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[p. 68]

Strangers in Medford, (continued from vol. 4, no. 2).

Names.From.Date.Warned out.Remarks.
Chandler, BallardJan. 30, 1791
Christian, JohnJan. 30, 1791
Clark, SarahBoston,Sept. 27, 1766May 16, 1767
Clark (two children)Boston.May 27, 1772Children of Elizabeth Clark.
Jan. 2, 1773In family of Wm. Henderson.
Clisby, Joseph‘Not to be rated. . . in this town which I lately lived in,’ Apr. 30, 1790.
Clisby, JosephJan. 30, 1791Cooper.
Coffin, SamuelAug. 31, 1797
Collins, Richard
LondonJune 26, 1756Peruke Maker.
BostonIn house of Israel Mead.
Conory, DanielStoneham,May 8, 1764.Mar. 1, 1765Brother of Isaac Conory.
Conory,1 Isaac
  Sarah (mother)
  Hannah Sisters
Stoneham,May 8, 1764Mar. 1, 1765
Conory, PeterStoneham,May 8, 1764Mar. 1, 1765Brother of Isaac.
Jan. 30, 1791
Convers, EbenezerAug. 31, 1797
Convers, JamesAug. 31, 1797
Convers, JosephAug. 31, 1797
Cook, IsaacCharlestown,Mar., 1771In family of Nathan Tufts, Jr.
Cook, Joseph
  wife and children
Dec., 1759‘Taken in by Capt. Whitmore.’

[p. 69]

Cook, Joseph, Jr.
  Margery (wife)
  a boy
Cambridge, May 10, 1756Nov. 27, 1756Tenant of Joseph Tufts.
Cook, Joseph
  Margery (wife)
  Abigail Children
Charlestown, May, 1759Nov. 21, 1759
Cook, Joseph
  Abigail Children
  ‘and the others’
Bowdoinham at the Eastward, May or June, 1766Nov. 8, 1766
Cook, LydiaFeb. 1, 1780
Cook, MaryCharlestown, Nov. 25, 1766May 16, 1767‘Young child’ in family of Benjamin Teel.
Copeland, JamesAug. 31, 1797
Corey, ThomasJan. 30, 1791
Corrigell, James
  Elizabeth (wife)
Boston, July 2, 1760
Crane, DavidJan. 30, 1791
Cowen, ElizabethMaiden, Sept. 3, 1758Maid in family of Simon Tufts.
Cozens, Nathaniel
  Rebecca (wife)
  and a child
Nov. 29, 1754
Cristie, MarthaNotice from Town of Boston, Aug. 27, 1803.
Crocker, John and familyStonehamFeb. 26, 1755

[p. 70]

Names.From. Date.Warned out.Remarks.
Crowell, Aaron
  wife and family
July 10, 1751
Crowell, Robert
  wife and family
July 10, 1751
Cutter, DavidWoburn abt. May 18, 1757Feb. 8, 1758‘Taken in by Wm. Faulkner
  Mary (wife)
  one child
‘To James Long's farm of Medford.’
Cutter, ElizabethWoburn, on or before Dec.Widow ; in family of Sarah Cutter.
Cutter, PollyJan. 30, 1791
  RebeccaJan. 30, 1791Widow.
Darby, JamesJan. 30, 1791
Darling, John
  Mary (wife)
  John, Jr.
Aug. 10, 1777
Davis, AbelJan. 30, 1791
Davis, ElizabethWoburn Precinct,2 Nov. 15, 1755In service to Timothy Hall.
Davis, ElizabethJan. 30, 1791
Davis LucyCharlestown, May 21, 1759Sept. 5, 1759In service to Zebulon May.
In service to Benj. Pierce.

[p. 71]

Delahunt, ElizabethBoston,Oct. 12, 1770Housekeeper for Col. Royal
Dexter, TimothyJan. 30, 1791
Dickson, Jonathan
  Martha (wife)
  Benjamin3 (nurse child)
Cambridge,May 26, 1772In house of Richard Crease.
Dike, Jonathan(See John Adams
Dixon, Josiah
  Hannah (wife)
Charlestown,Apr., 1755Dec. 1, 1755
Dix, Sarah(See Sarah Reed
Dogget, widow of Isaac
  Bathsheba (daugh'r)
BraintreeFeb. 26, 1755
Dolbeir, SusannahBoston,May 17, 1758Nov. 27, 1758Servant of Thos. Seccomb.
Dorumpel,4 RobertNewtown,May 15, 1764In family of Timothy Tufts.
Dunster, Rebecca‘Masson town,’June 6, 1770In family of Joseph Tufts.
Eades, Josiah (?)Watertown,June 21, 1755Orphan. Age 16. Apprentice to Ebenr. Tidd.
Eastabrooks, Nehemiah
  wife and child'n
Jan. 30, 1791Distiller.
Emerson, AbigailCambridge,Mar. 27, 1754Feb. 26, 1755In service to Zacheriah Poole.
English, WilliamAug. 31, 1797
Evens, AnnaWilmington,Sept. 17, 1765Sept. 1, 1756In service to Hezekiah Blanchard.
Farley, MaryBillerica,Aug. 12, 1765Feb. 24, 1766In family of Aaron Blanchard.
Farrington, Daniel5Jan. 30, 1791
Fillebrown, JamesCambridge,Mar. 10 1766May 16, 1767Apprentice to Nath'l Pierce.
2, 1767

[p. 72]

‘Over the Hill to the poorhouse.’

