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Latest Northern news.
the Burnside expedition--its destination.
Difficulty between Gen. Shields and Senator McDougail.
interesting news items.
&c., &c., &c.

Our summary this morning is made up from Northern dates to the 9th inst. The news in the main is possessed of considerable interest; particularly that which refers to the Burnside expedition, inasmuch as its destination is partially revealed. By reference to the paragraphs appended in connection with the expedition, it will be seen that they have some designs upon Richmond, and will endeavor to make us a call via Aquia creek.

More Federal victories in Western Virginia are reported, the truth of which we are not so sure, as experience has taught us to be chary in believing any statements from Yankee sources with regard to engagements between our troops and their's.

In the House of Representatives, on the 7th inst., Mr. Vallandigham made a stirring speech on the settlement of the Trent affair.

In a caucus meeting of the members of the Legislature of New York, on the 6th inst., Henry J. Raymond, of the Times, was elected speaker. It would appear from the following that the Peace party is in the ascendant, notwithstanding the Governor of that State in his message calls upon the Legislature to place the defences of the State in a better condition while the Federal authorities are putting down the rebellion:

Resolved, That all the members elected to the Legislature who, for sustaining the government in a vigorous prosecution of the war, and to put down the rebellion and save the Union, and opposed to any unjust, partial legislation, any corruption in nigh and low places, be invited to take seats in this Convention.

The resolution was advocated by Messrs. Ogden and Stetson, and opposed by Mr. Raymond in a speech of considerable length.

After a long debate the resolution was lost, under the call for yeas and noes, by a vote 16 to 62.

The caucus then proceeded to nominate a candidate for speaker, when Henry J. Raymond was the successful candidate.

The Burnside expedition — its destination.

The Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Press, writing under date of the 8th inst., says:

Burnside's expedition, which will probably sail within the present week will be followed by the most important results. It is believed nere in well informed circles that its successful landing will be the signal for a general advance. But a short time ago Gen. McClellan inquired of Gen. Porter in what time he could move. Being answered in twenty-four hours, he rejoined that he ‘"wished the soldiers not to be deluded into the belief that they were about going into winter quarters, but to hold themselves in readiness as they would shortly move forward."’ Since that time it has transpired that orders have been given to move via Occoquan.

As the Burnside Expedition will probably ascend the Rappahannock river, a movement forward via Occoquan will compel the evacuation of the Rebel batteries on the Potomac and also give us possession of the terminus of the Richmond railway at Aquia Creek all leave the Confederates at Manassas the choice of two evils — to fall back on Richmond or be completely out flanked and captured by McClellan's strategy.

How the news Leaked out.

The New York World says:

‘ It is now well understood, from the movements of the rebels, that they were aware of the destination of General Burnside's fleet. The story goes that it was talked of in the family of the official alluded to, (General Thomas), and by the daughter communicated to her lover, who is affiliated with the rebels. The destination of the Burnside expedition has been changed because of the knowledge the rebels acquired of the point at which it was aimed. The young lady left town recently and has not since returned. Her father, it is understood, will shortly leave for Europe for the benefit of his health.

The embarkation or Troop — a Secession Lady reveals its destination.

From the Annapolis correspondent of the Baltimore Clipper, of the 8th inst., we glean the following information with regard to the Burnside expedition:

‘ The embarkation of the troops for the Burnside expedition commenced yesterday morning, and is still progressing as rapidly as possible. A number of vessels have received their complement of men and stores, and are anchored in the stream awaiting the readiness of the remaining transports, when the grand armada will sail to Fortress Monroe, and thence to--.

Here your humble correspondent must pause, as all other humble correspondents have been compelled to do; not, however, with the insinuation that ‘"if I dared I might tell you, "’ or "the destination of the fleet has been revealed to me, but from prudential motives I am compelled to withhold it from your numerous readers; but with honest confession that I do not know, and am charitable enough to believe that no one else knows but these who have a right.

