Progress of the war.the fall of Vicksburg--the official correspondence — interview between Gens Pemberton and Grant — the Teems of surrender — condition of the Confederates after the capitulation.
The Northern papers at last give us the official correspondence which took place at the surrender of Vicksburg. We give it with some additional particulars of the scenes attending the capitulation:
Vicksburg. To this end, if agreeable to you, I will appoint three commissioners to meet a like number to be named by yourself, at such place and hour to-day as you may find convenient. I make this proposition to save the further effusion of blood which must otherwise be shed to a frightful extent, feeling myself fully able to maintain my position for a yet indefinite period. This communication will be handed you under flag of truce by Major Gen. Jas. Bowen.
J. C. Pemberton
To this Gen. Grant replied as follows:
General Grant to General Pemberton.
Lieutenant General J. C. Pemberton, Commanding Confederate Forces, Ac.:
U. S. Grant, Maj. Gen'l.
Gen. Bowen, the bearer of Gen. Pemberton's letter, was received by Gen. A. J. Smith. He expressed a strong desire to converse with Gen. Grant, and accordingly, while General Grant declining this, requested Gen. Smith to say that if Gen. Pemberton desired to see him an interview would be granted between the lines, in McPherson's front, at any hour in the afternoon which Gen. Pemberton might appoint. A message was sent back to General Smith, appointing 3 o'clock as the hour. At half-past 3 o'clock General Grant, with his staff and several Generals, went to the rendezvous appointed, which was a small vale where fig trees and peach and apricot had bloomed in happier days — a hill on either side. On the crest of either hill, only about four hundred feet apart, were the forts of friend and foe, and beneath these were rifle pits filled with men. It was a strange sight; thousands of men who had been striving for each other's blood for two months past, who had never seen each other though often within ten feet of each — it was a strange sight to see these men looking over the earthen breastworks in silence, without arms, at the foe with whom they had contended. Men looked in eyes of men to read only hate. On the one side they looked as though they had passed along a path of powdered limestone, where thousands of feet had trodden it to impalpable dust, raising it in clouds to settle on head, body, and limbs. The others soiled, but well clad. The one with cap, the other with a pale slouch hat that shaded him from the sun. It was one of those scenes that fill the mind with wonder — that bring the problem of life and the mysteries of philosophy up like bidden ghosts, and, like him whom the reverend ghost of Samuel quilled, sinks back and feasts again. At the southern crest of the circle of hills appeared three horsemen. One of them — the first--was tall, of about forty-seven years of age, clad in gray, and mounted upon a bay horse. Upon his chin was a beard a la Napoleon; his eye of a dark that might be black; his hair of the same; complexion brown. The next was upon a gray horse, clad like the first. He, too, was tall — a gray eye, brown, full beard, brown hair, full forehead, and a pleasant look that indicated. I may be mistaken in this, but I think you are the ones to blame. The third was about the height of the others, but rather broader at the shoulders, though small at the waist. His hair was soft and long, his beard of a Chesnut, the same as his hair, and of the style known as English, very fine teeth, and if I were a woman I could kiss him, so kissable was his mouth. Of course I am losing sight of the fact that he was a rebel. Such were Pemberton, Bowen, and Montgomery. Perhaps it is well to divest ourselves of prejudice at times and look at things as they are. On the other crest came heroes. Their pictures are in all parlors, their names on all lips. The leader, one who will live while history shall endure and fame sings the praises of those who battle for their country, came as quietly as the winds that met him, as modestly as the passion flowers that crept at his feet — All felt his presence, as we ever feel the influence of greatness when goodness is its handmaiden. They met — and who shall read their hearts? The memories of youth seemed not to impress them. Both dismounted. Colonel Montgomery said, "General Grant, General Pemberton. " They shook hands like strangers--"Alas! they had been friends in youth." After a few words about terms, which Pemberton insisted on and Grant ignored, the latter said, "let us step aside," and even the birds refuse to tell me further of the conversation. Gen. Grant heard what they had to say, and left him at the end of an hour and a half, saying that he would send in his ultimatum in writing, to which Gen. Pemberton promised to reply before night, hostilities to cease in the meantime. Gen. Grant then conferred at his headquarters with corps and division commanders, and sent the following letter to Gen Pemberton, by the hand of Gen. Legan and Lieut. Col. Wilson.
General Grant's ultimatum.
Lieutenant General J. C. Pemberton, Commanding Confederate Forces, Vicksburg, Mississippi:
U. S. Grant, Maj. Gen.
The officers who received this letter stated that it would be impossible to answer it by night, and it was not till a little before peep of day that the proposed reply was furnished.
