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Late Northern news.

From our Northern files, of the 12th inst., we gather the following varied and interesting intelligence:

"the very age and body of the times."

Among the arrivals at the Port of New York to-day is the brig Lincoln, from Havana, with a cargo of turpentine. As turpentine is not a West India product, the question is where did the Lincoln's cargo come from? The presumption naturally is that it has been run through the blockade, taken to Havana, and thence re-shipped here. This is the second case of the kind which has happened lately.

The Harriot Lane, King Philip, and Jacob Bell left the Navy-Yard this afternoon for the flotilla. The Jacob Bell had new bollers made for her, but time would not admit of their being taken on board, and she left with the old boller patched.

The principal event in the Senate to-day was the presentation of a petition, signed by 20,000 persons, asking that homeopathic physicians may be employed in the army. The medical faculty are watching anxiously the effect of this alopathic dose.

Orders have recently been issued by the War Department which positively forbid army officers from going home on leave of absence. The exigencies of the service require their constant presence with their commands.

Late dispatches from New Mexico state that the rebels, 2,500 strong, are within thirty miles of Fort Craig, but that Col. Can by felt able to make a successful resistance. It is reported that a considerable force of Texans are advancing up the Rio Pecos to attack Fort Union. An express had been sent to Denver City for reinforcements, and the Colorado troops would probably march Immediately. Martial law has been proclaimed in that Territory, and all able-bodied men drafted to serve in the militia.

The Navy Department has received official notice from Capt. Dupout of the sinking of the second stone fleet off Charleston, in that portion of Maffitt's Channel between Rattlesuake Shoal and the shore, through which the rebel steamer Isabel escaped on her last trip. Capt. Dupout states that there are two passages in the harbor still open — the Swash Channel, and that portion of Maffitt's Channel lying outside the Shoals.

Capt. Dupout states: ‘"The department is misinformed, I infer, from a letter received last night, as to the Isabel getting into Charleston by the main channel, where the previous fleet was sunk. The obstruction there is complete, and has not been removed by the last gales, the water breaking clear across. The Isabel got in by Maffitt's Channel, and as that portion of it included between Rattlesnake Shoal and the shore has been blocked up by the second stone fleet, the possibility of getting into Charleston is still more circumscribed, the only channels remaining being the Swash and a portion of Maffitt's, and I have never less than three vessels covering them, and which now ride out the gales at anchor."’

A letter from Mr. Seward to Smith O'Brien has been published. Mr. O'Brien is urged, if he would promote the cause of America, of Great Britain, and of humanity at large, to speak and act for the American Union.

Ex-Governor Joseph A. Wright, of Indiana, is talked of as the successor of Jesse D. Bright in the United States Senate. Mr. Wright is a Democrat, and was at one time very strong in his partizan feelings. The old Whig papers used to say that Bright was never right and Wright was not bright.

That Abolition agitator, Dr. Cheever, is busy all over the country at his diabolical work, and flits about from New York to Harrisburg, and from Harrisburg to Washington, like an evil spirit. It reflects no credit upon Congress that Cheever is allowed to preach in the House of Representatives. He is one of the fanatics who have caused this war, and what he calls his ‘"sermons"’ are in reality abolition harangues, as offensive to the Almighty as to the conservative public. All public halls should be closed against this villainous agitator, and the newspapers should refuse to publish a word of his disunion orations.

A bid providing for the emancipation of slaves, with compensation to the owners, is now before the Legislature of Delaware. By this bill it is provided that all slaves over thirty-five years of age shall be freed within ninety days after it becomes a law; all under thirty-five shall become free on reaching that age; all males born after the bill becomes a law are to be slaves until they are twenty-one, and females till they are eighteen; and all slavery is to cease after January 1, 1872. These provisions are made conditional upon this, that ‘"Congress will, at its present session, engage to pay to the State of Delaware, in bonds of the United States, bearing interest at the rate of six per centum per annum, the sum of $900,000, in ten annual instalments, $90,000 to be payable on some day before the first day of September, 1862, to establish a fund for securing full and fair compensation to the owners of slaves who shall have been divested of their property by force of the act in question."’ Delaware has, according to the census of 1860, eighteen hundred and five slaves, and the sum asked of Congress for their gradual emancipation amounts to $500 a head, which is a fair price.