A silly story has gained currency here, no doubt inscribed by Secesh, after the style of the absconding Secretary of Commodore Dupont, which so easily sold the susceptible reporter of the Tribune, that the daughter of a very prominent United States army officer had revealed the destination of the fleet, and by this time it is well known to Jeff Davis and his minions. Doubtless the wish is father to the thought, but there is every reason to believe that the first information Jeff will receive of its destination will be from a 10- inch columbiad at short range.

I must own to a considerable amount of carelessness or indifference as to its destination, being so fully satisfied that the point has been well chosen by those competent to select and imbued with the belief that the knowledge of its landing will also convey the intelligence of another triumph of the Federal arms, and another disgraceful scrubber by the fleet-footed chivalry.

The embarkation is necessarily slow, and the greater portion of the week may pass before all she vessels are prepared to sail. The departure will be hurried as much as possible, however, in view of the very cold weather that threatens a blockade of this harbor more effectually than that which invited the Nashville to a pleasant trip across the sea."

Arrival of some of the expedition in Hampton Roads — great Rejoicing at old Point.

From the Norfolk Day Book, of Saturday, we take the following:

‘ We are reliably informed that three light draught gun-boats, and the same number of large lake or sound boats, arrived in the Roads yesterday about noon. They were all filled with troops, and the three former were recognized by our informant as a portion of the Burnside expedition. The troops — numbering, as was estimated, between four and six thousand--were landed at Old Point. Their arrival there was hailed with many manifestations of delight, and they landed amid vociferous cheers and the playing of music by the bands.

We are further informed that the remainder of the Burnside Expedition is expected to join those now in the Roads in the course of five or six days, and that they will proceed to their destination at once. Where this destination is to be there seems to be a variety of opinion; yet there seems to be but little doubt that it is intended for the Rappahannock or James rivers, or Norfolk. Our informant states that this is the prevailing opinion at the North, and that the people of that section are quite confident that the Burnside Expedition will be the most important in its results of any that has yet been sent out.

Congressional proceedings.

Washington, Jan. 7.
--Senate.--On motion of Mr. Sherman, the bill to increase the number of Cadets at West Point was taken up, the question being on the amendment that cadets be dismissed if found deficient in their studies. It was disagreed.

Mr. Trumbull opposed the passage of the bill. He believed it was owing to West Point that the war languished as it has. If West Point was abolished, military tactics would be taught all over the country. He was opposed to increasing the number of cadets, especially at this time.

Mr. Clark said he should not vote for the bill now, but he could not join in the tirade against West Point. Treason had been taught more in the Senate of the United States than in the school at West Point.

After considerable discussion, the question was then taken on the passage of the bill, and resulted — yeas 12, nays 25; no the bill was rejected.

House.--A message was received from the President, with the documents in reference to the Trent affair.

Mr. Thomas, of Massachusetts argued to show the justification of the captured of Mason and Slidell. England aid us a grievous wrong in making the demand, which was unjust She has done that which has implanted in the American breast a sense of wrong which will await

the opportunity to strike the blow of retributive justice.

The Message and documents were referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

On motion, the House went into Committee of the Whole, Mr. Campbell, of Pennsylvania, in the chair, and took up the appropriation bill, making appropriations for civil expenses of the Government for the year ending the 30th June, 1863, and additional appropriations for the year ending the 30th June, 1862.

Mr. Vallandigham proposed the further consideration of the surrender of Mason and Slidell.

Mr. Vallandigham replied to the charge made by his colleague.

Washington, Jan. 8.-- Senate.--Mr. Powell presented the resolutions of the Legislature of Kentucky, asking that Senators procure the repeal of the law allowing Judges of U. S. Courts to hold terms of the Court at Covington, Paducah, and Louisville. Referred.

Mr. Powell also presented the resolutions of the Legislature of Kentucky, favoring the construction of a railroad connecting Kentucky with East Tennessee, and thus making a connection with the loyal men in East Tennessee and Western North Carolina. Referred.

