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The National Crisis.

From Fort Pickens--The Laws of the Southern Confederacy--Another Church Division --Letter from Bishop Hopkins, &c., &c.

from Fort Pickens.

A dispatch from Washington says:

Lieut. Gilman, one of the officers in command of Fort Pickens, arrived here this evening with dispatches from Lieut. Slemmer and the commander of vessels off Pensacola to the government. He left Pensacola on Saturday evening, having received a passport from Major Chase, who is in command of the Florida troops. He says the following vessels are off the harbor: The Brooklyn, Sabine, St. Louis, Macedonian and Wyandotte. The Brooklyn did not land her supplies for Fort Pickens, Lieut. Slemmer having notified them that he had ample supplies for three months. There are twelve hundred troops at Pensacola, and they are threatening every hour to make an attack on Fort Pickens. It is all that Major Chase and others in command can do to restrain them.

Lieut. Gilman says he would not be surprised if an attack was made at any moment, and it is very probable, owing to the limited number in the fort, that they would take it before the Brooklyn could throw her troops into the fort. If they take it at all, he says, they can take it in thirty or forty minutes; but there will be fearful loss of life even at that. The health of the officers and men on board of the vessels is good.

’ A letter from Fort Barrancas, dated the 4th, says the Alabama Regiment was to be withdrawn in a day or two. It adds:

‘ The forts are to be garrisoned by an adequate force, which is to be raised in Alabama, I believe. Col. Lomax has orders to enlist one hundred men from the 2d Regiment, if possible, they to elect their own officers — term of service to be one year. Since the orders for the Brooklyn, of which I told you in my last, have been received, matters seem to be on a more peaceful footing, and the expectation of a victory so long cherished by the boys, will be disappointed. Fort Pickens is to be left in the hands of Lieut. Slemmer and his men.--There is no doubt but he means to fight, and is constantly making preparations to give his assailants a warm reception. For a day or two we have seen men busily engaged in throwing up batteries upon the point of Santa Rosa's Island, immediately opposite those we have erected below Barrancas. Slemmer has also placed a large mortar upon each bastion of the fort. Upon both sides the labors upon batteries and guns continue, but I am inclined to believe that they will not be brought into use.

’ Swearing Allegiance to the Mew Confederacy.

A Montgomery letter to the Baltimore American says:

‘ The morning after the adoption of the form of government, a very dense mass of people packed the Congress Chamber. The galleries and available space on the floor was crowded with ladies and gentlemen, for it had been given out that the delegates were then and there to swear fealty to the new Government. The day was a deliciously balmy one, and the ladies turned out in larger numbers than I have ever seen them.

After the preliminary business of opening the session had been transacted, the President, Mr. Cobb, rose and announced that it was in order to administer the oath pledging support to the "Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States."

Hon. R. Walker, one of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of Alabama, ascended to the Speaker's desk, holding in his hand a small gilt-edged, morocco-bound copy of the Scriptures. The President remained standing at the desk.

Judge Walker said:

‘ "You do solemnly swear that you will support the Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, so help you God?"

Mr. Cobb answered, ‘"I do,"’ and reverentially kissed the book, which he retained in his hand.

The delegates from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina were then summoned, each representative in turn, to the President, and duly sworn.--The members of the delegation held on to the book in the same manner that juries are commonly sworn, and the oath was administered by the President in the same words that he himself had sworn. While each delegation was ‘"at the book"’ all the rest remained standing in their places. The most profound silence prevailed during the ceremony, which in itself was of a most interesting character.

The Laws of the Southern Confederacy.

