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Six or eight of the military companies which went to Pensacola from Montgomery, Ala. , hastened to that city. There is no important movement, therefore, likely to be made at present at Fort Pickens.

From Charleston.

The Charleston correspondent of the Baltimore American gives that paper the following news:

‘ At the Arsenal the recruits of the standing army are undergoing thorough training as fast as they enlist. They are retained here and instructed into the art of war until a company is formed, when the whole lot is transferred to one of the military posts in the harbor, where they become acquainted with the pleasures of a soldier's life in the trenches. The most of the enlisted men are a jolly, hard set of cases, and it is exceedingly difficult to restrain them from drunkenness and riot. This fact is so notorious that Mr. Cunningham, Colonel of the 17th Regiment, brought the matter to the notice of the Legislature last week, and liked to have embroiled himself in a personal difficulty with Lieut. Wagner, of a company of enlisted men, stationed at the Arsenal. Mr. Wagner, who is also a Senator, denied that the troops were beyond restraint, licentious, and drunken.--Col. Cunningham, on the floor of the House of Representatives, asserted that they were. Mr. Wagner said it was a "misstatement." Col. Cunningham called for an explanation. Lieut. Wagner said he did not mean to impeach Mr. Cunningham's veracity. Mr. Cunningham asked him to publish this fact to the world and say so before the Senate.--Mr. Wagner complied and the personal difficulty was settled; but Col. Cunningham still maintained that his statements were true, and called for a committee of investigation, but the lateness of the hour precluded the examination of the numerous witnesses, so the matter continues over till the next session.

The programme laid down for the Southern Congress is this:--First, a Provisional Government; second, treaties with the United States and ‘"other foreign"’ countries; third, decisive legislation in regard to the negro, and fourthly, decision as to what States shall constitute the Confederacy. In this latter subject all concur that no free State shall be admitted, and if any State shall afterwards abolish slavery she shall be excluded from the Confederacy. I am informed that this will be a point insisted upon by Carolina. Georgia has already declared it to be her demand, and the rest of the seceding States will unite with her on this.

Major Anderson, it is believed here, is adding greatly to the strength of his position. He has dug a mine under the causeway leading to the gate of his "donjon," and will blow up the first company that attempts an escalade. This he can easily do without injuring himself or his fortification. At the points, however, that bear upon Sumter, South Carolina still continues to concentrate her forces, and when the struggle does come it will be terrible.

Important Correspondence between the ministers of foreign Powers and the Secretary of State.

Washington, Jan. 31.--It appears from official sources, that on the 27th of January, Mr. Schleider wrote to the Secretary of State, Mr. Black, informing him that he had received a letter from the Bremen Consul at Charleston, stating that the consignee of the "Copernicus" had tendered duties at the Custom House, which were refused, and from this the Consul infers that the functionaries there are acting no longer for the United States, and the Minister therefore asks how are the Bremen captains and consignees of goods imported from Bremen in Bremen vessels to any port in South Carolina to act in order to avoid all violations of the revenue laws of the United States? Does the Government hold itself responsible to the owners of goods now stored in or which may hereafter be placed in the United States bonded warehouses at Charleston? and in case of the discontinuance of the United States Custom-House at Charleston, will Bremen vessels be permitted to proceed hence on their voyage without hindrance on the part of the United States authorities?

Lord Lyons, under date of December 31st, acquaints the Secretary of State that he has received a letter from the British Consul at Charleston, in which it is stated that South Carolina has passed an ordinance declaring, in effect, that the Custom-Houses of the United States in South Carolina are converted into Custom-Houses of that State, and that the revenue laws adopted show how duties are to be collected on account of that State. --The Consul calls attention to several practical difficulties connected with the entry and clearance of British vessels, which may arise at any moment, and Lord Lyons requests the Government to furnish him, without delay, such information respecting its wishes and intentions as may enable him to give definite instructions to the Consul, and to remove any apprehension which may exist that the abolition de facto of the United States Custom-House will be allowed to subject British vesselvs or commerce to loss, injury, or inconvenience.

Mr. Tassaro, the Spanish Minister, on December 31st, calls Secretary Black's attention to a letter from the Spanish Consul at Charleston, relative to customs affairs in that city.

Next, Secretary Black is informed by Lord Lyons, that South Carolina authorities have removed the buoys, withdrawn the light-ship, ect., and requests that he cause the lights and beacons to be replaced to warn vessels of their danger, and, in conclusion, desire such information as will allay anxiety of British subjects.

Mr. Schleider also complains, under date of January 8th, that the lights in Charleston harbor have been extinguished.

Among the documents is also a letter from ex-Judge Magrath, dated from Executive Department of South Carolina, saying that the activity of the pilots will prevent any serious injury or inconvenience to commerce.