The Herald is unfortunate in its Washington corrrespondents. It has dismissed two in the last few months, and to day its last appointee, and a recent editor, was arrested by Secretary Stanton's orders as a spy. It is charged that Dr. Ives, after forcing his way into the offices of the War Department, read certain telegraphic dispatches there, and became unlawfully possessed of Government secrets. His secession connections and sympathies, as well as the former secession record of the Herald, made him the object of just suspicion. His threat to black ball the Administration unless his demands for information in regard to the secret movements of the Government were complied with, were supposed to have been dictated by the Herald office, and hence he was regarded as a more dangerous enemy. Ives's friends say he was only carrying out the orders of his employers, and that Bennett himself is the one that should be arrested and treated as a spy. Ives was taken to Fort McHenry at 6 o'clock Monday morning.

The successes which have lately been achieved by our army will prove a more effectual check to hostile action on the part of European Governments than any other influence we could exert. When the news reaches the Old World of our triumph at Mill Springs, the capture of Fort Henry, the success of General Burnside, notwithstanding the numerous obstacles he was unexpectedly obliged to encounter, and of the great preparations we have made for hemming in the enemy upon all sides, there will, we hope, be little disposition to sustain the infamous conspiracy which is now gasping in the last stages of a rapid decline.

There are now at Leavenworth, Kansas, some fifteen thousand troops, with a large supply of cavalry and a fair proportion of artillery. The entire force that will accompany Gen. Hunter in his expedition will consist of about thirty-four thousand troops, and as they will march to the west of Missouri, through the Cherokee Nation, and enter Arkansas below Van Buren, it is supposed that they will have no difficulty in obtaining subsistence. They expect to march to the Cherokee Nation in ten days after leaving Leavenworth.

The arrest of Gen. Stone for treason has taken the troops on the Upper Potomac by surprise. There is little regret, however, that Gen. Gorman succeeds him in command, at least temporarily.

The Senate has confirmed George W. Palmer of New York, Consul to Canada, and James R. Partridge, of Maryland, Minister Resident at Honduras.

This evening the officers of the Irish brigade gave a grand banquet in honor of their new Commander, Gen. Thomas F. Meagher.

Fortress Monroe, Feb. 10, 1862.
Ten deserting contrabands came to Camp Hamilton this afternoon, having been found by a scouting party under Capt. Donovan, of the 16th Massachusetts regiment. One was a member of the Black Virginia cavalry, who were engaged in the skirmish at New Market Bridge, on the 22d of December, with Max Weber's regiment. He was completely armed with carbine, pistol, &c., and had a considerable amount of rebel money. They represent a great scarcity of provisions.

Proceedings of the Federal Congress.

Washington, Feb. 11.
--Mr. Crittenden, by unanimous consent, presented a petition from Philadelphia, signed by the first men of that city, proposing that on the 22d of February, Washington's Farewell Address be read in one of the houses of Congress, by the President of the Senate or speaker of the House, in the presence of both branches, and that the President, the members of the Cabinet, ex-Presidents of the United States, the Judges of the Supreme Court, the officers of the army and navy, and all distinguished citizens, be invited to attend; that the proceedings of the day, including the prayer and the address, be printed in pamphlet form and largely distributed; that the address or portions of it be read at the head of the armies and on shipboad, as the highest incentive to our brave defenders. The petitioners also pray that Congress pass a joint resolution to carry the above into effect. Mr. Crittenden offered a joint resolution to refer the petition to a select committee of five, and that they report thereon. An amendment, that the Declaration of Independence, and Secretary Stanton's order to the army after the victory at Mill Springs, be read at the same time, was agreed to, and the resolution adopted.

