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From the North.

We continue our extracts from our Northern files of the 28th inst., Those given below are of interest

The last Raids of Morgan — Difficulty in Catching him.

A letter, dated Cincinnati, the 21st ult., says that Buell, with his grand army, 140,000 strong, was returning to Louisville, and receiving all the abuse which is the result of a failure. The letter acknowledges that Bragg took over 4,000 wagons of provisions away with him, and the Federal only succeeded in recapturing forty. The letter adds;

The rebel partisan, Morgan, has performed deeds which rival Stuart's raid into Pennsylvania. He has trotted round Buell as Stuart did around McClellan. He made a dash into Lexington drove out our forces into Merciless then round the Kentucky river to Lawrenceburg, and swept. on to Bards town. At Cox Creek he came upon a wagon train and burned eighty one wagon, taking the teamsters and guards prisoners. Thirty of the wagons were empty, the others laden with supplies for Wood's division. Pushing on toward Bardstown, he captured another large train and burned it, and when last heard from was pushing Southwest, evidently to destroy the Lebanon Branch Railroad and then to push on towards Munfordsville and destroy the Nashville Railroad--all of which he will undoubtedly accomplish.

The train dust last night from Munfordsville is not in. Probably it is destroyed. He has a force of twelve hundred cavalry. Gen. Dumont is following but Morgan changes horses continually, while Dumont's are worn down. There is no force in front of Morgan. He can have things all his own way. It is supposed he is aiming for Nashville, and that Bragg is moving with the main part of his army in the same direction. Gen. Negley is there with about five thousand men.

A sketch of Buell as a Strategist.

The unhappy Buell, who did notbag Bragg, as we were repeatedly assured by the Western papers he would do; and who has been ‘"relieved"’ for the failure, gets the following sketch from a letter in the Boston Journal.

It is disheartening to see a noble cause go by default through ignorance, imbecility or treason, of those in command. Last spring Gen. Mitchell was at Chattanooga. within twenty-five miles of the great Eastern Railroad connecting the Gulf States with Richmond. He was desirous of pouncing upon it but was restrained by Buell. All through the summer Buell was in striking distance of that railroad, with a powerful army, but he has done nothing. The rebel surplice, the rebel troops, have passed East and West, the main rebel artery has circulated its life, blood, and he has made no effort to put in the latest. He remained asleep, while Bragg jumped into the ring captured Munfordsville, and begun his ravages of Kentucky. Instead of moving boldly to attack Bragg with a superior force, he avoided him, and moved on the are of a circle, while Bragg moved along the cord, in a race Northward.

Having headed Bragg off as a boy heads off a flock of sheep browsing by the way, and having had his army increased to twice the size of Bragg's, he commences to drive him out. He permits Me- Cook to be overpowered at Perryville, when School is close at hand waiting orders to join in the fight. He moves upon the retreating Bragg with no hope of over raking him. He leaves Nashville exposed. He gives up the pursuit, and is now returning North with a disappointed dispirited army. Such is the record. It is painful to write it. Shall I retrain from giving facts? I cannot alter them. It is not my intention to write fiction, neither is it my purpose to withhold truth, although it may be mortifying and humiliating. This war is a stern, a terrible reality, and it is best for all to see things just as they are. if Gen. Buell has anything to say in extenuation of his course let him by all means be heard. He has been in command of the army of the Ohio about twelve months. He has had opportunities of doing great things. The people can draw their own conclusions at to what he has accomplished.

The Irrepressible Conflict in the Cars.

An affair occurred in Harrisburg, Pa. on the 27th, which shows that the proclamation is the cause of ‘"airs"’ upon the past of the ‘"man and brother"’ at the North rather than else where. A letter to the Philadelphia Inquirersays:

‘ It seems that Jacob Saunders, a colored servant of Colonel Hiddir, got aboard the cars for Philadelphia, and was instructs by the conductor to take a seat in the front car. Soon after a white man whose name was subsequently ascertained to be Do whey, entered and addressing the negro, said,‘"Get out of this, you--’nigger Saunders answered that he was placed there by the conductor, and would not get out unless so offered by the conductor. Downey than commanded him to sit elsewhere, as he would not ride in company with a negro, and threatened violence if he did not move. Saunders refused to move. Downey insisted. when the negro peined to his master's sword, which he carried, and told Downey that he was prepared to defend himself; whereupon Downey drew a knife and stabbed Saunders in the threat, the blood gushing freely.