On the 10th instant Secretary Black replied to Lord Lyons, and sent a copy of his letter to Messrs. Schleider and Tassaro. He says that he had laid Lord Lyons' communication before the President, who would deeply regret that any injury should happen to the commerce of foreign and friendly nations, and especially that British subjects at Charleston should suffer by the anamolous state of things existing there. Secretary Black then quotes from the law to show that the jurisdiction of the Federal Government is to impose duties on goods imported into the limits of the United States and collect duties, is exclusive.--Whether the state of affairs now existing at Charleston will or will not be regarded as sufficient reason for not executing the penalties incurred by British subjects, is a question, says the Secretary, which Lord Lyons will see no necessity for raising until it practically arises. Each case will no doubt have its peculiarities, and Secretary Black regrets that this consideration compels him to decline giving any assurances on the points presented. The Treasury Department, he says, will give public information as to the condition in which South Carolina has put the coast.

The Work on the South Carolina batteries.

A letter from Charleston gives an account of the progress made in preparing the defences. It says:

‘ A word with regard to the forts or batteries now being prepared for the defence against Fort Sumter, and all hostile demonstrations by the United States Government. As no boat was running regularly to those on the right hand side of the channel, to wit: Fort Johnson, Cummings Point, etc., and, moreover, a permit to those places not being granted, we could not visit them, but understood they were progressing with all possible speed at the several places and strongly fortifying them by every available means, several hundred hands being employed thereon.

On Wednesday, however, we obtained a permit to visit Fort Moultrie, and having done so, found it under strict military discipline, and things progressing bravely — so much of the wall as was commanded by Fort Sumter was being rapidly mounted with sand-bag batteries, from nine to ten feet in thickness, and the same in depth, and was almost completed; all the guns were mounted but two, and those were to be during the day.

Maj. Ripley thought that in the course of a day or two he could withstand a heavy battery from Sumter, which it was supposed could be readily taken by an attack simultaneously from the several points, though with some sacrifice. Two mortar batteries were being erected on the island without the fort and about two hundred yards below it. Batteries were also being erected on the far and of the beach for the protection of the light infantry companies.

It was estimated that over one thousand negroes were employed on the Island. On our way to and from Fort Moultrie we touched at Castle Pinckney, which was like wise in a state of strict military discipline, and on which all necessary preparations were being made. We were informed that there were about eight hundred soldiers on Sullivan's Islands, 280 at Castle Pinckney, and about one thousand at the different points on Morris' Island.

The militia bill in Congress.

Mr. Reynolds, of New York, from the Select Committee to whom was referred the special Message of the President of the United States on the present condition of the country, has prepared the following bill, authorizing the President to call forth the militia and accept the services of volunteers to such an extent as may be necessary at any time to protect the public property:

‘ A bill to be entitled an act further to provide for calling forth the militia of the United States in certain cases.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United State, in Congress assembled, That it shall be lawful for the President of the United States, whenever and as often as in his opinion it shall become necessary, to call forth the militia of all or any of the States of the United States, or to accept the services of volunteers to such extent as may be required to protect and defend the forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, navy-yards, public buildings and other property of the United States which has been or may be unlawfully seized or taken possession of by any combination of persons whatsoever; and the provisions of an act authorizing the employment of land and naval forces of the United States in cases of insurrections, approved March 3, 1807, and all existing laws and regulations relating to the actual service of the militia of the United States, shall be applicable to the employment of the same, under the provisions of this act.

Who Fought the Battles of the Union.

The Mexican war was fought chiefly by the South. The tabular statement given below shows that whilst fourteen slave States furnished 45,630 volunteers, the free States and Territories furnished but 23,054. The disparity is marked considered from any point of view, but especially so in regard to #tive population of the two sections. The figures, we may add, are derived from Executive Document No. 62, of the 1st session, 30th Congress:

Nativity of the Regular Army in the Mexican war.

Non-slaveholding States and Territories28,556.
Slaveholding States14,355

Volunteers to Mexican war from Slaveholding States.

N'rth Carolina936171
South Carolina1,05458115234
Maryland and District of Columbia1,33013952

Volunteers to Mexican war from non-slaveholding States and Territories.

New York2,664547771
New Jersey42429

No volunteers were sent from Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Rhode Island.

Letter from Lieut. Berryman.

Lieut. O. H. Berryman, in command of the U. S. steamer Wyandotte, off Fort Icken, has written a letter to a Pensacola paper, in which he says:

‘ ""My orders from the proper authorities of a Government I have loved and served as aithfully as I could, I still respect, and when that Government shall be dissolved by the decision of my great and noble State, (Virginia,) I hope to prove myself worthy of holding a commission even under a Southern Confederacy.

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