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Chapter 7:

  • Florida troops in the army of Northern Virginia
  • -- Second regiment on the Peninsula -- Perry's brigade -- battle of Gettysburg -- Finegan's brigade.

The Second regiment Florida infantry was com posed of the following companies: The St. John's Grays, Capt. J. J. Daniel, Duval county; the Gulf State Guards, Capt. J. F. McClellan, Jackson county; Starke's company, Capt. John W. Starke, Putnam county; the Hammock Guards, Capt. John D. Hopkins, Marion county; the Davis Guards, Capt. George W. Call, Nassau county; Brevard's company, Leon county; the Hamilton Blues, Capt. H. J. Stewart, Hamilton county; the Madison Rangers, Capt. W. P. Pillans, Madison county; the Alachua Guards, Capt. L. Williams, Alachua county; the Columbia Rifles, Capt. W. R. Moore, Columbia county. Soon after reaching Virginia the Rifle Rangers, Capt. E. A. Perry, Escambia county, and the Howell Guards, Capt. G. W. Parkhill, Leon county, were incorporated with the regiment, they having gone to Virginia as independent companies. The Second Florida was organized by the election of George T. Ward of Leon county, colonel; St. George Rogers of Marion county, lieutenant-colonel; and Lewis G. Pyles of Alachua county, major.

The staff appointments were: Dr. Thomas M. Palmer of Monticello, surgeon; Dr. Thomas Henry of Quincy, assistant surgeon; Capt. Edward M. L'Engle of Jacksonville, assistant quartermaster; Capt. W. A. Daniel of Jacksonville, assistant commissary; Lieut. R. B. Thomas, adjutant; Edward Houston of Tallahassee, sergeantmajor; [143] and T. W. Givens, quartermaster-sergeant. The personnel of the regiment was second to none raised in the State. It was made up of the bravest, most gallant and gifted of Florida's patriotic sons. On July 13, 1861, the regiment was mustered into the service of the Confederate States, for 12 months service, by Maj. W. T. Stockton, and a few days later it departed from Jacksonville by rail, arriving at Richmond on Sunday afternoon, the memorable 21st of July, 1861. They were disappointed in their expectation of being sent immediately to Manassas, and were kept in the vicinity of Richmond for nearly two months, part of the time performing the duty of guarding the Federal prisoners captured at Manassas. On September 17th they left for Yorktown, where, during the fall of 186i and winter following, the Second Florida constituted a part of the army of the Peninsula, under the command of Maj.-Gen. J. B. Magruder. Early in October, Adjutant Thomas was ordered to report to Richmond for duty, and his place was filled by Lieut. Charles Seton Fleming, of Captain Starke's company. With the opening of spring began the advance of McClellan with his formidable army. It was during the siege of Yorktown that the Second Florida received its baptism of fire. With the Second Mississippi battalion it was selected to make a sortie to dislodge a detachment of the enemy's sharpshooters which had approached very near Fort Magruder. How this duty was performed is told in the report of General Magruder: ‘The enemy's skirmishers pressed closely in front of Yorktown. Brigadier-General Early ordered a sortie to be made from the redoubts for the purpose of dislodging the enemy from Pulmentary's peach orchard. This was effected in the most brilliant manner by the Second Florida, Colonel Ward, and the Second Mississippi battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor, all under command of Colonel Ward. The quick and reckless charge of our men, by throwing the enemy into a hasty flight, enabled us to [144] effect, with little loss, an enterprise of great hazard, against a superior force supported by artillery, when the least wavering or hesitation on our part would have been attended with great loss.’

