[390] [391]

Major-Generals and Brigadier-Generals, Pro-Visional army of the Confederate States, Accredited to Arkansas.

Brigadier-General William N. R. Beall

Brigadier-General William N. R. Beall was a native of Kentucky, born in 1825. His parents moved to Arkansas, and from that State he was appointed to the United --States military academy at West Point in 1844. He was graduated in 1848, and was assigned to the Fourth infantry as brevet second lieutenant. He served on the frontier in the Northwest until 1850, with promotion to second lieutenant of the Fifth infantry, April 30, 1849. From that time until 1855 he served in Indian Territory and in Texas, and was commissioned first lieutenant of the First cavalry, March 3, 1855, and before the end of the month, March 27th, captain in the same command. He was engaged in several Indian expeditions, encountering the hostiles in several combats and skirmishes. The last of these expeditions was in 1860 against the Kiowas and Comanches. He was on frontier duty when his adopted State seceded from the Union. He then sent in his resignation as captain in the United States service and received the same rank in the Confederate States army. He served in Arkansas under General Van Dorn, who, on the 17th of March, 1862, recommended that he be commissioned colonel. On the 11th of April this request was more than granted, for Captain Beall was commissioned a brigadier-general in the army of the Confederate States, and on the 23d of the same month was assigned by General Beauregard to the command of the cavalry of the army at Corinth. On September 25th he was in command at Port Hudson, and though Gen. Frank Gardner subsequently assumed chief command, General Beall and his brigade continued to be important factors in the [392] gallant defense of the post until its surrender. His brigade included the Tenth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Twenty-third Arkansas regiments, and First Arkansas battalion, as well as several Mississippi and Alabama regiments, and Louisiana artillery. His Arkansas troops lost 225 in killed, wounded and missing during the long siege, which was only terminated when they were forced to surrender by the capitulation of Vicksburg. On July 9th the post was surrendered, and the men were then paroled, and some of them were never exchanged. After the war General Beall resided in St. Louis, Mo., and engaged in business as a general commission merchant. He died on the 26th of July, 1883, at McMinnville, Tenn.

Brigadier-General William L. Cabell

Brigadier-General William L. Cabell was born in Danville, Va., January 1, 1827, the third child of Gen. Benjamin W. S. and Sarah Eppes Cabell, who lived to see seven sons and two daughters grown. Six sons held prominent positions in the Confederate army. The other, Dr. Powhatan Cabell, died from the effect of an arrow wound received in Florida just before the Confederate war began. General Cabell was graduated at the military academy at West Point in 1850, entered the United States army as second lieutenant, and was assigned to the Seventh infantry. In June, 1855, he was promoted to first lieutenant and made regimental quartermaster of that regiment. In March, 1858, he was promoted to captain in the quartermaster department and assigned to the staff of Gen. Persifer F. Smith, then in command of the Utah expedition. When the war became inevitable, Captain Cabell repaired to Fort Smith, Ark., and from there went to Little Rock and offered his services to the governor of the State. On receipt of a telegram from President Davis he went to Montgomery, Ala., then the Confederate capital, where he found the acceptance of his resignation from the United States [393] army, signed by President Lincoln. He was at once commissioned major, Confederate States army, and under orders from President Davis left on April 21st for Richmond to organize the quartermaster, commissary and ordnance departments. Later he was sent to Manassas to report to General Beauregard as chief quartermaster of the army of the Potomac. After Gen. Joseph E. Johnston assumed command, Major Cabell served on his staff until January 15, 1862, when he was ordered to report to Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, by whom he was assigned to General Van Dorn, with headquarters then at Jacksonport, Ark. He was next promoted to the rank of brigadier-general and put in command of all the troops on White river, Ark., where he held the enemy in check until after the battle of Elkhorn Tavern, March 7th and 8th. After that battle the army was transferred to the east side of the Mississippi. The removal of this army, which included Price's Missouri and McCulloch's Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas troops, and his own command, devolved on General Cabell, and was performed within a single week from points along White river. Van Dorn's army proceeded, after reaching Memphis, to Corinth, and General Cabell was assigned to a Texas brigade with an Arkansas regiment attached. He led this brigade in several engagements around Corinth, and commanded the rear of the army on the retreat from Corinth to Tupelo. After Bragg had moved into Tennessee, Cabell was transferred to an Arkansas brigade, which he commanded in the battles of Iuka and Saltillo in September, at Corinth on October 2 and 3, 1862, and at Hatchie Bridge on the 4th. He was wounded leading the charge of his brigade on the breastworks at Corinth and also at Hatchie Bridge, which disabled him for duty in the field. What was left of his command was temporarily assigned to the First Missouri brigade under General Bowen, and he was ordered to the Trans-Mississippi department to recover from his wounds and inspect the staff departments [394] of that army. When his strength was sufficiently restored he was, in February, 1863, put in command of northwest Arkansas, with instructions to augment his forces by recruits from every part of the State. In this he was very successful, organizing one of the largest cavalry brigades west of the Mississippi, which he thereafter commanded in more than twenty battles. He took a prominent part in the engagements at Poison Spring and Marks' Mills, in April, 1864, commanding two brigades of Fagan's division. In his report of the campaign ending at Jenkins' Ferry, General Marmaduke wrote that, ‘To speak of the quick perception and foresight or the reckless bravery of Shelby, the élan and chivalrous bearing of Cabell, inspiring all who looked upon him, or the perseverance, untiring energy and steady courage of Greene, would be telling a twice-told tale.’ During the raid into Missouri under General Price he was captured in battle near the Little Osage river, October 25, 1864, and was taken to Johnson's island, Lake Erie, and later to Fort Warren, near Boston, and held until August 28, 1865. General Cabell is now a resident of Dallas, Tex., and holds the rank of lieutenant-general United Confederate Veterans, commanding the Trans-Mississippi department. His wife, the daughter of Maj. Elias Rector, of Arkansas, is a woman of great intelligence and courage, and noted for her ready wit. During the war she followed her husband and did much to relieve the sick and wounded.