The Charleston Mercury contains a long letter from L. W. Spratt, condemning the passage by the Provisional Congress of a law against the African slave trade and other features. The Mercury alluding to the letter, says:

‘ We admit that the Government is but provisional and temporary, therefore, and that the features objected to may not be carried into the Permanent Government, and probably were never intended to be carried there. They were doubtless intended to conciliate the Border slave States, and induce them to an early union; but the concern we have expressed was not unwarrantable. It may be questionable whether, should the Border slave States be induced to union by such attractive features of the Constitution, it would be proper to propose a change. It is to be doubted whether, when they shall have entered, it will be possible for the Cotton States to make any changes to which they may except — and, as we would certainly lament the final adoption of the policy excepted to,--as we would lament a constitutional recognition of a protective policy, and a constitutional brand upon the institution of domestic slavery — we think it eminently important that those who deprecate these measures should make the efforts necessary to defeat them.

’ letter from Bishop Hopkins.

Bishop Hopkins, of Vermont, has addressed to his people one of the most powerful letters in behalf of the right and humanity of slavery that these troublous times have brought forth. In concluding it, he says:

‘ In conclusion, I would only say that I am perfectly aware how distasteful my sentiments must be, on this very serious question, to the great majority of my respected fellow-citizens, in the region where Divine Providence has cast my lot. It would assuredly be far more agreeable if I could conscientiously conform to the opinions of my friends, to whose ability, sincerity and zeal, I am ready to give all just commendation. But it would be mere moral cowardice in me to suppress what I believe to be the truth, for the sake of popularity. It cannot be long before I shall stand at the tribunal of that Almighty and unerring Judge, who has given us the inspired Scriptures to be our supreme directory in every moral and religious duty. My grey hairs admonish me that I may soon be called to give an account of my stewardship. And I have no fear of the sentence which he will pronounce upon an honest though humble effort to sustain the authority of His Word, in just alliance with the Constitution, the peace, and the public welfare of my country.

’ Another Church Division.

In Louisiana the Protestant Episcopal Church secedes with the State. A pastoral letter from Bishop Polk, of that diocese, contains this passage:

‘ Our separation from our brethren of the "Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States" has been effected, because we must follow our nationality. Not because there has been any difference of opinion as to Christian doctrine or Catholic usage. Upon these points we are still one. With us it is a separation, not division — certainly not alienation. And there is no reason why, if we should find the union of our diocese under our national Church impracticable, we should cease to feel for each other the respect and regard with which purity of manners, high principle and a manly devotion to truth never fall to inspire generous minds. Our relations to each other hereafter will be the relations we both now hold to the men of our Mother Church of England.

’ Seizure of Ammunition for Charleston.

The Metropolitan Police distinguished themselves again, yesterday, by seizing a lot of cartridges destined for Charleston, S. C.--Sergeant Geist, it appears, received information that an attempt would be made to ship 50,000 cartridges on board the Huntsville, and made extensive preparations to seize the property as soon as it arrived on the pier. Upon investigation, however, the number of the cartridges dwindled down to something less than 5,000. The boxes containing the ammunition in question were marked S. H. on one side, and on the other H. A. Atcher, Charleston, S. C. It was the intention of the shippers to have them reshaped to Savannah, but whether by railroad or steamboat, does not appear. The freight was lying on the pier when the police seized it, and was promptly carted off to the arsenal in the Seventh avenue.--N. Y. Herald.

arms for Florida.

The Tallahassee Floridian says that one thousand Maynard rilles and appendages with 50,000 ball cartridges and 180,000 primers, and 4,000 percussion muskets, have been received by the State. The rifles were purchased by the Governor in December last, and Quarter master General Archer has just returned from business connected with their delivery and receipt.

Progress of Mr. Lincoln.

In Cincinnati, Wednesday night, about half-past 8 o'clock, near two thousand of the German Free Working Men of the city marched in procession to the Burnet House, many of them bearing torches, and called upon the President elect. Mr. Lincoln was escorted to the balcony, and was greeted on behalf of the working men by Mr. Fred. Oberkleine, who formally presented a brief address. Mr. Lincoln responded as follows:

Mr. Chairman--I thank you and those you represent, for the compliment paid me by the tender of this address. In so far as there is an allusion to our present national difficulties, and the suggestion of the views of the gentlemen who present this address, I beg you will excuse me from entering particularly upon it. I deem it due to myself and the whole country, in the present extraordinary condition of the country and of public opinion, that I should wait and see the last development of public opinion before I give my views, or express myself at the time of the inauguration. [Cheers.] I hope at that time to be false to nothing you have been taught to expect of me. [Cheers.]