By that time a crowed had attracted by the noise. Downey was arrested and taken before Alderman Kline, where, I believe, the above facts were elicited. Saunders was taken to the residence of a physician, where he lies in a critical condition, his life being despaired of. Downey is now in prison. committed for a hearing in the Dauphin County Court. He is dressed in plan, coarse clothing, and has the looks of a rough Western of Southern man, and I understand is from Baltimore, some say New York.

A Yankee Abroad giving the effect of the proclamation.

The New York Worldsays the following in an extract from a letters written by an American gentleman of the highest character and positions, now resident in Europe, always unwavering in his devotion to the Government and hitherto a faithful supporter of the administration.

"I have just read Lincoln's proclamation, and I am hopeless. The whole nature of the war I consider changed, and the idea of a restoration of the Union under such circumstances at an impossibility. The President under the Constitution, would have an equal right to issue a proclamation declaring that in Connection the law of descent of property should be no longer as it is, but in some manner more agreeable to the powers that be. Will the conservative part of the North not rise en masse against this subversion of that character of its liberties and only bond of its existence as a Government, though proclaimed under the delusive idea of sustaining it?

The effect on the South can only be to make them more and more desperate in their resistance, and to enable their leaders to say:

‘ "Now you see we were right as to the intentions of the Lincoln Government when we induced you to began this war" ’

Affairs in Hampton Roads.

Newport News has been converted into a hospital station by the Federal, and the old water battery dismantled. The Cumberland, which was sunk by the Merrimac, is to be raised. A letter to the Boston JournalSays:

‘ The fleet lying in James river consists of the Minnesota, (flag ship of Act. Rear Admiral Lee,) New Ironsides, Galena, and Miami. The Genesee and Mahaska have been withdrawn, and other gun- boats are expected to take their places. The Minnesota rails to any for Boston, where it is understood some changes will be made in her armament. The New Ironsides presents a formidable appearance at her moorings. She has proved herself, contrary to general expectation an excellent sea boat, and in action will undoubtedly be a splendid success. She steamed around a short distance on Friday, and practiced firing up the river. Captain Turner handles her skillfully, and brings her about with wonderful ease and celerity. The Galena has remained at her present moorings ever since her attack on Fort Darling last rummer. She bears fearful witness to the overwhelming superiority of the rebel position during the engagement. Several shots are fixed in her hull; some penetrated her iron plated sides, and one or two made clean holes through the funnel. Captain Rogers is a fighting man, and is all ready for Merrimac No. 2, or any other rebel demonstration. The Miami (side wheel gunboat) is on picket duty for the present. and will probably be ordered home before long for repairs, as she needs a thorough overhauling. She came here from the Western Gulf squadron, where she rendered important service in the capture of the forts below New Orleans and at Vicksburg. The Monitor will return in a few days from Washington.

Every day flags of truce pass up and down the river, on the steamers John A. Warner, New York, Metamora, Georgia, and others. They go up with secesh prisoners as far as Alken's Landing, within eight miles of Richmond, where the exchange is made. Union exchanges on their way down almost always cheer the old flag, which is first to greet them on our fleet here. The rebel prisoners, as a whole, are rough and coarse specimens of humanity. They are well supplied with clothing and small articles by secesh ladies of Baltimore, as they pass through that city — a subject of no little complaint on our side. They converse freely with us, and all agree in expressing a with that the war was over, but say they will conquer a peace or have none.--They have the fullest confidence in their leaders, speak highly of McClellan, and assure us that Lincoln's proclamation has united the South all the more closely as one man for the war. The rebels at Richmond are treating Union prisoners with a little more humanity than heretofore.

Old Abe to "run the machine" by himself.

The Washington correspondent of the New York Times. is responsible for the following:

‘ The announcement that Secretary Stanton and Gen. Halleck refer all matters relating to the army of the Potomac to the President, who has relieved them of responsibility in the matter, and himself undertaken to ‘"run the machine,"’ has created deep excitement. Inquiries made show the facts to be as stated, and in military circles there is much interest felt as to how the President will "work

through." Gen. Marcy, Chief of Staff to General McClellan, was in the Department to- day, and had long separate interviews with the President Secretary Stanton and Gen. Halleck.

First case under Lincoln's proclamation.

The following paragraph is from the Washington correspondence of the New York Times:

Vincent R. Jackson, of the Post Office Department has been again arrested, after having been released on security. He is to be tried under the provisions of the President's into proclamation — making civilians triable by course martial — before the court martial now in session in Pennsylvania avenue. Jackson was one of the Union nurses captured at Bull Run, and while in Richmond gave information to the Confederate authorities. The case is one of interest, being the first under the late proclamation, and will furnish a precedent. --Now, that the President has made civilians liable to trail in this way, Major Dester, Provost Marshal, is most energetic in his dealing with suspected parsons, and no distinction or favor is show into any one because he may hold a place in any of the Departments of the Government.