The following are the resolutions intro-

duced into the United States Senate by Mr. Sumner, of Massachusetts, for ‘"wiping out the rebel States:"’

Whereas, Certain States, rightfully belonging to the Union of the United States, have, through their respective Governments, wickedly undertaken to abjure all those duties by which their connection with the Union was maintained, to renounce all allegiance to the Constitution, to levy war upon the National Government, and, for the consummation of this treason, have unconstitutionally and unlawfully confederated together, with the declared purpose of putting an end, by force, to the supremacy of the Constitution within their respective limits; and whereas, this condition of insurrection, organized by pretended Governments, openly exists in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Virginia, except in Eastern Tennessee and Western Virginia, and has been declared by the President of the United States, in a proclamation duly made in conformity with an act of Congress, to exist throughout this territory, with the exceptions already named; and whereas, the extensive territory thus usurped by these pretended Governments and organized into a hostile Confederacy, belongs to the United States, as an inseparable part thereof, under the sanctions of the Constitution, to be held in trust for the inhabitants in the present and future generations, and is so completely interlinked with the Union that it is forever dependent thereupon; and whereas, the Constitution, which is the supreme law of the land, cannot be displaced in its rightful operation within this territory, but must ever continue the supreme law thereof notwithstanding the doings of any pretended Governments, acting singly or in the confederation, in order to put an end to its supremacy: Therefore,

Resolved, That any vote of secession or other act by which any State may undertake to put an end to the supremacy of the Consitution within its territory is inoperative and void against the Constitution, and when sustained by force it becomes a practical abdication by the State of all rights under the Constitution, while the treason which it involves still further works instant forfeiture of all those functions and powers essential to the continued existence of the State as a body politic, so that from that time forward the territory falls under the exclusive jurisdiction of Congress as other territory, and the State being, according to the language of the law, felo de se, ceases to exist.

Resolved, That any combination of men assuming to act in the place of such State, and attempting to ensnare or coerce the inhabitants thereof into a confederation hostile to the Union, is rebellious, treasonable, and destitute of all moral authority; and that such combination is a usurpation, incapable of any constitutional existence, and utterly lawless, so that everything dependent upon it is without consitutional or legal support.

Resolved, That the termination of a State under the Constitution necessarily causes the termination of those peculiar local institutions which, having no origin in the Constitution or in those natural rights which exist independent of the Constitution, are upheld by the sole and exclusive authority of the State.

Resolved, That slavery being a peculiar local institution, derived from local laws without any origin in the Constitution or in natural rights, is upheld by the sole and exclusive authority of the State, and must, therefore cease to exist legally or constitutionally when the State on which it depends no longer exists; for the incident cannot survive the principle.

Resolved, That in the exercise of its exclusive jurisdiction over the territory once occupied by the States, it is the duty of Congress to see that the supremacy of the Constitution is maintained in its essential principles, so that everywhere in this extensive territory slavery shall cease to exist practically, as it has already ceased to exist constitutionally or legally.

Resolved, That any recognition of slavery in such territory, or any surrender of slaves under the pretended laws of the extinct States, civil or military, is a recognition of the pretended Governments, to the exclusion of the jurisdiction of Congress under the Constitution, and is in the nature of aid and comfort to the rebellion that has been organized.

Resolved, That any such recognition of slavery or surrender of pretended slaves, besides being a recognition of the pretended Governments, giving them aid and comfort, is a denial of the rights of persons who, by the extinction of the States, have become free, so that, under the Constitution, they cannot again be enslaved.

Resolved, That allegiance from the inhabitant and protection from the Government are corresponding obligations dependent upon each other; so that, while the allegiance of every inhabitant of this territory, without distinction of color or class, is due to the United States, and cannot in any way be defeated by the action of any pretended Government, or by any pretence of property or claim to service, the corresponding obligation of protection is at the same time due, by the United States, to every such inhabitant, without distinction of color or class; and it follows that inhabitants held as slaves, whose paramount allegiance is due to the United States, may justly look to the National Government for protection.

Resolved, That the duty directly cast upon Congress by the extinction of the States is reinforced by the positive prohibition of the Constitution, that ‘"no State shall enter into any confederation,"’ or, ‘"without the consent of Congress, keep troops or ships-of-war in time of peace, or enter into any agreement or compact with another State,"’ or ‘"grant letters of marque and reprisal,"’ or ‘"coin money,"’ or ‘"emit bills of credit,"’ or, ‘"without the consent of Congress, lay any duties on imports or exports,"’ all of which have been done by these pretended Governments; and also by the positive injunction of the Constitution, addressed to the nation, that ‘"the United States, shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of Government;"’ and that, in pursuance of this duty cast upon Congress, and further enjoined by the Constitution, Congress will assume complete jurisdiction of such vacated territory, where such unconstitutional and illegal things have been attempted, and will proceed to establish therein republican forms of Government under the Constitution; and in the execution of this trust, will provide carefully for the protection of all the inhabitants thereof, for the security of families, the organization of labor, the encouragement of industry, and the welfare of society, and will in every way discharge the duties of a just, merciful, and paternal Government.

