, United States) (2)
North Edisto River (South Carolina, United States) (2)
Hilton Head (South Carolina, United States) (2)
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Eutaw (Alabama, United States) (2)
Edisto Island (South Carolina, United States) (2)
Beaufort, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (2)
Winyaw Bay (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Tybee River (Georgia, United States) (1)
Snake Island (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Port Royal (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Pocotaligo (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Pinckney Island (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Michigan (Michigan, United States) (1)
Legareville (South Carolina, United States) (1)
James Island Creek (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (1)
Dawfuskie Island (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (1)
Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Battery Island (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Augusta (Georgia, United States) (1)

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