At the evacuation of Yorktown the night of May 3, 1862, the regiment, then incorporated in General Early's brigade, marched out of the works that they had held for more than a month, and, passing through Williamsburg the next day, encamped a mile or two beyond. The following morning, May 5th, the booming of cannon beyond Williamsburg announced that McClellan's advance had reached the Confederate rear, and Early's brigade was marched back through Williamsburg, and during the afternoon advanced to the scene of action. The Second Florida was taken to the Confederate right and thrown into line of battle. In this, their first general engagement, they advanced with the steadiness of veterans across an open field, under a heavy fire from the enemy. On reaching the fallen timber where the enemy was posted, the regiment halted and opened fire. It was here that the fatal bullet pierced the heart of Colonel Ward and terminated the life of that gallant and heroic soldier and accomplished gentleman. The enemy now showing strength on the Confederate right, the regiment was ordered back across the field, where they were reformed by Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers, ably assisted by Lieut. Seton Fleming, acting adjutant. They were advanced to a position along an old line of fence, almost midway of the field. The position of the regiment was soon after changed to face a flanking force of the enemy, and while in this position a party consisting of Captains Call and Brevard, Lieut. Seton Fleming, Sergt. B. M. Burroughs, Corporals D. E. Maxwell and E. W. Burroughs, with a guard of five or six men under Capt. E. A. Perry, advanced to the front for the purpose of recovering the body of Colonel Ward, which was lying where it fell, between the lines of the contending armies. Despite a steady [145] fire they accomplished their mission, reached the body in safety, but on the return the gallant Fleming was shot down, a ball passing through his body. Supposing himself mortally wounded, he said to his comrades, ‘Leave me and let me die in peace.’ The colonel's body was taken to Williamsburg on the shoulders of his devoted soldiers and left, near midnight, at a house in the town, with a note pinned to it, giving the name and rank of the lamented dead and requesting interment. This proved to be the house of an Episcopal minister who had been a classmate and warm personal friend of Colonel Ward, and who performed for him at Williamsburg the last sad rites of Christian burial. President Davis, in his ‘Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government,’ referring to the battle of Williamsburg makes the following mention of Colonel Ward: ‘Among the gallant and much regretted lost by us was Colonel Ward of Florida, whose conduct at Yorktown had been previously noticed, and of whom General Early in his report of the battle of Williamsburg says: “On the list of the killed in the Second Florida regiment is found the name of Col. George T. Ward, as true a gentleman and as gallant a soldier as has drawn a sword in this war, and whose conduct under fire it was my fortune to witness on another occasion. His loss to his regiment, to his State and to the Confederacy cannot be easily compensated.” ’

Lieutenant Fleming, upon reviving from the first shock of his wound, managed to drag himself a short distance toward the regiment and was discovered and brought in by Perry's company on the extreme left. His brother, Lieut. Frank P. Fleming, with volunteers from Starke's company, carried him to Williamsburg, and, while assisting in this, Corporal Grey received a wound in the leg from a minie ball. When the enemy entered Williamsburg, with the assistance of the Confederate surgeons the wounded who were left there were cared for, and Lieutenant Fleming was allowed to remain at the house [146] of a Virginia lady, Mrs. Mary Claiborne, who took care of and nursed him with the devotion of a mother. On the 5th of August he was exchanged and returned to his regiment.

While the army was on the Chickahominy, the Second Florida held its election of officers under the reorganization, and Capt. E. A. Perry was elected colonel, Maj. L. G. Pyles lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. George W. Call major. At Seven Pines the regiment, then in General Garland's brigade of D. H. Hill's division, at a fearful sacrifice of life won imperishable laurels for Florida, charging up to the guns of the enemy under the most terrific fire and participating in the capture of Battery A, New York artillery, of General Casey's division, better known as the ‘Napoleon battery.’ The terrible loss sustained in this engagement by the Second Florida is an eloquent tribute to their heroic courage. Here the gallant and lamented Maj. George W. Call fell, leading the left wing of his regiment, a loss deeply felt by his command and State. His talents were of the first order. Though scarcely reaching middle age, he was for some years before the war acknowledged to be at the head of the Florida bar with such contemporaries as Sanderson, Archer, Yonge, Forward, Burrit and others, who shed luster upon the forum of our State. Of eleven captains of the Second Florida who went into this battle, four, Captains C. S. Flagg, I. H. Pooser, C. A. Butler and T. A. Perry, were killed; and six, Captains McCaslan, Musgrove, Duncan, Williams, Moore and Ballantine, were wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Pyles was also severely wounded, from which he never recovered, and died soon after the termination of the war.

Our limits will not permit the special mention of each noble son of Florida who fell upon this bloody field. Their names are recorded in a sketch of ‘Florida Troops in Virginia,’ in a memoir of Charles Seton Fleming, written by his brother, Ex-Governor Frank P. Fleming, from which liberal quotations are made in this chapter. A [147] large majority of them were privates in the ranks, who fought not for glory or fame, but from a sense of duty to their country. General Garland in his report of the casualties said: ‘We have to mourn the loss of Maj. G. W. Call. Lieutenant-Colonel Pyles being severely wounded in the gallant discharge of his duties, Major Call killed, and ten out of eleven company commanders killed or wounded, the position of Colonel Perry was critical and dangerous. He discharged his duty with signal honor to himself and to my perfect satisfaction. The loss sustained by the Second Florida during this engagement was 37 killed, 152 wounded and 9 missing.’

At the battle of Gaines' Mill and Frayser's Farm, the Second Florida, in Pryor's brigade of Longstreet's division, added to the laurels it had already won, with the sacrifice, however, of many valuable lives, of whom may be mentioned Capt. G. W. Parkhill and Lieuts. Edward C. Humphreys and J. H. Sikes.

The remainder of the career of the Second is covered by the account of the Florida brigade.