House.--Mr. Colfax, from the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, reported a bill, which was passed, extending the provisions of the law of July last, which authorizes soldiers to send letters through the mails without prepayment of postage, to sailors and marines in actual service of the United States, under such regulations as the Post Office Department may prescribe. The postage to be paid by the recipients.

Mr. Hickman, from the Judiciary Committee, reported a resolution, which was adopted, that the Committee be authorized to send for persons and examine witnesses as to the telegraphic censorship of the press, which subject has been referred to the Committee, and compel the production of papers and dispatches sent or proposed to be sent; and that, if necessary, the Committee employ a stenographer.

Mr. Vallandigham's resolution was adopted, requesting the Secretary of the Treasury to furnish the sum total of the floating debt of the United States, giving as ar as practicable, the heads under which the said debt may be arranged.

On motion of Mr. Upton, it was resolved that the committee of Ways and Means be instructed to consider the expediency of reporting a bill, at their earliest convenience, amending the eighth section of the act of August last, so as to provide for raising $100,000,000 instead of $20,000,000 by taxation, and that in this condition they consider the expediency of telegraph and stamp duties, and excise duties upon cotton, tobacco, and all malt, and distilled liquors.

On motion of Mr. Cox, it was resolved that the President be requested to communicate to the House what, of any, steps the Executive Department has taken for the systematic exchange of prisoners.

Latest from Western Virginia--reported Federal success.

Cincinnati, January 8.
--A special dispatch from Huttonsville, Va., says that Gen. Milroy's expedition, under Capt. Lacy, in Tucker county, has also dispersed 400 rebels, capturing their Commissary and a large amount of stores; also, a 1st lieutenant and a private. Four rebels were found dead, and a large number wounded. A detachment of the forces was still in hot pursuit of the routed enemy.

Further.--The New York Herald, of the 9th instant, has the following later information:

‘ Our army in Western Virginia continues active. A brilliant affair is announced to have taken place at Blue's Gap, east of Romney, at daybreak on Tuesday morning, when a detachment of General Kelly's forces, commanded by Col. Dunning, of the 5th Ohio regiment, attacked two thousand of the enemy, routing them completely. The rebels lost 15 killed, two pieces of cannon, their wagons, &c. Twenty prisoners, including one commissioned officer were captured. None of the Union soldiers were killed.

From Romney.

A Yankee letter from Romney says:

‘ There are now some seven thousand troops at that point, including six companies of cavalry and two of artillery, all thoroughly equipped and in a most efficient state. There has been no advance yet, nor will there be until large reinforcements are received.--Gen. Rosecrans was expected at Romney daily, and on his arrival it was thought that active operations would be resumed. Gen. Kelley is at Cumberland, and is still very low from the effects of his wound. He has never quite recovered since he was struck down at Philippi.

From the upper Potomac.

Frederick, Jan. 8.
--There is no new movement here or up the river. It is believed that Jackson has been joined by Generals Anderson and Loring's Brigades, and gone to attack Gen. Kelly. All eyes are now turned towards Romney. Jackson's rebel force probably exceeds ten thousand men.

Gen. Hamilton, of the Second Brigade, is recovering from a severe billions attack.

Last night was the coldest of the season here, but the troops are all comfortable, and make no complaints of hardships.

A report is current at Wheeling, that the enemy's forces were in full retreat from Hancock.

Gen. Shields and Senator M'Dougall--a Duel on the Tapis.

A card was recently published in the Northern journals from General Shields, pronouncing ‘"utterly false"’ an allegation of Senator McDougall, of California, that he (Shields) was a Secessionist. The Senator is out in the following rejoinder:

Astor House, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1862.
I am advised that a question has been made concerning a statement made by me at Jacksonville, Illinois. Not having the paper making that statement before me, I can only now repeat what I proposed to state at Jacksonville. What I then intended to say was that Mr. James Shields, in the fall of 1860, stated to me at San Francisco, California, that he approved the secession of the Southern (cotton) States; that he thought they had just cause for secession, that the South had both the will and the power to achieve success, and that it was sound policy to favor them. If it is supposed that in discharging my official duty as a Senator of the United States, in acting upon the nomination of Mr. Shields as a Brigadier General, I can be influenced by menace, I trust that all such hopes will prove unfounded.

