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Latest from the North.

We have full files of Northern papers of the 18th instant, including New York, Philadelphia Baltimore, Washington and Boston papers. A letter from on board the U. S. steamer Bibb gives the report that Charleston, S. C., has been completely invested and Fort Sumter has already received ‘"a preliminary does of shell which resulted in serious damage."’ The Philadelphia Inquirer, commenting on this Munchausen, says it is an even which has been ‘"long and anxiously desired by the people of the United States." ’ The funeral of General Reno, who was killed at South Mountain, was to take place in Boston, Friday. Com. John Percival, U. S. N., died at Roxbury, Mass, last week. About 1,400 Confederate prisoners arrived in Baltimore, Wednesday night. They were to be sent to Fort Delaware. The U. S. Arsenal at Allegheny, Pa., exploded on the 17th, killing 75 persons. Many of them were burned to death in the ruins. We give the Northern accounts of the late battles in Maryland, which are filled with an unusual quantity of lies:

The fight at Sharpsburg--Northern reports say Longstreet and D. H. Hill are prisoners.

The New York papers of the 18th are filled with confused dispatches from Washington about the fight at Sharpsburg. The Herald, in its summary says:

‘ The total rout of the rebels at Sharpsburg by Gen. McClellan yesterday is reported, and their fight across the Potomac at that point. On Monday morning Gen. Pleasanton came up with their rear guard at Boonesboro', and drove them out capturing two guns and killing thirty of the enemy.--Gen. Richardson, who was in the advance, followed up the rebels, and found them in line of battle, in the afternoon, on the hills near Sharpsburg. While endeavoring to discover their strength and the full nature of their position, which occupied the evening, the greater portion of the army came up. The result was a desperate engagement at Sharpsburg yesterday, which is said to have been a glorious victory for our arms, terminating in a disorderly flight of the rebel army across the river.

’ A dispatch in the Philadelphia Inquirer, dated Hagerstown, the 17th says Gen. Longstreet was not killed, but was wounded and taken prisoner. Gen. Hooker of the Federal army was wounded in the foot, and Maj. Gen. Reno shot through the heart, expiring in a few moments. It adds the report that Gen. D. H. Hill is killed. It says:

‘ The cannonading, on Tuesday afternoon, was very heavy, and continued with some intermission long after nightfall.

On this (Wednesday) morning it was resumed at daybreak with such violence and rapidly, that the people of the vicinity, who have watched the progress of the five days contest, say it was entirely unprecedented.

It was one continuous battle of heavy guns, and from the position I occupied, Gen. McClellan's right appeared to rest on Sharpsburg, and his left on Catoctin creek. The rebels destroyed a bridge over this creek yesterday, but Gen. McClellan had it rebuilt during the night.

The position occupied by General McClellan appears to be an advantageous one, his guns seeming to be stationed on a range of hills, from the apex of which the little clouds of white smoke rolled up in the distance, marking distinctly the line of conflict.

The cannonading commenced at daylight, and was heard distinctly up to 1 o'clock, causing the impression that the great battle of the campaign was in progress.

The wounded were being carried towards Hagerstown and Boonsboro', so that little could be heard direct from the field, in the direction of Middletown.

The reports that were received from the scene of conflict were highly favorable, our forces having at the time the best position, and the battle being principally with artillery in which we have a great superiority.

Soldiers who were on the field during Tuesday, state that the battle was participated in entirely by artillery on that day. It commenced early in the morning and continued until late at night.

General McClellan, at the close of the day, had driven them about half a mile, and obtained an elevated position, from which he was operating to-day.

The fight yesterday was, however, sharply contested by the enemy, and it was only at the close of the day that the slight advantage mentioned was gained.

The rumors afloat were various, among which it was said that Jackson and Hill were again crossing the Potomac in the rear of General Lee, by way of Shepherdstown, thus coming back from Harper's Ferry to the succor of their commander.

This would be practicable, and the rapid manner in which they evacuated Harper's Ferry would indicate their sudden appearance at some point where least expected.

It is evident that General McClellan was pressing Gen. Lee to the river in such a manner that be can not much longer sustain himself unless relieved from the other side. His crossing, in the face of such a determined pressure, is simply impossible, and the events of to-day and to- morrow are likely to indicate the success or total failure of the campaign.