Major-General Thomas J. Churchill

Major-General Thomas J. Churchill was born March 10, 1824, near Louisville, Ky., and in 1844 was graduated from St. Mary's college. He studied law at Transylvania, and volunteered in the war with Mexico, becoming lieutenant in Humphrey Marshall's regiment of mounted riflemen. He was made a prisoner by Mexican cavalry, and not exchanged until the war was virtually over. In 1848 he went to Little Rock, Where he married Anne, daughter of ex-Senator Sevier, of Arkansas, who was one [395] of the commissioners to negotiate a peace with Mexico. General Churchill's earliest American ancestor was William Churchill of Middlesex county, Va., who married Elizabeth, sister of Judith Armistead, ancestress of Robert E. Lee. His son, Armistead Churchill, married Lucy Harrison, aunt of Gen. William Henry Harrison. Their son, Armistead Churchill, was the grandfather of General Churchill. His son Samuel married Abby, daughter of Colonel Oldham of Kentucky, and their children were Armistead, Samuel B., William H., Thomas J. (the general), Charles T., Mary Abigail, and Julia. The last named is widow of Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, former governor of Kentucky. General Churchill was a planter at the beginning of hostilities, and, offering his services in the opening conflict, was elected colonel of the First Arkansas mounted rifles. His career from this beginning has been sketched already in these pages. He won for himself, by his dauntless courage and unflinching devotion, the laurels of an honorable name. His martial renown early reflected credit upon his State and its citizens who served under him and rightly share his honors. His gallant services at Wilson's Creek and Pea Ridge have been noted. On March 4, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general. Ordered with his brigade to Kirby Smith, on that officer's advance into Kentucky in August, he and Cleburne were in the van, and at the brilliant victory of Richmond they were the first to strike the foe and overwhelm him by the impetuosity of their onset. Toward the close of 1862 Churchill was sent back across the Mississippi to take a new command in Arkansas. Being placed in charge of Arkansas Post, he was attacked in January, 1863, by an overwhelming force of Federals under General McClernand, assisted by Admiral Porter's fleet. After a desperate fight of five hours McClernand took possession of the fort, the guns and the captives. Horace Greeley, the Northern historian, in his ‘American Conflict’ says: ‘Churchill's men had fought [396] with signal gallantry and resolution so long as hope remained. . . . Most of their field pieces had been disabled . . . and the fight was against an enemy whose ample artillery was still efficient, who had mastered their defenses, and whose numbers were several times their own.’ On March 17, 1863, Churchill was commissioned major-general in the army of the Confederate States. After his exchange he was ordered to report to General Bragg in Tennessee, but was soon transferred to the Trans-Mississippi, where he bore an honorable and active part in the Red river campaign, in command of the Arkansas division of infantry, at the battles of Pleasant Hill and Jenkins' Ferry. He continued in division command until the close of the war.

Major-General Patrick R. Cleburne

Major-General Patrick R. Cleburne, one of the most brilliant soldiers of the Confederate States, was a native of Ireland. When twenty-two years of age he joined the British army as a private, and there took his first lessons in drill and discipline. For good conduct he was promoted to the rank of corporal. After remaining three years in the British army he procured his discharge and came to America. He settled in Arkansas, became a hard student, was admitted to the bar, and the year 1861 found him practicing law in Helena, enjoying in his profession and in society the honorable position which his toil and native worth had gained for him. He was among the first to answer the call to arms. He raised a company and with it joined the First, afterward known as the Fifteenth Arkansas regiment, of which he was almost unanimously elected colonel. His first campaign was with General Hardee in Missouri. At its close he went with Hardee to Bowling Green, Ky. He had during this short military service so impressed his superiors that he was assigned to command of a brigade, and on March 4, 1862, was commissioned brigadier-general. At the battle of Shiloh he proved that his abilities had not been overestimated, [397] and during the reorganization of the army at Tupelo he brought his brigade to a very high state of discipline and efficiency. He had that valuable combination of qualifications for command which enabled him to enforce discipline and at the same time secure the esteem and confidence of his troops. At Richmond, Ky., he commanded a division whose impetuous charge had much to do with winning the magnificent victory over ‘BullNelson's army. Though painfully wounded in this battle, a few weeks later he led his men in the fierce conflict at Perryville, with his usual success. On December 13, 1862, he was commissioned major-general. He was in the memorable attack upon the right of the Federal army at Murfreesboro, which drove the Union lines until the mass in front became at last too thick for further penetration. Again at Chickamauga Cleburne made a charge, in which his men by desperate valor won and held a position that had been assailed time and again without success. At Missionary Ridge, in command at the tunnel, he defeated Sherman, capturing flags and hundreds of prisoners, and when involved in the general defeat, he made a heroic fight at Ringgold gap and saved Bragg's artillery and wagon train. In recognition of this gallant exploit, the Confederate Congress passed the following joint resolution: ‘Resolved, that the thanks of Congress are due, and are hereby tendered to Maj.-Gen. Patrick R. Cleburne, and the officers and men under his command, for the victory obtained by them over superior forces of the enemy at Ringgold gap in the State of Georgia on the 27th day of November, 1863, by which the advance of the enemy was impeded, our wagon trains and most of our artillery saved, and a large number of the enemy killed and wounded.’ One of the most brilliant episodes of the Atlanta campaign of 1864 was Cleburne's victory at Pickett's mill over Howard's corps of Sherman's army. In the awful carnage at Franklin, November 30, 1864, Cleburne, the ‘Stonewall Jackson of [398] the West,’ gave his last battle order. Within twenty paces of the Union line, pierced by three wounds, he fell, and on the battlefield expired. His death was a disheartening blow to the army of Tennessee, and was mourned throughout the whole South.

