The Threatening secession.

affairs in South Carolina--Acceptance of Senator Chesnut's resignation — the Southern Press. &c., &c.

The feeling in South Carolina for secession seems steadily to advance. In the legislative debates the only difference in the views of members is about the rapidity with which the act shall be consummated. The resigned Federal officers of Charleston were in Columbia Saturday, and being serenaded made speeches of the same tenor of those delivered by them a few nights since, in the former city. On Saturday evening, at the town of Mount Pleasant, S. C. , some while boys, aided by negroes, were burning "Old Abe" in effigy, when they were fired on, and one of them shot by Jno. M. Barre, who was afterwards arrested by the citizens, and after receiving forty lashes, was placed in jail. Bishop Davis, of the Diocese of South Carolina, has set forth a prayer, which is " to be used before the two final prayers of morning and evening service, on all occasions during the ensuing session or sessions of our Legislature." In the South Carolina Legislature, Saturday, the following took place:

Mr. Whaley said he held in his hand a resolution which he was certain would meet a cordial response from every member of this assembly. It was as follows:

Resolved, That the resignation of the Hon. Jas. Chesnut as one of the U. S. Senators from South Carolina be accepted; and that what, under any other circumstances, would have been regarded with regret, is now recognized as an act of loyalty to the State of South Carolina.

’ Unanimously adopted, and sent to the Senate for concurrence.

Mr. Cunningham moved to proceed to the general orders with a view to take up a bill to arm the State. He thought it important that the bill should get a reading in the Senate today if they wished to facilitate the business before the House. At the request of Mr. Aldrich, the motion was withdrawn to permit a report to be made from the Committee on Federal Relations. Mr. Aldrich then presented the report. The report recommends an amendment to the Senate bill for the call of a Convention, naming the 6th day of December as the time for the election of delegates, instead of the 6th of January, and the 17th December as the time for meeting, instead of the 10th of January, as named in the Senate bill.

Mr. W. C. Black said he was exceedingly sorry to oppose the amendment. He was perfectly willing to vote for the Convention, to go with the State, and, when she goes, to go as far as the farthest. But he could not agree to the amendment proposed by the House Committee to the Senate bill, and hoped the House would not accept the amendment. It was absolutely necessary that those who represented large districts, the people of which were not so thoroughly posted up as to the events transpiring around them, that they should have time to canvass those districts, and bring the people up to the point. If they shortened the time they would have no opportunity to do that, and the consequences might be that those people would occupy a false position. It was essentially necessary to the district he represented, that the amendment should not prevail. He was exceedingly anxious, therefore, that the time should not be changed. If they were precipitate, they might depend upon it, his district would not sustain the action of the House. He, therefore, moved that the question be taken up by ayes and nays.

The bill was laid on the table to make way for the order of the day.

A Declaration of Independence.

The Washington Constitution publishes a declaration of independence, which is to be submitted at the coming South Carolina Convention. The first sentence of the National Declaration is thus altered:

‘ "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that although all men are created wholly unequal, mentally, morally, and physically, yet they are all equally entitled, under every civilized government, to the full protection of their lives, persons, and property, for which protection governments are solely instituted among men, deriving their just powers solely from the consent of the governed."

’ The grievances cited, are: 1st. The war in the North against Southern institutions. 2d. The nullification of the fugitive slave law.--3d. Upholding protection from slavery in the Territories. 4th. The imposition of heavy taxes--"not simply without but directly against our representation, and our consent in the general Congress, by levying onerous and excessive duties upon goods imported in return for, and purchased by, our cotton, rice, and tobacco, in order to protect and encourage their own manufactures, and in order to expend vast sums at the North in improving and fortifying their own barbers, towns, and cities, at the evident and direct expense of the products and labor of the South." 5th. The election of a President whose creed is the "irrepressible conflict."

The declaration concludes as follows:

We therefore, the representatives of the people of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this State, solemnly publish and declare that the State of South Carolina is, and of right ought to be, a free and independent State; and that all political connection between it and the Northern States is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as a free and independent State we have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which an independent State may of right do. And, for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

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