In connection with the above, the New York correspondent of the Baltimore Clipper, under date of January 7th, says:

‘ In consequence of the allegation on the part of Senator McDougal, of California, that Gen. Shields was a Secessionist at heart, it is rumored in first circles to-day, that billet doux have passed between these gentlemen for a trial of skill with pistols, at a convenient ‘"pinking"’ distance. Senator McDougal is sojourning at the Astor House here, and Gen. Shields is in Washington. Considerable anxiety is manifested on the part of the friends of the above gentleman, as to how the matter will end.

State of Affairs in Missouri--burning of Austin — Exasperation of Union men, &c.

Sedalia, Mo., Jan. 7.
--An express messenger from Col. Nugent's regiment, stationed at West Point, in Bates county, arrived here yesterday evening, on his way to St. Louis, with important dispatches to Gov. Gamble. He left Bates county on Friday, and reports that Col. Jennison had burned the village of Austin, in Cass county, instead of Rose Hill. Jennison, after leaving Austin, went in a northeasterly direction.

The Union men in Johnson county were so much exasperated at the entourages that have been committed by the Secessionists that nothing but the presence of the Federal troops will save the towns of Lexington and Warrensburg from being burned. The movements of Col. Jennison are kept secret, but enough is known to warrant the opinion that certain notorious rebels in Johnson county and their dupes will be bagged.

A Government train of about twenty wagons and seventy-five men is reported to have been captured about five miles northeast of Georgetown by a party of rebels. The intelligence was conveyed to Col. Thayer, of the First Nebraska regiment, at Georgetown, who promptly dispatched a party in pursuit.

St. Louis, Jan. 7.--In consequence of disproportionate assessment having been made on the Secessionists of this city, under order No. 24, Gen. Halleck has appointed a new Board of Assessors to revise the old list, and make such changes as they may deem proper. All other proceedings will be in accordance with the original order, and the Board are enjoined to assess no individual unjustly, as there will be no farther appeal from their decision.

The is no doubt that Wm. A. Hall, is elected to Congress from the Third, and Thomas S. Price from the Fifth district.

The demand Treasury notes.

Washington, Jan.
--The bill matured by the Committee of Ways and Means, authorizing the issue of demand Treasury notes, provided that, for temporary purposes the Secretary be authorized to issue on the credit of the United States, $100,000,000 of them, and bearing interest, payable generally without specifying any place or time of payment, and of such denominations as he may deem expedient not loss than $5 each; and such notes and all other Treasury notes payable on demand, and bearing interest, that have been heretofore authorized to be issued, shall be received for all debts and demands due to the United States, and for all salaries, debts and demands, owing by the United States to individuals, corporations and associations

within the United States; and shall also be lawful money, and a legal tender in payment of all debts, public and private, and shall be exchangeable in sums not less than $100, at any time, at their par value at the Treasury of the United States, and at the offices of the Assistant Treasurers in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and at the depositories in Cincinnati, for any of the 6 per cent twenty years coupon bonds or registered bonds, which the Secretary of the Treasury is now or may hereafter be authorized to issue, and such Treasury notes shall be received the same as coin, at their parvule, in payment for any bonds that may be hereafter negotiated by the Secretary of the Treasury, and such Treasury notes may be re-issued from time to time, as the exigencies of the public service may require. There shall be printed on the back of the Treasury notes which may be issued under the provisions of this act, the following words: ‘"The within note is a legal tender in payment, of all debts, public and private, and is exchangeable for the coupons or registered bonds of the United States, bearing 6 per cent. interest."’

The Satanic Jacobin clubs at work to Overthrow the Government.