Brigadier-General Thomas P. Dockery

Brigadier-General Thomas P. Dockery was among the conspicuously brave officers whom Arkansas furnished to the Confederacy. Though this State did not secede until it became evident that she must fight either for or against her Southern sisters, yet when her decision was made she went with all her might into the struggle for Southern independence, and gave to the South some of the most gallant men that ever drew sword or carried a musket General Dockery went into the service as colonel of the Nineteenth Arkansas. His regiment was in the brigade of Brig.-Gen. N. B. Pearce, and in the division of Brig.-Gen Benjamin McCulloch. On August 10, 1861, occurred the bloody battle of Oak Hills, or Wilson's Creek. General Churchill, who was then colonel of the First Arkansas regiment, mounted riflemen, in an account of this battle says: ‘The contest seemed doubtful. At times we would drive them up the hill, and in turn they would rally and cause us to fall back. At length we shouted and made a gallant charge and drove them over the hill. At this moment the Louisiana regiment with Colonel Dockery flanked them upon my left, made a charge and drove them completely from the field. This was the last position they abandoned, and the last stand they made.’ Brigadier-General Pearce, who commanded a division in this battle, says in his report: ‘I respectfully call the attention of the general to the praiseworthy conduct of Colonels Gratiot, Carroll and Dockery.’ When Price and Van Dorn crossed to the east side of the Mississippi in May, 1862, Colonel Dockery's regiment formed a part of this force, and participated under the lead of its gallant colonel in the bloody battle of [399] Corinth. When Price, with the army of the West, recrossed the Mississippi, Colonel Dockery was for awhile in command of the middle subdivision of Arkansas. On August 10, 1863, he was commissioned brigadier-general. He organized a brigade in Arkansas, which participated in the Camden campaign of 1864 against Steele, and Dockery and his men bore, according to reports, a gallant part in the brilliant victories of Marks' Mills and Jenkins' Ferry. General Dockery survived the war many years. He died in the city of New York on February 26, 1898.

Brigadier-General James F. Fagan

Brigadier-General James F. Fagan was born in Louisville, Ky., in 1827. When he was a youth his father was one of the contractors to build the State house at Little Rock, soon after the admission of the State, and died there. His mother, Catherine A. Fagan, married Samuel Adams, former treasurer of State, in December, 1842. As president of the senate, Mr. Adams succeeded to the governorship in 1844, upon the resignation of Governor Yell, who became a volunteer colonel and fell in the war with Mexico. On the death of his stepfather, Fagan took charge of the farm and family home on the Saline river. Though a whig, he repeatedly represented the Democratic county of Saline in the general assembly of the State. He served through the war with Mexico in Yell's regiment, returning home a lieutenant, and was among the first to raise a company at the beginning of the Confederate war, being chosen captain of his company, and on regimental organization elected colonel of the First Arkansas Confederate infantry. His subsequent achievements gave him high rank and an honorable name in that eventful struggle. On September 12, 1862, Colonel Fagan was promoted to brigadier-general in the provisional army of the Confederate States. He commanded a brigade composed of the Arkansas regiments of Colonels Brooks, Hawthorn, Bell and King, in the [400] siege of Helena, in all 1,339 men, and lost 435 in the determined assaults of his command on Hindman's hill. His gallantry in this bloody engagement was warmly commended by Gen. T. H. Holmes. General Fagan's command was operating in southern Arkansas during the Federal campaign against Shreveport in 1864, and after Banks' defeat at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, General Fagan, in command of a cavalry division comprising the Arkansas brigades of W. L. Cabell, T. P. Dockery and W. A. Crawford, was ordered to operate against the Federal expedition of General Steele at Camden. He was highly successful, General Smith reporting that ‘Fagan's destruction of Steele's entire supply train and the capture of its escort at Marks' Mills precipitated Steele's retreat from Camden.’ In the last great maneuver in the Trans-Mississippi, Price's campaign in Missouri, Pagan, who had been commissioned major-general on April 24, 1864, commanded the division of Arkansas cavalry, including the brigades of Cabell, Slemons, Dobbin and McCray, and ‘bore himself throughout the whole expedition,’ said General Price, ‘with unabated gallantry and ardor, and commanded his division with great ability.’ At the last he was in command of the district of Arkansas, and as late as April, 1865, he was active and untiring in his efforts, proposing then an expedition for the capture of Little Rock. General Fagan's first wife was a sister of Gen. W. N. R. Beall, and after her death he married Miss Rapley of Little Rock, a niece of Maj. Benjamin J. Field, brother of the first wife of Governor Rector.

Brigadier-General Daniel C. Govan

Brigadier-General Daniel C. Govan, of Arkansas, is one of the commanders of whom General Cleburne said, ‘Four better officers are not in the service of the Confederacy.’ Entering the army in 1861, he was made colonel of the Second Arkansas regiment, and was present in the first day's battle of Shiloh. Sickness prevented his participating [401] on the second day. In the Kentucky campaign, the Second Arkansas was in the brigade of General Liddell, and participated in the battle of Perryville. At Murfreesboro, still in Liddell's brigade, Colonel Govan led his regiment and during a part of the day the brigade. At Chickamauga he led the brigade, Liddell acting as commander of a division. He again commanded his brigade at Missionary Ridge and on the retreat, sharing prominently in the timely victory at Ringgold, and winning from Cleburne the compliment already mentioned. On December 29, 1863, he was promoted to brigadier-general, his command consisting of the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Arkansas regiments of infantry. Throughout the Atlanta campaign he handled his brigade so admirably as to merit favorable mention from his division and corps commanders and from Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who especially mentioned the gallant conduct of his brigade at Pickett's mill. On the 1st of September, while Hardee with one corps was holding a position of no great strength in order to protect Hood's retreat from Atlanta, he was attacked by five corps of Sherman's army. Fortunately, the attacks were not simultaneous along the line, and Hardee was able to shift troops to the threatened points in time to repel assaults. About the middle of the afternoon an angle held by Govan's Arkansas and Lewis' Kentucky brigades, troops that had no superiors in the army, were assailed by an overwhelming force. They held to their line until the dense masses of the Federal troops poured over the works, and by force of numbers drove back the brave defenders. A large part of Govan's brigade fought until the dense volume of Federal troops ran over them and took physical possession of the men. What was left of the brigade, charging with Granbury's Texans and Gordon's Tennesseeans, succeeded in establishing a new line, which was held until night put an end to the conflict. General Govan, captured that day, was soon exchanged and followed the fortunes of [402] the army of Tennessee to the last. He led his brigade through the hardships and disasters of the Tennessee campaign, and in the final campaign in the Carolinas commanded his own and Granbury's brigade, which had been consolidated. No officer of the army of Tennessee enjoyed to a greater degree than General Govan did, the esteem of his men and of his superior officers.