The Second Florida at the reorganization was continued in the service as a three years regiment, therefore its term would have expired on the 13th of July, 1864, and the surviving remnant entitled to their discharge. But this band of heroes could not return home while an enemy remained in front, and while at winter quarters they anticipated the expiration of their term of service by re-enlisting for the war. The appreciation by the Confederate Congress, of the patriotic and heroic spirit manifested by the Second Florida in their re-enlistment for the war after their arduous service already performed, was expressed by their passage of the following joint resolution: ‘Resolved, That the thanks of Congress are due and are hereby tendered to the officers and men of the Second Florida regiment, who, after a service of distinguished gallantry and heroic suffering for nearly three years, did on the 28th of January, 1864, at a meeting held near Rapidan [148] Station, Va., resolve to re-enlist for the war at the expiration of the present term of service.’

Soon after the Chickahominy campaign the Fifth and Eighth Florida regiments of infantry arrived in Virginia and were assigned to Pryor's brigade, otherwise composed of the Second Florida, Twelfth Virginia and Fourteenth Alabama.

The Fifth regiment was composed of ten companies, commanded by Captains A. G. Bailey of Jefferson county; Partridge of Jefferson; R. N. Gardner of Leon; Hollyman of Madison; W. D. Bloxham of Leon; W. J. Bailey of Jefferson; Spencer of Wakulla; John Frink of Hamilton; Gregory of Liberty; Vanzant of Columbia, and Lea of Madison. Col. J. C. Hateley was in command of the regiment, T. B. Lamar lieutenant-colonel, and B. F. Davis major.

The Eighth regiment, under command of Col. R. F. Floyd, included the companies commanded by Captains Worth of Hillsboro, Tucker of Madison, B. A. Bobo of Madison; William Baya of St. John's, R. A. Waller of Gadsden, Stewart of Orange, F. Simmons of Nassau, David Lang of Suwannee, Pons of Duval, T. E. Clarke of Jackson; Dr. Richard P. Daniel was surgeon.

The Second, Fifth and Eighth regiments fought together first in the great battle of Second Manassas August 30, 1862, where, as General Pryor reported, ‘the Fifth and Eighth Florida regiments, though never under fire before, exhibited the cool and collected courage of veterans.’ Crossing the Potomac near Leesburg early in September, the brigade marched through Frederick City, over South mountain into Pleasant valley, and participated in the investment and capture of the Federal forces at Harper's Ferry. Hurrying then to the field of Sharpsburg, they shared the service of R. H. Anderson's division in the battle of September 17th. In this engagement Colonel Hateley and Lieutenant-Colonel Lamar, of the Fifth, were severely wounded. [149]

After the return of the army to Virginia the three Florida regiments were assigned to a distinct brigade and put under the command of Col. E. A. Perry, promoted to brigadier-general. The brigade remained in Anderson's division, in Longstreet's corps until after Chancellorsville, and then in A. P. Hill's corps. The Florida brigade during the remainder of the war achieved a reputation for gallantry second to none in the glorious army led by Robert E. Lee. At Fredericksburg December 11, 1862, the Eighth regiment, under Capt. David Lang, went to the support of the two Mississippi regiments at the river, where the Federals were endeavoring to lay their bridges, and, as General McLaws reported, ‘it acted gallantly and did good service.’ For a long time this little band of heroes under Barksdale prevented the crossing of the river, despite the terrible fire of musketry and artillery with which the enemy endeavored to sweep them away. Toward noon Captain Lang was severely wounded and Capt. Thomas R. Love took command, and the position was maintained until they were ordered back at 4 p. m. A detachment of three companies under Captain Baya fought in a very exposed position, and he, Lieut. H. C. Simmons and 20 men were captured. The companies under Captain Lang lost 7 killed and 24 wounded. The remainder of the brigade was not actively engaged. During the early part of the brief and decisive Chancellorsville campaign Perry's brigade was on duty near Fredericksburg, and on May 1st and 2d engaged in exhausting marching and skirmishing, joining the remainder of the division in time to march to the Furnace at daylight on May 3d. They took a gallant part in the fighting of the 3d and 4th, and General Anderson in his report paid a special tribute to ‘Brigadier-General Perry and his heroic little band of Floridians, who showed a courage as intrepid as that of any others in their assault upon the enemy in his intrenchments on the 3d, and in their subsequent advance upon Chancellorsville.’ [150] In General Perry's report he said: ‘The conduct of both officers and men of my command through the tiresome marches and continued watching, as well as while engaging the enemy, was such as to merit high praise. The firm and steadfast courage exhibited, especially by the Fifth and Second Florida regiments, in the charge at Chancellorsville, attracted my particular attention.’ The general specially noted the services of Capt. W. E. Mc-Caslan, Lieut. D. B. Taylor, Lieut. William Scott and Lieut. H. F. Riley; Maj. T. C. Elder and Maj. D. W. Hinkle, staff officers and volunteer aides. The Eighth lost 11 killed and 35 wounded, among the latter. Capt. B. F. Whitner and Lieutenants J. M. Nelson and T. S. Armistead. The Second lost 3 killed, including Adjt. Waddy F. Butler, and 29 wounded; and the Fifth lost 6 killed and 22 wounded, among the latter Maj. B. F. Davis.