Harrisburg, Sept. 17, evening.-- [Special to the New York Herald]--Reports which have just come in state that the whole rebel army has been driven this way, and are retreating to Hagerstown.

Ten thousand Pennsylvania militia will meet the foe at Hagerstown to invade Pennsylvania backward.

A severe engagement occurred yesterday between our army and the rebels near Sharpsburg, in which the enemy was well thrashed with terrific slaughter. Five hundred of their dead were buried by us as early as 9 o'clock A. M. to-day and the work is still going on.

This morning the battle was recommences at 5 o'clock, near Gettysville.

Jackson joined Lee's forces at Natietam Creek, while our forces were reinforced by 80,000 men from Washington.

Jackson's reinforcements to Lee are reported at 40,000 men.

Up to my last advices victory illuminated our standard, and the impression prevails at Hagerstown that the whole rebel army of Virginia is annihilated.

Confidence prevails here, and the most enthusiastic admiration of McClellan and his army.

We have undoubtedly won great and decisive victories both yesterday and to-day.

Among our trophies are whole batteries and thousands of small arms, with a large number of prisoners.

The rebellion is virtually subdued.

The surrender of Harper's Ferry.--his Recapture — escape of Union cavalry.

The dispatches in the Northern papers state that Harper's Ferry was surrendered to the Confederates at 10 o'clock on Monday morning. One account of the siege says:

‘ On Saturday the rebels made an attack with artillery on our forces on the Maryland Heights. --This was supported by a large infantry force, and the fighting continued through the day. There were a good many killed and wounded during this fight on both sides. The rebels say they had only one brigade of infantry engaged in this battle.--Upon our side the infantry engaged was the Thirty-second Ohio. One Hundred and Twenty sixth New York, the First regiment Maryland Home Guards, Col. Mosely, and the Garibaldi Guards of New York. Other regiments were there, but the above named sustained the brunt of the fight.

About four P. M. our forces abandoned Maryland Heights, the rebels having been largely reinforced and overpowering them. The retreat was made in good order. The artillery was spiked and our wounded taken away. During the day the rebels made their appearance on Loudoun Heights, which is on the Virginia side, about a mile and a half from Harper's Ferry. Their signal corps appeared on the Block House, and commenced operations. They were shelled from Camp Hill, and at the third shell disappeared. They, however, continued to appear at this point at intervals through the day, notwithstanding our fire.

During Saturday they were planting batteries there, which would command both Bolivar Heights and Harper's Ferry. During Saturday afternoon the rebels also made their appearance in force on the Charleston turnpike. They were shelled from Bolivar Heights, but did not return the fire during all this time. It is understood that Col. Miles was in command during all this time. General White was present and engaged in the contest, but declined to take command, although it was tendered to him by Colonel Miles.

On Sunday morning there was infantry skirmishing on the Charlestown turnpike. The rebels also used artillery from the same direction; but little damage was done, and for two or three hours the fighting was almost entirely suspended. About two P. M. the enemy succeeded in getting their batteries in position on Loudoun Heights, and a heavy artillery fire was commenced by them simultaneously from Loudoun and Maryland Heights and from the direction of the Charlestown turnpike. The cannonading from this time until about sunset was terrific. Our batteries from Bolivar Heights, and, in fact, every gun that could be brought to bear upon the enemy replied. While this was taking place there was a general infantry engagement on the Charlestown turnpike. Nearly our whole force was engaged in this battle. The rebels were in very strong force, and the fight was desperate. While this was going on the Garibaldi Guard crossed the river and brought off the artillery left on the Maryland Heights, except the three siege guns.

During the night of Sunday the rebels had placed additional batteries in position, and at daylight Monday morning opened from seven or eight different points. They, in fact, completely surrounded the Union forces.

About S. A. M. Col. Miles was severely wounded in the left leg by a piece of shell. After this the command was assumed by Gen, White. Reinforce ments not coming up as had been anticipated, it was though useless to further continue the fight, and the works, with all the forces, &c., were surrendered at 10 A. M. by General White to General Hill.