Brigadier-General Alexander T. Hawthorn

Brigadier-General Alexander T. Hawthorn, when the Sixth Arkansas infantry was organized in 1861, was elected lieutenant-colonel. By the spring of 1862 he had been appointed colonel of the gallant regiment, which he led at the battle of Shiloh, up to that time the greatest conflict of arms that the New World had ever seen. The soldiers of the South stormed and captured the camp of the victors of Donelson, drove them in complete rout to the protection of their gunboats, and, had not the advance been stayed, would probably have annihilated the army of Grant before Buell could get to its assistance. When the large army of Grant and his powerful fleet were besieging Vicksburg, General Holmes was ordered by Kirby Smith to create a diversion, if possible, in favor of Pemberton, by attacking the strong post of Helena, Ark. This was done, but without success. The Sixth Arkansas was in Fagan's brigade, and under its gallant colonel drove the enemy out of two lines of works, but was at last repulsed in the attack upon Fort Hindman. During the joint campaign of Banks and Steele, in April, 1864, Hawthorn, who on the 28th of February, 1864, had been commissioned brigadier-general, led a brigade in the division of General Churchill, and made a gallant fight at Jenkins' Ferry, April 30th, during a fierce engagement of several hours' duration. He continued in command of his brigade, under General Churchill, until the close of hostilities. He then gladly laid aside the sword and [403] entered upon the task of helping to restore the fallen fortunes of the South. He spent the latter years of his life in business at Atlanta, Ga., where he died about 1894.

Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman

Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman was born in Tennessee in November, 1818. He received a common school education, then studied law and moved to Mississippi. He was engaged in his professional business when the Mexican war aroused the country to arms. Forsaking peaceful pursuits, he went as lieutenant in one of the Mississippi regiments. Returning home after the war he again took up his former occupation. From 1858 to 1861 he served in Congress as a representative from Arkansas. He was intensely Southern, believing with all his heart in the justice of the position taken by his section. Of course, it was to be expected that a man of his views would be quick to take up arms. He entered the army and was appointed colonel of the Second Arkansas infantry, June 21, 1861, and brigadier-general September 28, 1861. His first service was in Arkansas under Gen. William J. Hardee, with whom he crossed the Mississippi when everything possible was being concentrated at Bowling Green, Ky. He and his brigade took a conspicuous part in the battle of Shiloh. He was wounded in this battle, and promoted to major-general April 18, 1862. On the 26th of May he was assigned to the command of the Trans-Mississippi district, and hastening to Little Rock, he established his headquarters there on May 31st, and took command of his district. He had to create an army and restore order and confidence. This he quickly did; for he was a man of great energy and administrative ability of the very highest order. He declared martial law, sent his provostmar-shals in every direction, and enforced the conscript law in the most rigid manner. His recruiting officers went all over northern Arkansas and even into Missouri. He established shops for the manufacture of all needed supplies, [404] such as arms, clothing, etc. In every way he managed so well that early in July he had gathered a considerable army, and had saved for the time Little Rock and the valley of the Arkansas to the Confederacy. But about this time Gen. T. H. Holmes was sent to take command of the Trans-Mississippi department. Hindman, going into western Arkansas, was about to lead an expedition into Missouri when he was recalled to Little Rock by General Holmes to help organize the troops in that neighborhood. During his absence, disasters befell his army. Returning, he fought the battle of Prairie Grove, December 7, 1862, against the forces of Herron and Blunt, winning a victory, but on account of the concentration of the enemy in superior numbers found it necessary to withdraw. He was afterward ordered back to the east side of the Mississippi, where he commanded a division at Chickamauga. There and all through the Atlanta campaign Hindman and his division were found among the bravest and the best. After the Atlanta campaign he served in the district of North Mississippi. At the close of the war General Hindman went to Mexico, but in 1867 returned to the United States and settled at Helena, where he was assassinated by some unknown person on the 28th of September, 1868.