I agree with you, Mr. Chairman, and with the address of your constituents, in the declaration that working men are the basis of all governments. That remark is due to them more than to any other class, for the reason that there are more of them than of any other class. And as your address is presented to me not only on behalf of working men, but especially of Germans. I may say a word as to classes. I hold the value of life is to improve one's condition. Whatever is calculated to advance the condition of the honest, struggling laboring man, so far as my judgment will enable me to judge of a correct thing, I am for that thing.

An allusion has been made to the Homestead law. I think it worthy of consideration, and that the wild lands of the country should be distributed so that every man should have the means and opportunity of benefiting his condition. [Cheers.] I have said I do not desire to enter into detail, nor will I.

In regard to Germans and foreigners, I esteem foreigners no better than other people, nor any worse. [Laughter and cheers.] They are all of the great family of men, and if there is one shackle upon any of them, it would be far better to lift the load from them than repile additional loads upon them. [Cheers.] And inasmuch as the continent of America is comparatively a new country, and the other countries of the world are old countries, there is more room here, comparatively speaking, than there is there; and if they can better their condition by leaving their old homes, there is nothing in my heart to forbid them coming, and I bid them all God speed. [Cheers.]

Again, gentlemen, thanking you for your address, I bid you good night.

Mr. Lincoln at Steubenville, Ohio — he Makes Another Speech, and says the majority must rule.

Pittsburg, Feb. 14.--The President elect and party left Columbus at 8 o'clock this morning. At Steubenville, Ohio, a demonstration took place on his arrival, some five thousand people being present at the depot to receive him. A salute was fired and Mr. Lincoln was formally welcomed by Judge Lloyd.

Mr. Lincoln responded briefly. He said he feared that the great confidence expressed in his ability was unfounded. Indeed, I am sure it is so. The position to which I have been called is encompassed with vast difficulties.--I am sure, however, that nothing shall be wanting on my part, sustained by the American people and God's help. I believe the devotion of the people to the Constitution and the Union, equally great on both sides of the Ohio river. It is only a different understanding — only a dispute as to what are their rights. If the majority should not rule, who should be the judge? When such a judge is found we must all be bound by the decision. That judge is the majority of the American people. If not, then the minority must control. Would that be right, just or generous? Assuredly not. He reiterated that the majority should rule, and if he adopted a wrong policy, the opportunity to condemn him would occur in four years. Then I can be turned out, and a better man, with better views, be put in my place.

Arrival at Pittsburg — he Speaks Again.

Pittsburg, Feb. 14.--The President elect reached Allegany at 8 o'clock this evening, and he and his party immediately proceeded to the Monongahela House, in this city. Shortly afterward he was called out, and addressed the immense crowd in substance as follows:

‘ He said he would not give them a speech, as he thought it more rare, if not more wise, for a public man to keep quiet. He expressed his gratification and surprise at so great an assemblage and such boundless enthusiasm, manifested under such untoward circumstances, to greet so unworthy an individual as himself. It was, undoubtedly, to be attributed to the position to which, more by accident than by merit, he had attained.

He remarked further that if all these energetic, whole-souled people before him were for the preservation of the Union, he did not see how it could be in much danger. [Cheering and cries of "Union and no compromise."] He had adopted the plan of holding his tongue for the most part during the Presidential canvass and since the election, and he had perhaps better now hold his tongue. [Cries of "Go on."] I will speak again in the morning.

Mr. Lincoln and party will leave at 11 o'clock in the morning for Cleveland.

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