’ The same account adds, that before the surrender the cavalry force, numbering 1,600, obtained permission to cut their way out, and succeeded in getting off. When near Williamsport, Md., they captured Longstreet's ammunition train. It says:

‘ The wagons were about half full, and most of them proved to be those taken from Gen. Pope's army at Centreville. They numbered about 50.--About 73 prisoners were captured at the same time, some of whom formerly lived in this vicinity. One of them is said to have attended a war meeting in Funkstown not a month ago, cheering and hurrahing for the Union, &c. Col. McClure, with other officers, had as much as they could do to keep the crowd from banging the double dyed traitors while they were on their way to prison.

The battle of Sunday.

It was in the battle of Sunday that Major Gen. Reno was killed. It took place at Frog Gap, about 12 miles from Frederick, on the Middletown turnpike. The forces engaged were Longstreet's and Hill's on the Confederate side, and Reno's corps d'armee, the Pennsylvania Reserve corps, and Rickett's and King's divisions on the Federal side. The ‘"rebels"’ were posted on the side of a mountain. An account in the New York Times says:

‘ Steadily onward went our long, unbroken line of infantry, until the right wing had gained a piece of woods on the mountain, a short distance from the base, when the Bucktails, who were skirmishing on the right, discovered the enemy's pickets.--A desultory rattling of musketry was next heard which indicated the commencement of the battle on the part of the infantry. The column from right to left still remained unbroken, and advanced cautiously but firmly up the steep. In a short time the enemy's main force was encountered, and then came heavy volleys of musketry on the right. The Pennsylvania Reserve corps and the 1st brigade of Rickett's division were now hotly engaging the enemy. The rebels stood their ground for a while, but after a contest of thirty minutes they wavered, and commenced falling back in disorder toward the summit of the mountains. Our troops pushed them vigorously, and kept up a continuous fire.

The valor displayed on this occasion by the Pa, Reserves, and the corps formerly under the command of McDowell, is deserving of the highest praise. Not a straggler could be seen on the field. Every man was at his post in the line. They all seemed determined to force back the enemy and take possession of the mountains, in spite of any opposition that might be placed in their way.--General Hooker, accompanied by his staff, was where he always is on such occasions — at the front. The line did not give way for an instant, but kept moving forward and upward, pouring volley after volley of musketry into the enemy's ranks, until at last the rebels broke and ran precipitately to the top of the mountain — thence down on the other side.

Reno's corps on the left did its part nobly. The men were called upon to do some severe fighting, and they performed their duty with a will and heroism seldom before displayed. The engagement on the left succeeded that on the right, and lasted about an hour and a half. The enemy contested every foot of ground, but eventually yielded it to the conquerors.

The centre column was the last to come into the action. The same success that marked the advance of the two wings also attended the centre.--At 6 P. M., after an engagement of three hours duration, the rebels fled, leaving the top of the mountain in possession of the Union troops. Darkness prevented us from pursuing the enemy further at the time.

Nearly a thousand prisoners fell into our hands. By one brilliant charge over two hundred prisoners were captured. It appears that one of the North Carolina brigades had been badly cut up by some Ohio regiments, (the latter also suffering severely,) when, probably burning with revenge, while their foes were engaged with other rebel regiments, they silently crept forward to a stone will, the other side of which the skirmish was going on, and opened a galling fire upon them.

The 12th and 23d Ohio were ordered to charge them, and, mounting the wall, for a few moments a desperate fight took place, the 12th Ohio being engaged with the 12th North Carolina, and the 23d Ohio engaging the 23d North Carolina. The fight soon terminated in favor of the gallant Ohio regiments, the enemy scattering in confusion. These regiments surrounded and captured about 130 of the rebels. They belonged to the 12th and 23d North Carolina regiments and 20th Alabama. The General commanding these troops was instantly killed by a shell which struck him on the head. His name was Garland.

The result of the battle secures to the Union troops a very important position, inasmuch as it commands the approaches on each side of the mountain; also, a vast area of the surrounding country. I estimate, as before stated, that two thousand will cover the list of our casualties. I think that the enemy's loss in killed and wounded will not exceed our own. Altogether we captured two thousand prisoners.

Gen. Reno was killed on the field of battle. At the time of the calamity he was observing, by aid of a glass, the enemy's movements. He was struck in the spine by a market ball — the ball lodging in the breast.

Monday morning. Sumner's corps came up from Frederick last night. During the night our forces slept on the mountain. Banks's and Porter's corps are on the turnpike between Frederick and the mountain. The exact position of the enemy this morning is not definitely known to us. It is supposed that he has retreated in the direction of Hagerstown. Our forces are now advancing rapidly and may possibly overtake him before night. The troops are in the best of spirits.