Brigadier-General James McQueen McIntosh

Brigadier-General James McQueen McIntosh came of a martial race, his father, his uncle and his grandfather being distinguished as soldiers. His father, James S. McIntosh, was born in Liberty county, Ga., and entered the United States army in 1812. In the Mexican war he greatly distinguished himself. At Molino del Rey, one of the bloodiest battles of the valley of Mexico, where as ranking colonel he commanded a brigade, he received a mortal wound. The brother of the subject of this sketch, John Bailie McIntosh, remained in the United States army throughout the civil war, fought with great gallantry, lost a leg in the battle of Winchester, and was [405] retired in 1870 as brigadier-general. James McQueen McIntosh was born at Tampa Bay, Fla., in 1828. He was appointed to the United States military academy from Florida, and was graduated in 1849 as brevet second lieutenant of the First infantry. He served on frontier duty, and rose through the successive grades to the rank of captain of the First cavalry, January 15, 1857. He was in several expeditions against the hostile Indians, and was engaged in the combat of Solomon's Ford, July 29, 1857, and in several skirmishes with the Kiowas and Comanches in 1860. In 1861, when it became evident that war between the States could not be averted, he resigned his commission and entered the service of the Confederate States. He was first captain of cavalry, Confederate States army, then was made colonel of the Second Arkansas mounted infantry. On the 24th of January, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general in the army of the Confederate States. His command consisted of the First and Second regiments of Arkansas mounted riflemen, South Kansas-Texas regiment, Fourth and Sixth regiments of Texas cavalry, and Burnett's company of Texas cavalry. His services in the Confederate army were valuable, but soon ended. He was killed in the bloody battle of Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862. In his official report of this battle, General Van Dorn pays the following high tribute to this gallant soldier: ‘McIntosh had been very much distinguished all through the operations which have taken place in this region; and during my advance from Boston mountains I placed him in command of the cavalry brigade and in charge of the pickets. He was alert, daring and devoted to his duty. His kindness of disposition, with his reckless bravery, had strongly attached the troops to him, so that after McCulloch fell, had he remained to lead them, all would have been well with my right wing. But after leading a brilliant charge of cavalry and carrying the enemy's battery, he rushed into the thickest of the fight again at the head of his old regiment, and was [406] shot through the heart. So long as brave deeds are admired by our people, the names of McCulloch and McIntosh will be remembered and loved.’

Brigadier-General Evander McNair

Brigadier-General Evander McNair became colonel of the Fourth Arkansas regiment on August 17, 1861. The first experience of this regiment in battle was at Wilson's Creek, Mo., where the Confederates gained a signal victory. At the battle of Pea Ridge, when General McCulloch was killed and Col. Louis Hebert captured, Colonel McNair took command of the brigade. When Price and his army of the West crossed the Mississippi to the support of the Confederate army that had just fought the battle of Shiloh, the Arkansas troops formed a part of his force. On July 31st, Bragg and Kirby Smith met at Chattanooga and planned the Kentucky campaign. Price and Van Dorn were left to confront Grant in north Mississippi Bragg took Churchill's division, consisting of the brigades of McCray and McNair, and then sent them to Kirby Smith, who with his wing of the army pushed rapidly into the bluegrass region, utterly defeating the Union army at Richmond. In the desperate battle that here occurred, McNair's brigade turned the enemy's right and contributed to the rout that followed. On November 4, 1862, Colonel McNair was commissioned brigadier-general. His brigade embraced the following Arkansas troops, the First and Second dismounted rifles, Fourth and Thirtieth infantry regiments, Fourth infantry battalion, and Humphreys' battery of artillery. On the 31st of December, McNair's brigade took part in the brilliant charge of McCown's division, which, aided by Withers and Cheatham, drove the Federal right a distance of between three and four miles, bending it back upon the center? until the line was at right angles to its original position. In May, McNair's brigade was sent from the army of Tennessee to reinforce the army forming under Joseph E. Johnston for the relief of Vicksburg. These [407] troops were in the subsequent movements and engagements around Jackson, Miss. At Chickamauga, McNair's was one of the eight brigades which, under Longstreet's direction, rushed through the gap in the Federal line and put one wing of the Union army to rout. In this battle McNair was wounded. He and his brigade were sent back to Mississippi after the battle of Chickamauga, and in 1864 he was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi department, in which he continued to serve until the close of the war.

Brigadier-General Dandridge McRae

Brigadier-General Dandridge McRae was among those active in recruiting men for the Confederate service in 1861. He was zealous for the cause, and showed great ability in recruiting, organizing and training soldiers for the service. He raised a regiment, which was mustered in as the Twenty-first Arkansas, and was elected its colonel. This regiment was assigned to the brigade commanded by Gen. Ben McCulloch. In the summer of 1861 the command was led into Missouri, joining Price in time to participate in the battle of Wilson's Creek. General McCulloch in his official report speaks in very high terms of the services of Colonel McRae in this battle, saying: ‘He led his regiment into action with the greatest coolness, being always in the front of his men.’ At the battle of Pea Ridge, fought in Arkansas in March, 1862, McRae's regiment and its gallant commander again acquitted themselves so handsomely as to win from General Van Dorn high commendation for their good conduct. During the remainder of 1862, McRae was engaged in operations in Arkansas. He was commissioned brigadier-general on the 5th of November, 1862. During the siege of Vicksburg in the spring and summer of 1863, General Holmes, being ordered by the department commander, Kirby Smith, to make a diversion in favor of Vicksburg, boldly undertook the almost impossible task of capturing Helena McRae's brigade on this occasion [408] acted well its part in the desperate battle, which ended in the repulse and retreat of the Confederate army. During the campaign between Price and Steele in Arkansas at the same time that Banks was conducting his ill-starred Red river expedition, McRae's brigade formed a part of the force under Price, which impeded the march of Steele, and being reinforced after the defeat of Banks, turned upon the Union army of Steele, forced its retreat from Camden, and drove it back to Little Rock after the battles of Marks' Mills and Jenkins' Ferry. Throughout the year of 1864, McRae's brigade was active in the marches and battles of northern Arkansas and Missouri. The services of this gallant officer ceased only with the close of hostilities and the return of peace.