At the battle of Gettysburg the brigade was commanded by Lang of the Eighth, the heroic fighter at Fredericksburg, now promoted to colonel, General Perry being disabled with typhoid fever. The following is the report of the service of the brigade in the battle of Gettysburg, in a letter to General Perry from Colonel Lang:

Dear Sir: I avail myself of this favorable opportunity of giving you an account of the part taken by the brigade in the Gettysburg fight on the 2d and 3d of July.

On the morning of the 1st, while marching from Fayetteville to Gettysburg, our brigade being the rear guard of Anderson's division, heavy firing was heard in front and I received orders to pass beyond the wagons and close up on the troops in front. After this the division was posted in the following order, two miles in rear of Gettysburg, viz: Wilcox on the right, then Perry, Wright, Posey and Mahone. We remained in this position until Longstreet's corps arrived on the following morning. Pender and Heth had the day before driven the enemy to his stronghold on the heights back of town, with considerable loss on both sides, our loss being [151] confined chiefly to Archer's brigade. When Longstreet arrived we were advanced to the front and posted on the right of town, in full view of the enemy's batteries, strongly posted beyond an open field, one mile in our front. While taking this position, Wilcox engaged three or four regiments of the enemy posted in a wood on our right, but, after a fight of ten or fifteen minutes, the Ninth Alabama drove them back, and we received orders to hold our position, without pressing the, enemy, until Longstreet could come into position on our right. He came into position and engaged the enemy about 3 o'clock p. m., our line being similar to the one formed in the rear of Fredericksburg after the Chancellorsville fight—that is, Longstreet on the right and Ewell on the left, almost confronting each other and forming nearly a right angle with Hill, in the center. We received orders to conform our lines to Longstreet's movement and advance with him. About 4:30 p. m. Longstreet having advanced to Wilcox, he swung his right forward and advanced. As soon as his left reached my right, I conformed to the movement and advanced at double-quick upon the strongly fortified position in front, exposed to artillery and musketry fire from the start. About half way across the field the enemy had a line of batteries strongly supported by infantry. Our men suffered terribly, but advanced nobly to the charge. We swept over the batteries without once halting, capturing most of the guns and putting the infantry to rout with great loss. Indeed, I do not remember having seen anywhere before the dead lying thicker then where the Federal infantry attempted to take a stand.

Pressing rapidly on after the flying Yankees we arrived behind a small growth of timber at the foot of the heights. Here I called a halt in order to allow the men to catch breath and reform our line before charging a battery and infantry in our front and below the heights. While reforming my line a heavy column was thrown against Wilcox, forcing him back. I held my ground until the enemy had advanced more than 100 yards to my rear and were about to cut off my retreat, when I gave the order to fall back. Unfortunately there was no ground which offered any protection short of the place from which we had advanced, and we were compelled to give up all the ground we had gained. This, however, [152] was never afterward occupied by the enemy in force, although his pickets reoccupied most of it that night.

In this charge Major Moore and Captain Ballantine were wounded and left on the field, the former seriously, the latter not so badly. Captain Gardner also lost an arm, but got off the field. Our loss in line officers and enlisted men was very severe. Lieutenant Peeler, acting aide-de-camp, acted very gallantly, and was wounded in this day's fight. This charge ended the fighting for the day, the enemy seemingly in no humor for following up his advantage.

On the 3d, General Longstreet bringing sixty pieces of artillery up, and General Hill having fifty more in position, about 3 p. m. they opened a most terrific fire upon the enemy's stronghold with the intention of shelling them out. The enemy soon replied, and for nearly three hours the most terrific cannonading that I ever witnessed was kept up from both sides, until our ammunition was almost exhausted, when the firing slackened. Pickett's division renewed the assault made by us the previous evening. They advanced in beautiful order in three lines, but before they had gone far the wounded and the frightened came running back in large numbers, and it was impossible to tell when the main body came back. During this, Wilcox's brigade and our brigade had been lying under cover, supporting the batteries which were shelling the enemy's works. I had orders to connect with Wilcox's left and move with him. As soon as Pickett's division had retired we were thrown forward, as a forlorn hope I suppose, notwithstanding the repulse of the day before and the repulse of Pickett's whole division not twenty minutes before.