Battle of Monday--the pursuit of the Confederates.

The Baltimore American says that after the battle of Sunday the Confederates fell back rapidly to Boonesboro', and thence southward to Sharpsburg, and began crossing the Potomac above and below Shepherdstown. It adds:

The pursuit by our troops was rapid, Hooker following by way of Boonesboro', supported by Sumner and Banks, and capturing one thousand prisoners during the morning. The enemy breakfasted at Keedysville, three miles from Boonesboro', but our cavalry soon drove their rear quad from that place.

Porter's and Reno's corps took a shorter road over the mountain, and arrived at Sharpsburg at sundown, capturing hundreds of prisoners on the way.

Franklin's corps, supported by Couch's division, passed through Burkittsville Gap, which he captured so handsomely, striking the road leading direct from Boonesboro' to Harper's Ferry, and thence moving in the direction of the latter place, gaining Elk Ridge Mountain, which flanked the enemy's position, and brought them within good range of our artillery.

The mountains are full of straggling, starving, and demoralized Rebels, who are giving themselves up as fast as they can find their way into our lines.--On Thursday last, Jackson crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, and marched towards Harper's Ferry, which place he invested. On Saturday he captured Maryland Heights on the north, and Loudoun Heights on the south side of the river. On Sunday he attacked the Ferry, but was repulsed. On Monday morning at daylight be renewed the attack, and the place was surrendered by Gen. Dixon G. Miles at 7 o'clock. This disaster will enable the Rebels to cross the Potomac with the greater portion of their forces.

Yesterday evening, previous to this news, McClellan and Burnside were rapidly making such dispositions as would have resulted in the complete defeat or capture of nearly the entire rebel host.--Our troops pressed their rear hotly last evening, and the prospect was most brilliant, until we learned that Harper's Ferry was no longer ours. About three o'clock the pickets of General Howe's brigade captured one of General Stuart's aides who was on his way to General Lee's headquarters with a dispatch from Jackson, announcing the capitulation of the place yesterday morning. The enemy having got mainly across the river and into a strong position, a great battle will probably be deferred several days, until a new combination of movements is resolved upon.

The Union army is in splendid condition. The men are all in light marching order, with buoyant spirits over their success. Several regiments of new troops were in the fight of Sunday, and behaved with great bravery. The 17th Michigan, out only two weeks, fought till their ammunition was exhausted, then retired to their wagons in good order, refilled their boxes, returned, and made a terrible charge over a stone wall, and into the timber, almost annihilating Drayton's South Carolina brigade. Our total loss will probably not exceed twenty-five hundred in killed and wounded, with a very small proportion, of killed. I can learn of few field officers killed. The death of Gen. Reno is mourned throughout the whole army.

The Recapture of Harper's Ferry.

A correspondent of the Baltimore American, writing from Frederick, on the 17th, says:

Harper's Ferry fell into our possession again on Tuesday evening, at 7 o'clock, and was occupied by a portion of Gen. Burnsides' force before the rear of Gen. Hill's division had all crossed the river, who, to the extent of fifteen hundred by one statement, and four thousand by another, were taken prisoners.

I have conversed with some members of the New York, 12th, who were not paroled by the enemy, their haste being so great that they could not spare the time to attend to them, who inform me that there is no doubt that the place is now in our possession.

They say that it was 4 o'clock on Tuesday afternoon before an opportunity was given them to cross the bridge, and that they had not marched a mile before they met the advance of our column moving on. They say the rebels did not undertake to hold the place, but merely made a hasty passage through, not even taking time to secure their plunder, much of which, for the want of transportation, they destroyed.

The rumor of the retaking of the Ferry this evening says that nearly all the guns and arms were recaptured, and that so sudden was the descent made on them that they did not succeed in destroying the railroad bridge, the three spans of which had just been completed.

The whole number killed during the Slege was 43, and the wounded about 150.

Startling Development at Washington conspiracy to depose the President.