Brigadier-General Albert Pike

Brigadier-General Albert Pike was born in Boston, Mass., December 29, 1809. He received his early education at Newburyport and Framingham, and in 1825 entered Harvard college, supporting himself at the same time by teaching. He only went as far as the junior class in college, when his finances compelled him to continue his education alone, teaching, meanwhile, at Fairhaven and Newburyport, where he was principal of the grammar school, and afterward had a private school of his own. In later years he had attained such distinction in literature that the degree of master of arts was bestowed upon him by the Harvard faculty. In 1831 he went west with a trading party to Santa Fe. The next year, with a trapping party, he went down the Pecos river and into the Staked Plains, whence with four others he traveled mostly on foot until he reached Fort Smith, Ark. His adventures and exploits are related in a volume of prose and verse, published in 1834. While teaching in 1833 below Van Buren and on Little Piney river, he contributed articles to the Little Rock Advocate, and attracted the attention of Robert Crittenden, through whom he was made assistant editor of that paper, of [409] which he was afterward for two years the proprietor. He was admitted to the bar in 1835 and studied and practiced law until the Mexican war, when he recruited a company of cavalry and was present at the battle of Buena Vista under the command of the famous Col. Charles May. In 1848 he fought a duel with Gen. John S. Roane on account of something said by him in his story of that battle, which the governor considered as reflecting unjustly on the Arkansas regiment. In 1849 he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme court of the United States at the same time with Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. In 1853 he moved to New Orleans, having prepared himself for practice in the courts of Louisiana by reading the ‘Pandects,’ of which he translated the first volume into English. He also made translations of many French authorities. He wrote, besides, an unpublished work of three volumes upon ‘The Maxims of the Roman and French Law.’ In 1857 he resumed practice in Arkansas. He acted for many years as attorney for the Choctaw Indians, and in 1859, assisted by three others, he secured for them an award by the United States Senate of $2,981,247. He was the first proposer of a Pacific railroad convention, and at one time obtained from the legislature of Louisiana a charter for a road with termini at San Francisco and Guazamas. When the war of secession began he cast his fortunes with the South, and was Confederate commissioner to the tribes of Indian Territory. As such he brought the Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws and part of the Cherokees into alliance with the Confederate States. On August 15, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general in the army of the Confederate States, and at the battle of Pea Ridge he commanded a brigade of Indians. On November 11, 1862, he resigned his commission, on account of some unpleasant relations with General Hindman, and appealed to the authorities at Richmond, when the dispute was settled and the matter [410] dropped. From this time he disappears from Confederate military history, but he remained true to the Confederacy to the last. After the war he resided in Memphis, Tenn., and edited the Appeal in 1867. The next year he moved to Washington, D. C., and practiced in the courts until 1880. From that time until his death, which occurred at Washington, April 2, 1891, he devoted himself to literature and to freemasonry. He was the highest masonic dignitary in the United States, and was author of several valuable masonic works.

Brigadier-General Lucius Eugene Polk

Brigadier-General Lucius Eugene Polk was born at Salisbury, N. C., July 10, 1833; was graduated at the university of Virginia in 1852, and was living in Arkansas at the opening of the civil war, when he enlisted as a private, but was soon made first lieutenant in Company B, Fifteenth Arkansas, Cleburne's regiment. Serving in the west under Hardee, his regiment was, with other troops of that command, transferred to the eastside of the Mississippi early in 1862. At Shiloh, Polk conducted himself with great gallantry and received a wound. On the 11th of April he was commissioned colonel of his regiment. At Richmond, Ky., he was severely wounded early in the fight, but was back with the army in time for the Murfreesboro campaign. He was commissioned brigadier-general on the 13th of December, 1862, and participated with conspicuous gallantry in the battle of Murfreesboro, in command of Cleburne's old brigade. For his part in this fierce conflict he was mentioned in terms of high praise by Cleburne, Hardee and Bragg. At Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, Polk's brigade maintained its reputation for valor and efficiency. At Ringgold gap, when Cleburne saved by his splendid fight the artillery and trains of Bragg's retreating army, Brigadier-General Polk was included with Lowrey, Govan and Granbury in a very high testimonial of merit. Cleburne said of them: ‘Four better officers are not in the [411] service of the Confederacy.’ One might well be proud of such commendation from the ‘Stonewall of the West.’ In the spring of 1862 came the fierce and protracted grapple of the armies of the West, which, beginning at Dalton, had but little cessation until Hood retired from the trenches of Atlanta on September 1st. Polk's command bore an honorable part in the marching, intrenching and fighting of this wearisome campaign. At Kenesaw mountain, not far from where his illustrious kinsman, Leonidas Polk, lost his life, Gen. L. E. Polk was severely wounded by a cannon ball and disabled for further service in the field. He retired from the army with the admiration and regret of officers and men, who so well knew his worth, and made his home on a plantation in Maury county, Tenn. In 1884 he was elected a delegate to the national Democratic convention at Chicago. On January 1, 1887, he was elected to the State senate of Tennessee.

Brigadier-General Daniel H. Reynolds

Brigadier-General Daniel H. Reynolds was born in Centrebury, Knox county, Ohio, December 24, 1826. He was educated at the Ohio Wesleyan university, settled in Somerville, Fayette county, Tenn., in 1856, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. In May of the latter year he moved to Arkansas and settled at Lake Village, Chicot county. Although a Northerner by birth, he was all Southern in sentiment. There were many others like him in the South. When Arkansas was about to secede from the Union, he raised a company for Confederate service and was elected its captain May 25, 1861, receiving his commission from the Confederate government on June 14th of the same year. This company was attached to the First Arkansas mounted rifles under Col. T. J. Churchill, and shared in the battle of Wilson's Creek, in which the Union general, Lyon, was defeated and slain. This regiment was engaged in many skirmishes in Missouri and Arkansas until ordered to the east side of the [412] Mississippi ,in the spring of 1862, when the army of Van Dorn was brought over to reinforce the Confederate army near Corinth. On the 14th of April, 1862, Captain Reynolds was promoted to major, and on May 1st, to lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. This command was part of the army under Kirby Smith in east Tennessee and Kentucky in 1862, and with Bragg until that officer retired from the command of the army of the Tennessee. Gen. Bushrod Johnson, in his report of the operations of his division in the battle of Chickamauga, says: ‘I especially noticed the faithful toil and heroic conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Reynolds, of the First battalion of dismounted rifles, McNair's brigade, who was conspicuous in his efforts to preserve our lines and encourage and press on our men. For hours he, with many other officers, faithfully and incessantly labored in this duty.’ From the day of this battle, September 20, 1863, dates his commission as colonel in the army of the Confederate States. Just before the opening of the Dalton-Atlanta campaign he received the commission of brigadiergen-eral. He followed bravely the fortunes of the army of Tennessee up to the battle of Nashville and the retreat from that disastrous field. On this retreat the brigade of General Reynolds formed part of the splendid rear guard which did its duty so bravely as to win the praises even of the enemy. After the war General Reynolds returned to Arkansas. From 1866 to 1867 he was a member of the State Senate. Having retired from public life, he is enjoying the rest that belongs to honorable old age.