The Treasury Note bill.

The Senate Finance Committee has agreed upon sundry amendments to the House Treasury Note Bill. Among them are: To strike out the declaration that the authorization to issue $150,000,000 is to meet the necessities of the Treasury and to provide a currency receivable for the public dues, and to insert that the notes shall be receivable in payment of all public dues and demands of every description, and of all claims and demands against the United States of every kind whatsoever, except for interest upon bonds and notes, which shall be paid in coin, and shall also be lawful money, and a legal tender in payment of all debts, public and private, within the United States, except interest as aforesaid.

The stone blockade--Lord Lyons to Earl Russell.

Washington, Jan. 14, (received Jan. 27.)
My Lord:Three days ago, in obedience to your lordship's orders, I spoke to Mr. Seward on the subject of the plan adopted by this Government of obstructing the entrance to some of the harbors in the Southern States, by sinking vessels, laden with stones, in the channels.

Mr. Seward observed that it was altogether a mistake to suppose that this plan had been devised with a view to injure the barbors permanently. It was, he said, simply a temporary military measure adopted to aid the blockade. The Government of the United States had last spring, with a navy very little prepared for so extensive an operation, undertaken to blockade upwards of three thousand miles of coast. The Secretary of the Navy had reported that he could stop up the ‘"large holes"’ by means of his ships, but that he could not stop up the ‘"small ones."’ It had been found necessary, therefore, to close some of the numerous small inlets by sinking vessels in the channels. It would be the duty of the Government of the United States to remove all these obstructions as soon as the Union was restored. It was well understood that this was an obligation incumbent on the Federal Government. At the end of the war with Great Britain that Government had been called upon to remove a vessel which had been sunk in the harbor of Savannah, and had recognized the obligation and removed the vessel accordingly. Moreover, the United States were now engaged in a civil war with the South. He was not prepared to say that, as an operation in war, it was unjustifiable to destroy permanently the harbors of the enemy; but nothing of the kind had been done on the present occasion. Vessels had been sunk by the rebels to prevent the access to their ports of the cruisers of the United States. The same measure had been adopted by the United States in order to make the blockade complete. When the war was ended the removal of all these obstructions would be a more matter of expense; there would be no great difficulty in removing them effectually. Besides, as had already been done in the case of Port Royal, the United States

would open better harbors than those which they closed.

I asked Mr. Seward whether the principal entrance to Charleston harbor had not been recently closed altogether by vessels sunk by order of this Government; and I observed to him that the opening of a new port, thirty or forty miles off would hardly console the people of the large town of Charleston for the destruction of their own harbor.

Mr. Seward said that the best proof he could give me that the harbor of Charleston had not been rendered inaccessible was, that in spite of the sunken vessels and of the blockading squadrons, a British steamer, laden with contraband of war, had just succeeded in getting in. I have, &c. Lyons.

Foreign intervention.

Of Foreign intervention the Herald says:

‘ From the brief abstract of the French Emperor's speech which has reached us by the Jura, there would appear to be no immediate purpose on his part of breaking the blockade. We must not, however, trust too implicitly to the ambiguous assurances that he has employed in his address to the Corps Legislatif. It is true the State Department at Washington gives out that there is no reason to apprehend that either England or France has any intention of interfering with us. According to it everything continues secure at the other side, so far as our interests are concerned.--The State Department is very wrong to circulate such statements. It is only deceiving the public with false impressions of the real condition of things, just as it sought to deceive us in the affair of the Trent. Were it not for the newspapers the public both here and in England would have been left in ignorance up to the last moment of the purpose of the Government in regard to the surrender of Mason and Slidell. It is from the ministerial journals abroad and the private letters received by commercial houses here that the disposition of both Governments can best be judged of. The tone of these continues to be anything but reassuring. The only security we have against foreign interference is to press on military operations as speedily as can be done with safety, so that we may be able to crush out the rebellion before the two Governments can find a decent pretext for intervention.

England can wait.