A dispatch in the N. Y.Herald dated Washington, 10th, says most extraordinary disclosures have been made there by letters and verbal communications from prominent politicians, showing that a vast conspiracy has been set on foot by the radicals of the Fremont faction to depose the present administration, and place Fremont at the head of a provisional government, in other words, to make him a military dictator. The dispatch adds:

‘ One of these letters asserts that one feature of the conspiracy is the proposed meeting of Governors of the Northern States to request President Lincoln to resign, to enable them to carry out their scheme. The writer, in conclusion, says Governor Andrew and Senator Wilson are at work, and they are probably at the bottom of the movement.--From other well informed sources it is learned that the fifty thousand independent volunteers proposed to be raised under the auspices of the New York Union Defence Committee were intended to be a nucleus for the organization of this Fremont conspiracy. It was the purpose of those engaged in this movement to have this force organized and armed by the Government, and placed under the independent command of the chosen leader, and then to call upon all sympathizers to unite with them in arms to overthrow the present administration and establish in its stead, a military dictatorship, to carry out the peculiar policy they desire the Government should execute. Falling in this, it is stated that a secret organization has been inaugurated, the numbers of which are known' by the name of Round sets. It is intended that this organization at all number two hundred thousand men in arms, who shall raise the standard of the conspirators and call Gen. Fremont to the command. They expect to be joined by two thirds of the army of the Union now in the field, and that eventually one million of armed men will be gathered around their standard. This startling disclosure is vouched for by men of high repute in New York and other Northern States. It is the last card of those who have been vainly attempting to drive the President into the adoption of their own peculiar policy.

Affairs in Frederick — the departure of the Confederate army.

A letter to the Philadelphia Inquirer, dated the 15th, says the ‘"arch fiends and traitors"’ have gone. The office once used by the Confederate Provost Marshal is now used by the same officer of the U. S. A. It adds:

‘ The hotel registers contain the names of hundreds of secession officers. All appear to have written their names in characters sufficiently large for a circus, menagerie, or other show- bill poster. Each man vied with the other in making his name more conspicuous. The titles attached to the tail end of their names would in many cases run through one-half of the alphabet. Turning over the pages now may be found, modestly penned, the names of Union officers. How great is the contrast of pretension.

In conversing with many Secessionists of this place and other localities, the theme would occasionally turn upon the respective merits of the several commanders of both armies. All appear to have profound respect for General McClellan. Of their own army, Generals Lee and Jackson are worshipped as though they were deities. They denominate Jackson as their deliverer. They assign the cause of the defeats of the Union army to the fact that the people of the North immediately become dissatisfied with their Generals when they meet with a slight defeat, and a removal or transfer is made. The men, therefore, cannot have full confidence in a commander with whom they have little or no acquaintance.

In the rebel army, the men endeavor to centre around their General. He is retained if he proves to be a good General, although he may meet with occasional reverses. The rebels attribute their success, in a great measure, to this.

A week ago how many there were in this community who chuckled at being wealthy men, men who had made money by disposing of their goods to the Confederate army. Credulous fools! They now laugh less. They are dejected, they are sick. No wonder, when they hold the Confederate Scrip, on loyal ground. Things have gone differently from what they supposed they would go. Uncle Sam is not so weak in the knees as they thought him to be. He can walk, and when forced to, run in pursuit of the enemy.

Many who sold them wares would now willingly swap back their Richmond V's, A's, &c., for their goods. One credulous tobacconist sold his whole stock for $30,000. He paid $10,000 for it. You see how soon he made his fortune. But his fortune cannot be fully appreciated, as it is all in Confederate money. When he passes it at par, it will most assuredly do him an immense amount of good.

At three o'clock, on Wednesday morning, Jackson commenced moving his whole army, and by nine o'clock all were out of the city. On Thursday morning, about five o'clock, Gen. Ewell's force moved out of the place. They continued tramping through the city until nine o'clock.

They fell back about six miles, and then gradually marched further on.

Stuart's cavalry and several batteries formed the rear guard. The remaining forces moved out during Friday, the cavalry and artillery staying in the rear.

An advance regiment of Union cavalry attacked the rear guard, and a brisk skirmish ensued. One of our men was killed and several wounded. This was the result of an accident. One of the cavalry horses became unruly, and running away, struck the cord attached to the primer of the cannon. The piece immediately discharged its contents of grape shot committing the havoc stated.

In the engagement the enemy had several killed, a number taken prisoners, and some wounded. --They then pushed on and joined the main body.

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