Brigadier-General John Seldon Roane

Brigadier-General John Seldon Roane was long a conspicuous figure in the political and military history of his State. He was born in Wilson county, Ark., in 1817. His education preparatory for college was obtained in such schools as the country afforded, and then he was sent to Cumberland college, Princeton, Ky., where he graduated. Entering early into the political arena, he [413] soon exerted a strong influence among his people and proved himself an able leader. On the opening of the war with Mexico, he was made lieutenant-colonel in the Arkansas regiment of which Colonel Yell was commander. At the battle of Buena Vista, in repelling a furious charge of the Mexican lancers, Colonel Yell was slain and Roane succeeded in command. After the close of the war he returned to Arkansas, again entered the field of politics, and became governor of Arkansas. He was always very jealous of the honor of his native State. The versatile and eccentric Albert Pike, who in the Mexican war had been an officer in the regiment of the dashing Col. Charles May, wrote an article on the battle of Buena Vista in which he commented on the Arkansas troops at that battle in terms which Governor Roane considered derogatory to the military character of his regiment. Thereupon he challenged Captain Pike to a duel. The challenge was accepted and the duel fought, but with no harm to either antagonist. In the long sectional quarrel between the North and South, Governor Roane was firmly on the Southern side of the question, and gave his approval to the secession of his State. He entered the military service of the Confederate States, and on March 20, 1862, was made brigadier-general. When Van Dorn at the bidding of the Confederate government took his army across the Mississippi, leaving for awhile Arkansas and Mississippi almost defenseless, he assigned Brigadier-General Roane to the command of Arkansas. Roane had been governor of the State, was amiable and popular, as well as brave and zealous for the South. The task before him was one that might appall even a man of great military experience. There were no troops at that time in the State, except a few companies of militia, badly organized and poorly armed. Besides these, there were a few thousand Indian, and mixed Indian and white, troops in the Indian Territory under Gen. Albert Pike. But they were unreliable and had to [414] be treated with great consideration. Under these circumstances, with the people discouraged and hence apathetic, and the governor and State officers about to abandon the capital, things were in a desperate state. General Roane could do nothing except keep what forces he had together, the best he might. This he did until General Hindman came, and bringing order out of chaos, succeeded by his peculiar administrative ability in restoring for awhile the fortunes of the Confederacy in that quarter. General Roane and his brigade took an active part in the battle of Prairie Grove and in all the fighting and marching in the Arkansas division of the TransMis-sissippi department. After the war he resided at Pine Bluff, Ark., where he died April 7, 1867.

Brigadier-General Albert Rust

Brigadier-General Albert Rust was one of the leading men of Arkansas during the days of political strife that preceded the great civil war. Devoting himself with might and main to the defense of the Southern interpretation of the Constitution, he ably defended the cause of the South before the people and in Congress as one of the representatives of the State. Among the first in his State to take up arms, he raised a regiment and was elected colonel of the Third Arkansas, receiving his commission July 5, 1861. He was ordered with his regiment to Virginia and assigned to the brigade of Gen. Henry R. Jackson, consisting partly of fresh troops and partly of those who had been in West Virginia under Gen. Robert Garnett. After the remnant of Garnett's command had been recuperated and rested awhile at Monterey, the brigade under Gen. H. R. Jackson advanced to the Greenbrier river and pitched their tents at the head of a beautiful little valley among the Alleghanies, known as the Travelers' Repose. General Lee, who was at this time commanding in Virginia, determined to attack the Federal fortified camp on Cheat mountain. Colonel Rust on a scouting expedition-had discovered a mountain pass, [415] by which he could lead infantry into the rear of the Federal position. He was ordered to lead his regiment to this point, and Gen. Samuel Anderson was directed to support him with two regiments from Loring's command. Henry R. Jackson was to advance with his brigade from the camp at Greenbrier river, and Loring was to advance from Hunterville by the main road upon the Federal position. The troops reached the places assigned with remarkable promptness and at the time appointed. Colonel Rust's attack was to be the signal for the advance of all the troops. That officer, hearing nothing of Anderson, though he was in supporting distance, failed to attack. As the only hope of success was in a surprise, and as that intention had been thwarted, the troops were withdrawn to their original position. On the 3d of October, Gen. J. J. Reynolds marched down from Cheat mountain and attacked the Confederate camp on the Greenbrier. He was repulsed after a spirited little battle of four hours duration. Colonel Rust, who on this occasion commanded the left wing of the Confederates, performed his part so well as to be favorably mentioned by Gen. H. R. Jackson in his official report. In December Jackson's brigade, now under Col. William B. Taliaferro, joined Gen. Stonewall Jackson at Winchester. During Jackson's advance upon Hancock, Md., in the winter campaign to Romney, Colonel Rust, in command of his own regiment and that of Colonel Fulkerson, with one section of Shumaker's battery, when near the railroad bridge over the Big Cacapon, encountered the enemy and defeated him. Gen. Stonewall Jackson in his report says: ‘Colonel Rust and his command merit special praise for their conduct in this affair.’ On March 4, 1862, Colonel Rust was appointed brigadiergen-eral in the army of the Confederate States. He and his command had an honorable part in the glorious but disastrous battle of Corinth, on the 4th of October, 1862. He was sent back across the Mississippi in April, 1863, [416] with orders to report to General Price in the TransMis-sissippi department. He served the Confederacy faithfully to the end.