Our two brigades, of about 1,400 men, advanced to the charge nobly. As we neared the point from which we had been repulsed the day before, heavy columns advanced upon both flanks, and our artillery, having exhausted their ammunition, did not fire a shot at them. Being unsupported by an advance upon any other part of the line, and having but one line, the enemy paid his undivided attention to us, and our only safety from utter annihilation was in retreat. The Second Florida being on the left and their color-bearer wounded, they lost their colors and the greater part of their men.

In the retreat the day before, the color-bearer and the [153] entire color-guard of the Eighth were killed or wounded and their colors were left on the field. Owing to the fact that several colors of other brigades fell back with us, the Eighth did not miss their colors until after it was too late to secure them. In the last charge, and when almost off the field, Capt. Wm. E. McCaslan (acting assistant adjutant-general) was killed. He was a noble and gallant man and rendered me invaluable assistance in the battle.

Since the battles I have had no staff at all except David Wilson. The adjutant of the .Eighth has been acting adjutant-general for me. There are now but 22 line officers and 233 enlisted men for duty in the brigade. Our loss has been 455 aggregate, killed, wounded and missing. I think a large number of the missing are men who have been captured unhurt, as there were a large number of men exhausted by the rapidity with which the first charge was made who were unable to keep up on the retreat.

We held our position until the night of the 4th, when we withdrew and marched all night in the rain and over the worst roads I have yet seen. On the 5th we crossed South mountain and continued our march toward Hagerstown, where we arrived on the morning of the 7th. Here we remained until the 10th, when we again moved on, and on the 11th formed line of battle on Salisbury ridge, along Antietam creek, between Funkstown and Williamsport. Here we awaited the enemy's assault until the night of the 14th, when we withdrew and recrossed the Potomac river early next morning. After crossing we rested here until the morning of the 16th, when we moved to this point, where we have been in camp ever since. Where we will go next I cannot venture to predict. Rumors are rife of another crossing into Maryland, but I think it hardly probable.

We are all looking anxiously for your return. Hoping soon to see you fully restored to health and with us again, I am, General, yours respectfully,

We make the following extract from the letter of an army correspondent, signing himself ‘A,’ to The Advertiser and Register.

No man capable of performing his duty can shun the [154] field in this hour of supreme trial without disgracing himself and his posterity and endangering the cause so dear to every lover of liberty. Instead of abusing the furloughs which have been given them or taking shelter in the Nitre bureau and behind frivolous and unmanly excuses for exemption, every able-bodied man who cannot better serve the cause at home than in the army should esteem it a privilege to come at once to the field without waiting to be called, and thus emulate the example of the brave Floridians, who have sent more men to the war than the number of voters in the whole State.

In my account of the great battle of Gettysburg full justice was not done to Perry's brigade. Its performance was not only creditable but gallant, as is shown by its heavy loss, which in proportion to the number engaged exceeds that sustained by any other brigade in the field. The brigade belongs to Anderson's division, Hill's corps. Wilcox held the right of the division, Mahone the left, Wright the center, Perry (Colonel Lang in command) the right center, and Posey the left center. Wilcox was to advance first, to be followed by the other brigades in their order to the left. It appears, for reasons given in a former communication, that only three brigades became fully engaged, Wilcox's, Perry's and Wright's. Colonel Jayne's Forty-eighth Mississippi, of Posey's brigade, had been thrown forward as skirmishers and lost heavily, supposing that the brigade proper would follow on in support, but for some reason it did not, nor did Mahone's on the left. While marching through a piece of woods to his proper place, on the 2d, Wilcox became engaged with the enemy and soon repulsed him. About 6 p. m., too late to co-operate with McLaws and Hood, though no blame can attach to the brigadiers, the several brigades in the division were ordered to advance to the attack in the order given above. Wilcox moved forward promptly, followed by Lang, who in his turn was followed by Wright. Each brigade fought bravely and desperately, drove the enemy back in its front and ran over several batteries and heaps of slain; but each in its turn was compelled, after almost unparalleled losses, to abandon the enterprise of carrying the impregnable position of the enemy and retrace its steps to the point from whence it had started. Had the attack been made simultaneously along the whole line at the time Longstreet engaged [155] the enemy, or even when the three brigades went in, the historian might have been called on to record a different result.

On the 3d Wright was not engaged, but Wilcox and Lang were ordered to co-operate with Pickett and Pettigrew in the assault on Cemetery hill. The Floridians and Alabamians fought with distinguished courage, as on the previous day, and again forced the enemy to yield to their desperate charges, but for the second time the assault was not made simultaneously, and when position after position had been carried it was found that there were others still, which with their weary and wasted forces it was impossible to storm. First Pickett retired, then Wilcox and Lang, each having suffered frightful losses.