The English cotton Faming.

--The London Daily News of the 6th instant, has the following important article, showing that the English cotton manufacturers will soon be able to procure a supply of the staple independently of the American growers:

‘ The day was sure to arrive when the general inability to believe in a supply of cotton from other sources than the American cotton States must give way before the facts. That day seems to be near at band. At the end of last week the cargoes from India began to arrive. Upwards of 10,000 bales from Bombay came in during three days, and the quantity from that port actually at sea and at Liverpool was found to be about 397,000 bales; so that Mr. Villers, whose promises were held to be trash when he spoke of 400,000 bales appears to be fully justified in the hopefulness of his tone.

The next disclosures was that we have a prospect of a supply, in 1863, of 1,630,000 out of the 4,000,000, which is the largest quantity desired at the ordinary rate of prices. This amount will be just double the quantity used per week for the last three months; and thus it would seem that the worst must be past. At the recent high prices the weekly average taken by the trade has been 15,273 and the promised supply, independent of any change in American affairs, will yield 31,346 bates per week. The sources of this supply are India, the Brazil, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy chance car goes from America, and ‘"other sources"’ These ‘"other sources"’ are credited with only 25,000. Considering that the West Indies are included under this head, it is reasonable to hope that the supply may turn out to have been underrated even for the coming season.

The reports from Jamaica are in the night of degree encouraging, both as to the flourishing condition of the growing crop and the rapid increase of the area devoted to cotton. In Guiana and the proprietors are setting heartily to work to procure the requisite labor, which may probably be supplied from the United States. Agricultural machinery of the highest order has been sent out to Porto Rico, which is expected to supply a large quantity, not less than the produce of 2,000 acres, next year and the quality of the West India cotton is declared to be scarcely short of the highest rated of American. Already we see that as time passes on, we find ourselves under the process of being weaned from our obstinate reliance on the slave States, and from month to month we shall learn to give up the irrational hope of any settlement in America which can restore the old state of affairs.

The Military Dictatorship.

That Lincoln is to be the Military Dictator of the United States, and that very soon, seems to be conceded by the press of that country. The plan is clearly developed in the following extract from a letter honored with a conspicuous place in the Times of Sunday:

With European recognition and constant efforts, open or secret, to aid the South, the Government at Washington will need all the unity and efficiency contemplated in recent proclamation. It will requite millions of men and proportional supplies. Martial law over the entire North is a national necessity. If the Governors of the Northern States manifest a factions spirit the Provost Marshals it is presumed will have the power to keep them in order. If State Legislatures should undertake to interfere with the action of the General Government necessary to the prosecution of the war, they will come under the action of martial law, and if the action of any political party shall threaten to change or paralyze the movements of the Government it will doubtless be content for the Provost Martial in any States support political meetings and postpone election. If the Constitution of the United States is to be to the necessities of civil war of vast proportions the Constitutions of individual States cannot be allowed to since in the way or its vigorous prosecution.

Englishmen are in great trouble at the and unconstitutionality of the acts of President Lincoln. They have a great tenderness for the Constitution and the leave and cruel very badly that the Northern people, while conquering the South, should love their own liberties. They tell us that the President cannot do this and that — that his proclamations are only waste paper. They appear to have very little idea of what the Commander in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States can do. A man of firm and into will, with a million of men in arms to support him, can do pretty much what he pleased. They have to learn that paper Constitutions, however convenient they may be, can be amended when necessary suspended, or laid and that it is no longer a question in America what this or that Constitution authorizes but what is necessary to be done to make of thirty-four States and main territory one nation.

An Englishman on the telegraph Autocrat.

Mr. Edwin James, late Queen's Court whose speech in a Democratic meeting at New York we have noticed said something more than we copied. He said:

‘ The two great questions that I find at present agitating this country necessarily attract that action of any man who is anxious to acquire into nation and to obtain experience agree, with all my instinct upon the question of slavery — I cannot agree that, that party, who calculated. I think to embarrass the Government in the great struggle now going on with the constant constitution of that question I cannot agree, that the our of the country's difficulty is their opportunity. Upon the other questions that are now attracting the attention of this country I am forming my opinions. But there is one question upon which as ancitizen of this country I despite to explain my opinion. I doubt almost at this time whether I tread the free soil of America-- whether I breathe the free air of the American continent when I see the trial by jury Daniel the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, when I see persons immured, and it is declared that the employment of impartial counsel will aggravate their offence — when I see these things going on I must doubt I am breeching the free air of America.