Brigadier-General J. C. Tappan

Brigadier-General J. C. Tappan supported the action of his State by promptly offering his military service. It was in the month of May, 1861, that Arkansas passed her ordinance of secession, and in that same month the Thirteenth Arkansas was organized, with J. C. Tappan as its colonel. This force was sent to the army under Gen. Leonidas Polk, and was stationed at Belmont in a brigade commanded by Gideon J. Pillow. On the 7th of November, 1861, General Grant attacked the Confederate army at Belmont, intending to destroy their camp and capture its defenders. At first Grant was successful, but was finally repulsed, barely escaping by the aid of his gunboats. On this occasion Colonel Tappan had posted his regiment in a most advantageous position for repelling the enemy's attack, but his plan was altered by General Pillow, and this proved to be a mistake which came near losing the battle. Gen. Leonidas Polk in his report commended ‘Colonel Tappan and his regiment for the promptness with which they prepared to receive the enemy, and the determined courage with which they sustained their part of the general conflict.’ Colonel Tappan led his regiment in the battle of Shiloh. It was attached at that time to the brigade of A. P. Stewart, which made, with other brigades, assault after assault upon the memorable ‘Hornets' nest,’ and in the dreadful ordeal held its ground until W. H. L. Wallace's position was turned, when, the whole line advancing, their stout opponents were driven back. Again in Kentucky, at Richmond and at Perryville, his gallant regiment sustained its former reputation. On November 5, 1862, Colonel Tappan was commissioned brigadier-general and sent to the Trans-Mississippi. He commanded a brigade through 1863 in the army under Gen. Sterling Price [417] operating in Arkansas. In the spring of 1864 occurred the famous Red river expedition, so disastrous to the Union army. The evening of the day on which Taylor gained the brilliant victory at Mansfield, Churchill with his infantry, under Tappan and Parsons, joined him and took part in the fierce battle of Pleasant Hill, a conflict in which each army was considerably shaken, but which was followed by the retreat of Banks. Upon the retreat of Banks, Churchill's division was withdrawn from Taylor and sent to unite with Price in an attack upon Steele, and Tappan's brigade after a long march participated in the battle of Jenkins' Ferry. The Missouri expedition of General Price was the last great movement in the Trans-Mississippi, and in this Tappan bore an honorable part. At the close of the war General Tappan settled in Helena, Ark.

Brigadier-General Stand Watie

Brigadier-General Stand Watie, of white and Indian blood, was a prominent man in the Cherokee nation and intensely Southern in sentiment. From the beginning of the war between the North and South, efforts were made by Ben McCulloch and Albert Pike to secure for the Confederacy the alliance of the tribes of the Indian Territory. Stand Watie and others of his class were anxious to form this alliance, but John Ross, the principal chief of the Cherokees, hesitated. After the decisive victory of the Confederates at Wilson's Creek, the party represented by Watie succeeded in persuading Ross to join the South. Before that time General McCulloch had employed some of the Cherokees, and Stand Watie, whom he had appointed colonel, to assist in protecting the northern borders of the Cherokees from the raids of the ‘Jayhawkers’ of Kansas. When the Cherokees joined the South they offered the Confederate government a regiment. This offer was accepted, and in October, 1861, the first Cherokee regiment was organized, and Stand Watie was commissioned colonel. In December, 1861, he was engaged in a battle [418] with some hostile Indians at Chusto-Talasah, in which the Confederate Indians defeated a considerable force of the hostiles. Colonel Watie pursued the enemy, overtook him, had a running fight and killed 15 without the loss of a man. He participated also in the battle of Pea Ridge, March 6 and 7, 1862. Gen. Albert Pike, in his report of this battle, said: ‘My whole command consisted of about 1,000 men, all Indians except one squadron. The enemy opened fire into the woods where we were, the fence in front of us was thrown down, and the Indians (Watie's regiment on foot and Drew's on horseback), with part of Sim's regiment, gallantly led by Lieutenant-Colonel Quayle, charged full in front through the woods and into the open grounds with loud yells, took the battery, fired upon and pursued the enemy retreating through the fenced field on our right, and held the battery, which I afterward had drawn by the Cherokees into the woods.’ But though the Indians were so good on a sudden charge they were easily thrown into confusion when the Federal artillery opened upon them, and it required the greatest exertion on the part of their officers to keep them under fire. There was considerable fear after this battle lest the Indian Territory should be entirely lost to the Confederacy, but Watie and his regiment were firm in their adherence. Gen. William Steele, in his report of the operations in the Indian Territory, in 1863, says of Colonel Watie that he found him to be a gallant and daring officer. On April 1, 1863, he was authorized to raise a brigade, to consist of such force as was already in the service of the Confederate States from the Cherokee nation and such additional force as could be obtained from the contiguous States. In June, 1864, he captured the steamboat Williams with 150 barrels of flour and 16,000 pounds of bacon, which he says was, however, a disadvantage to the command, because a great portion of the Creeks and Seminoles immediately broke off to carry their booty home. In the summer of 1864, Colonel [419] Watie was commissioned a brigadier-general, his commission dating from May 10th. In September he attacked and captured a Federal train of 250 wagons on Cabin creek and repulsed an attempt to retake it. At the end of the year 1864 General Watie's brigade of cavalry consisted of the First Cherokee regiment, a Cherokee battalion, First and Second Creek regiments, a squadron of Creeks, First Osage battalion, and First Seminole battalion. To the end General Watie stood by his colors. He survived the war several years, and died in August, 1877.

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