The Second Florida was commanded on the first day by Major Moore, who was wounded and left on the field, as was Captain Ballantine, second in command. On the third day Captain Fleming assumed command, Lieutenant Todd being second in rank. The Fifth Florida was commanded by Captain Gardner, who lost an arm on the second day, when the command devolved on Captain Hollyman. The Eighth was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Baya. These three regiments made up the brigade, which was under Colonel Lang of the Eighth Florida, who handled it skillfully and bravely, in the absence of General Perry.

To the testimonials to the valor of the Florida brigade at Gettysburg is added the following tribute from their gallant division commander. Emanating from the high source that it does, it should be preserved, a proud page in the history of Florida's soldiers:

Headquarters Anderson's Division, Third Army Corps, August 6, 1863.
To the Editor of the Enquirer:
Gentlemen: In the letter which I addressed to you a few days ago, correcting the statements of P. W. A., the correspondent of the Savannah Republican, I omitted to take notice of the following sentence: ‘Perry's brigade advanced a short distance, but did not become fully engaged.’ This is quite as incorrect as the other statements which I have contradicted. Perry's brigade, under the command of Col. David Lang, advanced as bravely, [156] as perseveringly, and as far as any troops could have done in the same situation. They were hotly engaged, suffered heavier in loss in killed and wounded, in proportion to their numbers, than any brigade in the army, and did not retire until compelled, like all the others, to do so by the superior force of the enemy and the strength of his position. By giving this communication a place in your columns you will render an act of justice to brave men, whose honor and reputation I take pleasure in defending against the incorrectness of the statement and the inferences which might be drawn from any omission to notice it. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. H. Anderson, Major-General.

We hope this brigade, now a small but Spartan band, will not be allowed to lose its identity as Florida troops, but that its decimated ranks will be filled up by the new levies about to be raised in that State, and that volunteers will hasten to join this brigade which has done such faithful service in the army of Northern Virginia, and won a name and fame for the gallant little State of Florida.

In the Gettysburg fight the Fifth Florida lost 17 killed and 76 wounded; among the killed Capt. John Frink and Lieut. J. A. Jenkins and J. C. Blake; among the wounded Captains William Bailey and R. N. Gardner, Lieutenants G. L. Odum, J. A. Shaw and George Walker. The Second lost 1 killed and 70 wounded. The casualties of the Eighth were 5 killed and 65 wounded. Among the wounded were Captains T. R. Love, J. Mizell and T. B. Livingston; Lieutenants H. Bruce, W. W. Wilson, E. J. Dismukes, John Malone, F. M. Bryan and T. W. Givens.

At the battle of Bristoe Station, October 14, 1863, the brigade was conspicuously engaged, losing a considerable number killed and wounded; among the latter Lieut.-Col. William Baya, commanding the Eighth and Sergeant-Major Arnou of the same regiment.

In the campaign of the Wilderness, May, 1864, the Florida brigade, already greatly reduced in numbers, lost as many as 250 men. Among the wounded was General [157] Perry, and among the killed Lieut. Raymond Jenckes Reed, adjutant of the Second; a gallant young officer, son of Hon. R. R. Reed, one of the territorial governors of Florida. His mother, Martha M. Reed, as matron of the Florida hospital at Richmond, gave herself with-rare devotion to the care of the sick and wounded soldiers of the Confederacy. General Perry's wounds compelled him to retire from service, and upon the arrival of Finegan's Florida brigade the remainder of Perry's brigade was consolidated with that command.

Early in May, 1864, Gen. Patton Anderson, commanding district of Florida, received an order from the war department to send ‘a good brigade of infantry’ to Richmond with all possible expedition. Gen. Joseph Finegan was ordered to proceed immediately to Virginia with his brigade, consisting of First battalion, Lieut.-Col. Charles Hopkins; Second battalion, Lieut.-Col. Theodore Brevard; Fourth battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel McClellan; and Sixth battalion, Lieut.-Col. John M. Martin. The brigade arrived at Richmond May 25, 1864, and joined Anderson's division, now under Mahone, of Hill's corps, at Hanover Junction, on the 28th of May. On June 8th the troops were organized in three regiments as follows: The First Florida battalion, six companies, and the companies of Captains Mays, Stewart, Clarke and Powers of the Second battalion, formed the Tenth regiment, Colonel Hopkins commanding. The Fourth Florida battalion, seven companies, the companies of Captains Ochus and Robinson of the Second battalion, and Captain Cullen's unattached company, formed the Eleventh regiment, Col. Theodore Brevard commanding. The Sixth Florida battalion, seven companies, and the three independent companies of Capts. J. C. Eichelberger, McNeill and Reynolds, formed the Ninth regiment, Colonel Martin commanding. The seven companies that formed the Sixth battalion before organizing as such had served as independent volunteer companies in different parts of the State. [158] They were commanded by Captains Chambers, Davis, John W. Pearson, Samuel Hope, James Tucker, J. C. Dupree and S. M. G. Gary. At the battle of Olustee these companies were formed into a battalion and commanded by Maj. Pickens B. Bird. In concentrating the troops between Waldo and Jacksonville after the battle of Olustee, Lieutenant-Colonel Martin was placed in command of the battalion.