It was hardly possible to believe that a man could be here arrested by telegraph, and without authority — it was things like these that destroyed every notion which a European had of liberty in the United States. I was amused, said Mr. James, in continuing, when, the other day, a gentleman came to me — he was a client, and as I do not get many of them at present I remember him very well — and said, ‘"What has been the matter with you?"’ He said, ‘"I have been in Fort McHenry for two months."’ ‘"What did you go there for?"’ ‘"I don't know; I was arrested by telegraph."’ [Laughter.] ‘"How did you get out?"’ I don't know I got out by telegraph," [Laughter.] ‘"Where are you going now?"’ ‘"I don't know! I suppose they will give me a little change, and I will go to Fort Lafayette"’ [Laughter.] There was but one step from the sublime to the ridientons. When he had read in a city paper a most solemn recommendation — though he supposed it was a joke — that the ex-Mayor of this city and Horace Greeley should be sent to Fort Lafayette, and that they should play back gammon together — it struck him that it might have been batter said black-gammon. Not that he would insinuate that the honorable gentlemen had been, back gammoning the blacks. Mr. James closed with an earnest appeal for them never to allow encroachments upon the Constitution.

An english view of u. S. Finances.

The London Economistsays that when the great events of the last eighteen months are patiently and coolly examined by some Transatlantic historian who is anxious to explain the calamities of his country, it will be found that badly as the military affairs of the Federal Government have been managed — badly and corruptly as their civil administration has been managed, too — their financial administration has been managed worst of all. It adds:

In this most important instrument of war, they had an enormous and indisputable superiority over the South. The North had comparatively great wealth, and the South had comparatively small wealth. If a heavy income tax had been imposed at the outset of the war, the Federal Government would probably have been able to borrow largely in Europe. Their credit was excellent when the civil struggle commenced, and their bonds were favorite securities with many opulent and careful persons, whose judgment was good, and who had real money to lend if they decided favorably. We all know that the North is a prodigiously productive country, where no one is poor; where very few are idle; where there is yet a vast area of unoccupied and excellent land. Under proper management this vast wealth would have been a source of vast military strength, but Mr. Chase has so managed as to throw it away. The financial reputation of the North in Europe was at first seriously weakened by his proposal to rely solely on loans, and was altogether destroyed by the seemingly in-exhaustible issues of paper. Nor is it money only which the North have lost by this mismanagement, they have lost the good opinion of our business classes. Rightly or wrongly, these classes would have thought much better of the cause of the

North if they had supported it by hard money and present exertions and not as they have, by flotations paper and sanguine promises to pay.

Nor has the effect upon the temper of the North itself been less unfortunate than the effect, upon Europe. The most remarkable quality which the Northerners have shown is their ignorant and stupid patience. Probably an Englishman is more struck by this quality than any one who would be because he is very subject to political impatience in the presence of obvious disaster. During the sufferings of our army before Sebastopol our impatience was not only remarkable, but excessive; if there had been any obvious guilty person to hang for that matter, we should have hung him immediately. What, then should we feel if at the critics of our national fate — at the hour when our national existences was threatened by a great rebellion — the resources of money and men; which we lavished without slant or hesitation, had been fritted and wasted away, without achievement and without glory, in stupid enterprises and shameful full-scale We should have bung Mr. Lincoln, or Mrs Stanton, or ‘"somebody. "’The whole country would have been convulsed with irritation and sugar. But America has not been convulsed. The Northerners have looked on with a sort of apathetic hope and a sanguine notion.

‘"Oh, it will be better soon,"’ National vanity — the vanity of a nation which has always been successful, which cannot conceive that it can fall — has probably much to do with this strange indifference. Whatever happened they believed that they could not fail. But every additional cause which augmented this indifference has been, as far as it operates, an additional calamity. The North should have been awakened, yet it would not awake Perhaps the tax gatherer might have aroused the American people; certainly Mr. Chase's loans and paper have confirmed their foolish apathy.

The present position is this: Paper at a fluctuating discount of about twenty The tax gatherer has not gone his rounds among the people, though some deductions have been made on account of the income tax from the dividends on public securities. Mr. Chases issues paper as if it would never fail him, and yet it must soon fail him. Even now every one passes it on as quickly as possible, and stocks and securities are all rising in consequence.

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