Under the above caption the New York Herald, of the 9th inst., has a scathing editorial, from which we make the following extract:

‘ We learn from the Boston Liberator that a meeting was held in Massachusetts of a Jacobin revolutionary club to ‘"supersede"’ the President, as was recommended in the beginning of the war by the ‘"Little Villain"’ of the New York Times, and he has been openly threatened by the Tribune and other Abolition journals frequently since. The Government has been also warned publicly by audacious demagogues in Congress and by itinerant lecturers that it stands upon a precipice, liable to be dashed to pieces at any moment unless it will yield to their fanatical one idea. Intimations of an equally menacing nature have been made in secret to the President and his Cabinet by the leaders of the Jacobin clubs. The object of these threats is to intimidate the President into a compliance with their infamous demands.

One portion of the agencies used by the clubs is the manufacture of public opinion by means of lectures in favor of their revolutionary views, and instilling them among the generals and subordinate officers of the army, in order to corrupt their minds, and render them disloyal to the government and the constitution. Washington has been specially selected for the purpose, and the Smithsonian Institute is prostituted to the treason. Already Brownson, Channing, Sumner, and Greeley have lectured, and the next, is to be Cheever, then Beecher, Curtis, and Wendell Phillips. Such are the dyed-in-the-wool abolition propagandists who, at the very seat of government, are tainting the army and its officers with their revolutionary ideas.

New York money matters.

The New York Herald, of the 9th inst., has the following:

‘ The upward movements in gold continue; most of the brokers quote it 4 per cent. premium. Exchange is also better; the best bills are held at 114½a115, but, as usual on Wednesdays, there is nothing doing.

The money market is easier. We hear of several loans at six per cent., though seven is still the regular rate. Paper is scarce, the best going is what brokers are beginning to call ‘"shoddy paper"’--viz: acceptances of merchants and bankers here drawn against goods made in the country for government use.

Stocks were less active to-day than yesterday, but there was a great deal of outside buying nevertheless. At the opening in the morning stocks were very firm and tended upwards. On the call, however, an increase supply came from some of the jobbers, and prices gave way a fraction, closing weak.

Among the State stocks, North Carolinas rose ½, and Missouri ¼ Virginias declined ½. It is curious that the bonus of Virginia, which owes $45,000,000, is thoroughly ruined by the war, and cannot for many years, It ever, pay her interest, are selling at eight per cent. above the bonds of Missouri, which only owes $25,000,000, and will probably came out of the war a free State, with greater resources and greater capabilities of wealth than any other State of the West.

Demanding railroad fare from soldiers — a Desperate row in a train of cars.

The New York correspondent of the Baltimore Clipper, of the 8th inst., says:

‘ On Monday, a squad of soldiers, twenty in number, made an attack on the conductor of a passenger train at Bridgeport, because the conductor demanded their fare. Some half dozen bayonets were drawn upon him, when, with great presence of mind, be wrested one from the hands of the holder and defended himself. Others of the passengers came to his rescue with clubs of wood, while the engineer threatened to decapitate the mutineers with his axe. At one time, four or five of the volunteers had hold of the conductor at once, but he being a powerful man, and armed with the seized bayonet. was able to defend himself. The excitement on board was, of course, very great, but order was finally restored by all, save one, paying their fare. This one was put off the cars, and the train proceeded on to Hartford.

Latest from Cairo — Federal reconnaissance--Mature of a Confederate Major.

Cairo, Jan. 8.
--Flag Officer Foote, with the gun-boats Essex, Lexington, and Tyler, made a reconnaissance down the Mississippi yesterday morning. He went within 200 yards of the range of the rebel batteries. On his return, he was fired at by the rebel gun-boat Mohawk, to which he replied, but the shots all fell short.

The flag officer is highly satisfied with the reconnaissance, and has examined all points on the river as near as two miles to Columbus.

A despatch from Cape Girardeau yesterday, says that a detachment of the Seventh Illinois Cavalry, while scouting, had captured Major Williams, of Jeff. Thompson's band.

The Surveyor of the port of Metropolis has seized a large quantity of gold face, morphine, and other costly drugs, intended for the rebels. The goods were from Cincinnati.

The English war vessel which arrived at Annapolis, Md., on the 6th inst, is still anchored off the harbor. As yet none of the officers or crew have gone ashore.

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