The London Times again warns the British Cabinet against active intervention in American affairs, and says that England can afford to wait. This seems to be enunciated in rather an unfriendly spirit towards our Government, for the writer adds that the Federals and Confederates are spending about ten millions of dollars a week in looking at each other across the Potomac. The Times also alleges that England has been true to her position on neutral and maritime rights all through the discussion of the Trent affair.

Russia — the emancipation question.

St. Petersburg, Jan. 31, 1862.
--The Northern Post says that great dissatisfaction and impatience are felt by the nobility at the emancipation of the serfs, especially on account of the unpunctual payment of the contributions by the peasants. Government having guaranteed the contributions, will keep its word, but the transition requires time.

The nobility must accept the new state of things and assist the Government. The solution lies in the final achievement of the emancipation. The extension of the people's participation in the administration depends on the nobility, who can facilitate or obstruct the intention of the Government in this respect.

Citizens of rebel States in Federal courts.

The following interesting case has been decided in the New York Supreme Court:

‘ Feb. 8.--Thomas C. Bonneau vs. W. B. Dinsmore et al.--The plaintiff sued the defendent on a promissory note. Defendant set up that the plaintiff, being a citizen of South Carolina and an alien enemy, could not recover. The plaintiff demurred to the answer, on the ground that while defendant alleged that he (plaintiff) was an alien enemy, he still admitted that he was a citizen of the United States. The Judge overruled the demurrer for the reasons contained in the following opinion:

Judge Gould--The answer in this case sets up for a defence that the plaintiff is an alien enemy. Of course, if such is the fact, the defence is sufficient. But the plaintiff claims that in pleading the defence the defendant has stated facts which do not make the plaintiff an alien enemy, but, on the contrary, show that he is a citizen of the United States, and in all respects entitled to sue in our courts. Then the answer says that the plaintiff is a citizen of and now resident in the State of South Carolina, which State is in a state of actual hostility to and in open war with the United States. To which the plaintiff (in argument) replies that the hostilities are those of an insurrection, and the United States claim to be still sovereign over the whole territory, South Carolina included, and that no State court can say that the citizens of South Carolina, though having levied actual war against the General Government, are alien enemies. There is a sense in which this reply is technically correct, but it is not the sense in which is founded the rule which in any case makes the defence spoken of a valid one. An enemy is not allowed to enforce (in our courts) the collection of any claims against our own citizens, because (in the words of Chief Justice Ellsworth, in the case of Hamilton against Eaton, before the United States Circuit Court in North Carolina in 1792) ‘"it would be dangerous to admit him into the country or to correspond with agents in it; and also because a transfer of treasure from the country to his would diminish the ability of the former and increase that of the latter to prosecute the war."’ The whole ground of excluding a public enemy from our courts is one exclusively of public policy, and whenever public policy would carry the rule the courts should be bound by it. This reason for the rule applies in full force and in every particular to the case before the court, and the plaintiff is completely within the undoubted spirit of the prohibition which suspends his remedy while leaving his claim to remain untouched and liable to be revived and recovered after hostilities are ended. Of course this view is based upon the concession (by demurring to the answer, that the facts are correctly stated by the defendants. There is a further ground for holding the plaintiff within the real disability to sue in our courts, which is intended to be arserted by this answer. By act of Congress, passed July 15, 1861, the President of the U. States was authorized to declare by proclamation, any State or States ‘"in insurrection against the United States,"’ under certain circumstances, and that whenever he so declared, ‘"thereupon all commercial intercourse by and between the same and the citizens thereof and the citizens of the rest of the United States shall cease, and be unlawful so long as such condition of hostility shall continue."’ In pursuance of this act, the President, by proclamation, declared the State of South Carolina to be in such a state of hostility, and expressly stated that all commercial intercourse with that State was unlawful. There should be no question that the endeavors to enforce commercial rights — the attempts to collect the avails of prior commercial transactions — come completely within the spirit of this restriction, and that under a proper construction of this act it is unlawful to allow a citizen of that rebellious State (especially one alleged to be himself in hostility to the Government) to enforce any such remedy in our courts. The demurrer should be overruled, with costs.

The Federals in Western Virginia.