By Helen T. Wild.
THE poor ye have always with you’ is amply exemplified in town records from the earliest times. The meeting-house, the minister, and the town charges furnish the bulk of subject matter for the early books. One cannot read these ancient documents without realizing the truth of a recent newspaper squib, ‘It is easier for one parent to support ten children than for ten children to support one parent.’ Children were often paid for boarding their aged fathers or mothers. In one pitiful case several sons out of a large family absolutely refused to do anything for their mother's support.

For this article we have not gleaned from ancient records, but from a little book tucked away on an upper shelf at City Hall, inscribed on the first page, ‘Doings of the Overseers of the Poor for the Town of Medford, 1811.’

From this first page we learn that, at that time, there was no almshouse in use in the town, and the paupers were boarded out. We can imagine the comforts the poor creatures enjoyed when we read that the price paid for board was thirty-three cents a week in addition to whatever labor the dependent could furnish.

In the latter part of 1811 the town poor were returned to Medford from Woburn, where they had been quartered, and Leonard Buckman took the contract to board the grown people at one dollar per week. These were doubtless too decrepit to be capable of labor.

The annual report of the overseers in 1812 states that there were thirty-six persons supported by the town, beside children boarded in families. The cost for the support of the town poor for the preceding year was $1359.80, ‘as near as can be calculated.’ December 3, 1812, Benjamin Young, as keeper of the new workhouse, was allowed for his services, and those of his wife, at the rate of two hundred fifty dollars per annum. By the [p. 73] terms of the agreement, Young was to maintain himself and family, and to have house rent and the use of the kitchen fire.

In 1813, thirty-three persons were supported wholly by the town, and thirteen assisted.

The families of soldiers of 1812 were grudgingly granted aid, for Medford, led by their pastor, Rev. David Osgood, was bitterly opposed to the war. One man is referred to as being, not in the army of the United States, but ‘in Mr. Madison's army.’

September 23, 1815, a great gale passed over West Medford and nearly wrecked the poorhouse, together with many other buildings, blowing down the chimneys and breaking the windows.

This house, or a portion of it, is still standing on Canal street, and has lately become a home for aged inventors.

The unfortunate, the decrepit, the lazy, the vicious, and the insane were housed ninety years ago under the workhouse roof. In 1816 it was voted by the selectmen that a new place ‘for the better security and comfort’ of one of the last named class be built in the cellar.

In 188, by act of Congress, soldiers of the Revolution received pensions, and at that time a little group of veterans left the poorhouse to maintain themselves on this slender stipend. Others, too feeble to shift for themselves, remained behind, their pensions being used for their benefit by the overseers.

A set of rules for the government of the poorhouse was promulgated in 1818, and the first one was, ‘If any will not work, neither shall he eat.’ And what kind of fare was he deprived of if he persisted in being lazy? In 1820, by act of the General Court, an adult pauper was allowed one dollar per week for support, and a child fifty cents a week.

In order to bring expenses within the proper limit, the following bill of fare was presented to Leonard Bucknam, the keeper, to be rigidly followed.

Dinners for a week: two of baked or stewed beans, [p. 74] two of soup, two of fish, or pudding with milk or molasses, and one of boiled victuals. Breakfasts and suppers: once a week tea, or coffee of peas, rye, or barley; all the rest, pudding with milk or molasses, or milk porridge, one third milk.

In 1829, Deacon Galen James, a strong total abstinence advocate, became chairman of the board, and stringent rules were laid down concerning strong waters, which many of the occupants of the poorhouse craved.

The overseers of the poor of Medford were always chosen from her most prominent citizens, and they doubtless administered affairs in their charge in as fair a manner as their resources and the customs of the day warranted; but, nevertheless, the workhouse was a nightmare in those days to many a poor soul battling with poverty. There was only one deeper abyss of misery, and that was imprisonment for debt in the common gaol.

Heber Reginald Bishop.

The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record for April prints a sketch, with portrait, of Heber Reginald Bishop, who died in New York, December 10, 1902.

Mr. Bishop was born in Medford, March 11, 1840, and was the youngest son of Nathaniel Holmes Bishop and Mary Smith Farrar. He was educated at the Medford High School and at the academy in North Yarmouth, Maine.

In 1856, he began his business career, and five years after was the head of a prosperous house in Cuba, where he remained until 1876, when he returned to this country.

He then became interested in some of the largest enterprises in New York city, and spent his leisure time in travelling and collecting art treasures from all lands.

Mr. Bishop presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Art one of the finest collections of jade in existence. In 1902 he completed an illustrated catalogue of it, which is also a valuable book of reference. [p. 75]

1 Conery.

2 Burlington.

3 Surname not given.

4 Derumpel

5 Age 15.

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