These three regiments were united with the Second, Fifth and Eighth, lately forming Perry's brigade, to constitute the brigade of General Finegan. The average effective strength of the regiments was about 200 men. The brigade went at once into active service. After a march of 30 miles they halted before Deep Bottom on the line before Richmond, where, after digging trenches, finding them not tenable, they fell back one mile. There was skirmishing on May 31st, the enemy shelling our lines. Falling back to Gaines' farm the brigade intrenched as a reserve.

On the morning of the 3d of June the Florida brigade recaptured the breastworks that had been temporarily lost by Breckinridge's command, and brilliantly repulsed two assaults of the enemy. In the battle of Cold Harbor, the Ninth lost 100 men killed and wounded. Among the killed were Maj. Pickens B. Bird, Captain Reynolds, Lieutenant Lane; and Adjutant Owens, Captain Tucker and Lieut. R. D. Harrison were severely wounded.

On this line the enemy encroached with their picketline and sharpshooters and gradually strengthened themselves until General Finegan ordered the old Second, Fifth and Eighth, in all about 200 men effective, to drive out the sharpshooters. The men started out bravely, but aware that many would never return. Capt. Seton Fleming, commanding the Second, fell dead thirty or forty yards in front of the works. He was a soldier of chivalric bravery and loved by his men, and his memory will be revered while there are brave true hearts to keep [159] bright the sacred records of a glorious past. After Cold Harbor, they marched to Malvern hill, thence made a forced march of twenty-five miles to Petersburg, where the brigade was placed in the front line of works and were for three days exposed to a terrific fire of artillery. On the 23d of June they moved from the breastworks to make a flank movement, under a heavy fire of shell, grape and canister, and marched down the Weldon railroad, 6 miles below, and drove back the enemy who were tearing up the road. On the 30th of June the battle of Ream's Station was fought. The Florida troops marched 10 miles, reached the scene of action at daybreak and were placed in line of battle, where they charged the enemy, driving him back in a running fire of 4 miles, capturing 7 pieces of artillery, many horses, a few prisoners, and 1,300 negroes, our only casualty being a few slightly wounded. In the morning of the 21st of August the Florida brigade advanced within 100 yards of the Federal breastworks on the Weldon railroad, where they were strongly intrenched, but, under their destructive fire, was compelled to fall back. Repeated charges were made to dislodge the enemy, resulting in defeat. Our loss in killed and wounded was very severe. Capt. J. W. Pearson, of the Ninth, was severely wounded. He died, on his way home, at Augusta, Ga. Here also fell the gallant Col. Thompson B. Lamar, of the Fifth.

On the 7th of December, 1864, the Florida brigade began a forced march of 50 miles, reaching the enemy's rear near Belfield the third day, and engaged in skirmishing, few being killed or wounded. The enemy, who had been on a raid, made his escape. In this movement Hill's entire corps was engaged against 20,000 Federals, who were compelled to retreat. The brigade returned to camp with sore feet, having marched over frozen roads and through snow and sleet over 100 miles.

Early in February, 1865, Mahone's division reinforced General Gordon, whose corps attacked the enemy near [160] Hatcher's run, opposing the Federal attempt to extend their line of battle. In this engagement, S. W. Crowson of the Ninth was wounded; Colonel Scott of the Tenth received a serious wound, resulting in amputation of his arm; Captain Floyd of the Eleventh Florida was killed. The brigade was now ordered to winter quarters, but before reaching them received orders to-return, as the enemy was making demonstrations for an attack upon General Gordon south of Hatcher's run. Moving rapidly to his assistance they found that he had engaged the enemy. As brigade after brigade came up they formed a line of battle, with only 3,500 effective men, under General Finegan; then charged the enemy, who fled in confusion, until night ended the battle.

On the morning of the 2d of April, General Lee's lines were broken and the retreat began. On the 6th the enemy pressed upon us in the rear and by a flank movement other portions of the army pressed us on another road. Various lines of battle were formed, and the Fifth, Eighth and Eleventh Florida regiments, commanded by Gen. Theodore Brevard, were sent out as skirmishers and captured by General Custer's cavalry force. The remainder of the Florida brigade crossed High bridge and marched to Farmville. The Ninth Florida, being crowded by the enemy, halted and fortified for an attack, and picket-fighting began. The enemy then made a charge but were repulsed. Massing their forces in a ravine that ran to the left of the Confederate command, their movement was discovered by General Sorrel, who by a gallant charge captured 900 prisoners, 200 others having been captured during the engagement. This was the last battle. Leaving Farmville the army reached Appomattox Court House.