The Wheeling Press, of the 10th inst., says:

‘ So soon as the roads will permit, and concert of action from Banks's column can be secured, no doubt the country will be entirely cleared between Romney and Winchester by two distinct detachments diverging at Moorfield, and uniting thereafter at the junction of the Moorfield and Northwestern turnpike with the main body of the forces, which will take the direct road via Blue's Gap.

With complete preparations of force, and equipage, and a clearance of all the region roundabout, as they progress, there is no doubt but a union of the forces of Lander from Romney, Banks from Martinsburg, and Wilson from Hancock, could be accomplished within two days from the commencement of their movements. The enemy, however, will probably be prepared for the attack, as they cannot have made their last retreat from Romney with any other expectation, and their facilities for procuring reinforcements are ample. So we may expect to hear of a heavy engagement near or at Winchester, as soon as the weather will permit.

’ The Wheeling Intelligencer, of the 10th instant, says:

‘ There were rumors afloat in the city on Saturday and yesterday, as to the movements of our troops in the vicinity of Romney. It was said that a considerable number of the enemy were surrounded at Blue's Gap, and would certainly be taken. It is certain that a general advance has been made by our troops from Patterson's Creek, New Creek and other points, but whether it was to get out of the mud or engage the enemy in battle, we, of course, do not know, and shall have to await reliable information.

Ferderick, Md., Feb. 10.--Everything has been quiet along Colonel Geary's line since the prompt retribution for the murder of Rohr. The indignation here and along the river at the dastardly act is intense, and a hasty punishment will be inflicted upon the individual perpetrators if they are caught. Mr. Rohr's body was interred here yesterday. The funeral services were performed in the

German Reformed church, in the presence of a large number of officers, citizens and soldiers.

Cincinnati, Feb. 11.--A special dispatch from Indianapolis to the Commercial says that two men were arrested at Princeton, Ind. a few days since, by the Surveyor of the port. Upon searching the persons, their clothing and boot legs were found wadded with letters for parties in the South, many of them from Europe. One of them had a large amount of gold on his person.

Reinforcements have gone forward from Danville and Somerset to support General Thomas in his movement on Knoxville.

The statement of an escaped Confederate soldier.

I have been conversing this morning with Mr. Wm. Barr, who came from Port Royal a few days ago. Mr. Barr is a citizen of Philadelphia, and has been residing in the South for some years. He went to Savannah nearly three years since, where he was employed in the house of Messrs. Williams & Roach.--Before the war broke out he was a member of the Irish Volunteers, a local military company, to which he belonged when Fort Sumter fell. It was thought in Savannah that the war was a more temporary difficulty, but after the battle of Bull Run the volunteer companies were mustered into the service of the Confederate States. The feeling in favor of the rebellion was so strong that it was impossible for a Union man to come to the North, or avoid impressment into the rebel service. Speaking of the general feeling among the Irish and Germans, he thinks there is a deep, latent Union feeling; but the general poverty of their condition, and their subordinate social position, rendered them in the power of the Secession leaders.

Mr. Barr was anxious to come to the North, but he was transferred to Tybee Island. When the loyalists captured Hilton Head he was transferred to Fort Pulaski, where he was made a corporal of the guard. After remaining there until December 20th he made up his mind to desert. He cut a raft of timber from its moorings during the day, and permitted it to float over to Tybee Island where our forces are in possession. About six o'clock in the evening he was on picket duty at the wharf under the fort. He told the men under him he would paddle out into the bay and obtain some oysters on which they could mess. He got into the boat and kept on his course to Tybee Island. He landed on the muddy shore, and was hailed by the pickets of a German regiment, who, not understanding his English, levelled their pieces. He surrendered, and was sent to Gen. Wright, who sent him on board the Savannah.

He acquainted the captain with the fact that the English steamer Warsaw was attempting to run the blockade. A gunboat was sent up to the bar and kept it from crossing. It is now hemmed in, and will not be permitted to proceed on its voyage.

He states that Fort Pulaski is provisioned for two months, and well defended, but that all supplies are cut off. Tamall is there with a mosquito fleet of three boats. The fort now contains forty-six guns, five mortars, and one rifled cannon. Major Clinstead commands. He thinks there will be an attack on Savannah very soon, and that it can be taken. Fort Jackson is the only intervening defence. It mounts twelve guns, is open and exposed, and may be easily reduced.

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