Capt. L. M. G. Gary, of Company G, remained with the Ninth until late in the fall, engaging in all the battles fought to that time. Being appointed a staff officer of his brother, Gen. M. W. Gary, he was engaged with that [161] command until the surrender, at which time General Gary, sheathing his sword, turned over his fine command to Colonel Gary, made his way through picket lines and warlike cordon and safely reached Charlotte, N. C., at that time the headquarters of the Southern Confederacy.

The Tenth regiment Florida infantry had its inception early in the spring of 1861, when the tocsin of war sounded throughout the land and the patriotic sons of Florida were called to arms in defense of the State. Capt. Charles F. Hopkins, who commanded the Marion artillery at St. Augustine, applied for and received a commission to raise a battalion of infantry, the first organized in the State. He soon enlisted six companies, commanded by Captains Scott, Frink, Richard, Buckman and Kendrick. They were mustered into the Confederate army and assigned to duty at Fernandina under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hopkins, and there remained until the evacuation of that place by our forces in the spring of 1862. The First battalion constituted a part of General Finegan's brigade, and was engaged in all the operations of our troops against the Federals during their occupation of Jacksonville with superior forces, until the brigade was ordered to the support of the army of Virginia. On the arrival of the brigade at Richmond a change was made in the battalions as has been noted, and the First Florida battalion, with the companies of Captains Mays, Stewart, Clarke and Powers of the Second battalion (Brevard's) constituted the Tenth regiment, Colonel Hopkins commanding. They were soon engaged in the desperate fights to prevent Grant's army from reaching Richmond. Early in June they participated in recapturing the breastworks at Cold Harbor, sustaining a heavy loss in killed and wounded; fought gallantly at Ream's Station on the 30th, and on the Weldon railroad, August 2d, charged within 100 yards of the Federal breastworks, but were compelled to fall back with a heavy [162] loss in killed and wounded. At Belfield, and at Hatcher's run, February 4, 1865, they did gallant service.

The Eleventh Florida regiment originated in a battalion organized by Theodore W. Brevard, of Tallahassee, afterward prominently identified with the career of the regiment. In June, 1860, Mr. Brevard was made adjutant and inspector-general for the State; but when war became a certainty he resigned that office to enter active service, feeling that ‘he was too young a man to hold a safe and easy position while others were in peril.’ He therefore obtained a commission to raise a company of volunteers early in the spring of 1861. This company was one of those that formed the Second Florida regiment. The companies constituting the Second were ordered to Fernandina and drilled until thoroughly versed in military tactics. Being the first regiment that was ordered from the State to Virginia it was known as the ‘Representative regiment’ of Florida.

Receiving a commission to raise a battalion of partisan rangers, Captain Brevard returned to Florida for that purpose in the summer of 1862. Six companies forming the Second battalion soon enlisted, commanded by Captains Bird, Mays, Stewart, Westcott, Robinson and Ochus, under command of Lieut.-Col. Theodore Brevard. The battalion was placed under General Finegan's command and did effective work in south and east Florida, and was ordered to Virginia in May, 1864, when the Fourth Florida battalion, seven companies, the companies of Captains Ochus and Robinson of the Second Florida battalion (Brevard's) and Captain Cullen's unattached company of Florida volunteers, were assigned to the Eleventh regiment, Col. Theodore Brevard commanding.

The Eleventh took a gallant part in all the desperate fighting around Richmond and Petersburg, and were under fire nearly all the time after reaching Richmond. It was during the terrible conflict on the Weldon railroad that Colonel Brevard received a heavy blow in the loss of [163] his heroic young brother, Lieut. Mays Brevard, who fell while gallantly leading his company in a charge on the enemy's breastworks—the command to which he had been that day assigned. The noble daring of this gallant regiment was conspicuous in every battle. It has left a proud name in the military annals of the State.

Upon the resignation of General Finegan, Colonel Brevard was made brigadier-general, and he acted as such until the 6th of April, 1865, when, while leading the Fifth, Eighth and Eleventh Florida to break up a flank movement of the enemy, the command was captured by General Custer's cavalry. With a large number of prisoners General Brevard was sent to Washington and afterward to Johnson's island, where he was detained a prisoner until the latter part of August, 1865, five months after the surrender.

For want of historical data we are unable to follow the Florida consolidated brigade through all the details of its Virginia campaigns, which terminated with the surrender by General Lee, but in justice we must add that for courage and heroic endurance there can be found no prouder record in all the annals of the war. [164]

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