Pemberton's reply.Vicksburg, I have the honor to submit the following amendments, which, if acceded to by you, will perfect the agreement between us. At ten o'clock to-morrow I propose to evacuate the works in and around Vicksburg, and to surrender the city and garrison under my command by marching out with my colors and arms and stacking them in front of my present lines, after which you will take possession; officers to retain their side-arms and personal property, and the rights and property of citizens to be respected.
J. C. Pemberton, Lieut. General.
To this General Grant immediately replied as follows:
Lieut Gen. Pemberton, Commanding Forces in Vicksburg:
To this the subjoined answer has this moment been received.
Your obedient servant,
J. C. Pemberton, Lt. Gen'l.
The following morning white flags were displayed from all the points of the Confederate works, and that evening Gen. Grant entered the city. The correspondents of the Northern papers say that the supply of food in the city was not sufficient to keep life in the Confederates, and that many of them when they marched out to stack arms staggered from weakness.
The crossing of the Potomac by Lee's army — Lee not Whipped yet — the feeling in Washington.The Herald's correspondent, who was captured by our cavalry near Hagerstown and released after Gen. Lee crossed the river, telegraphs from Hagerstown, July 14th, to that paper as follows: After the fight was over I was taken, amid mud and darkness, to Williamsport. I found the rebel forces rapidly marching to the river. The crossing commenced on Saturday afternoon. Previous to this the enemy had succeeded in constructing a sort of raft, which resembled a floating bridge. The wounded, who had been placed in houses used as hospitals at Williamsport, were put in wagons and sent over. Then followed the ammunition train. Some of the wagons went by the ford for it must be stated that the rebel force crossed in two columns, one on the bridge and the other through the water. The retreat was conducted in the most orderly manner. The Southern troops are in no manner disorganized. They are eager for fresh encounters. --The principal part of the rebel infantry crossed yesterday. In order to blind the Unionists the enemy built a long line of high earthworks, built camp fires, and during all the heavy rain that fell during the night, drenched as they were with rain, finished their works and marched to Williamsport and crossed before daylight. At about 6 o'clock this morning nothing remained on this side but a brigade of infantry, with a few pieces of artillery. I got away from the enemy this morning at daylight. Gen. Kilpatrick left Hagerstown at an early hour this morning and attacked the rebel brigade on this side. A brisk fight ensued, the enemy holding his position for a long time. He was near enough to be supported by troops from the opposite bank if necessary, these again crossing the river for that purpose. I do not know what was the end of this last fight, but think it probable the enemy left this side altogether, taking his raft over with him. In conclusion, let me remark--Do not think that General Lee's army has been defeated, though this campaign has ended in the manner stated. I write this from facts, without being influenced by any other consideration than a desire to report the pure and simple truth, known to be truth from actual observation, and an unprejudiced criticism of what I saw and heard. A dispatch from Washington, dated the 11th, says: ‘ This has been a gloomy day in Washington. The joyous anticipations of bagging the whole of Lee's army were this afternoon dissipated by the official information that the rebel army had escaped and succeeded in crossing the Potomac without another battle. Much chagrin is expressed in official circles at Gen. Meade having permitted the enemy to escape without another fight. The disappointment was aggravated by the intelligence coming every hour of the increasing virulence of the people in New York and the spreading of the mischievous spirit among the towns in New England. Nothing else has been talked or thought of here to day. The trouble in New York is regarded here as the result of deep laid plans of disloyalists and rebel refugees, who have made resistance to the draft only a pretext for an effort to cause embarrassment to the Government. It is stated that Gen. McDowell is to be ordered to New York city. Gen. Hooker had a long consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury this morning. ’
The fighting of the Confederates at Gettysburg.The Baltimore American has the following paragraph about the desperate fighting of the Confederates at Gettysburg: ‘ The whole of the artillery at the battle of Gettysburg was commanded by Gen. Tyler, of Connecticut, who writes that all of the reserve artillery was brought up, and the Rebels fought with the greatest desperation, charging up to the very muzzle of his guns, and shooting his gunners; but their desperation and reckless ness could not save them. In some cases they would charge upon a battery and disable every man at the guns, and would then either be destroyed or driven back by our own equally determined heroes. He says that the Rebels, not withstanding their terrible loss and overwhelming defeat, retreated in good order, and with no loss of cannon or equipments, owing to the severe discipline of their army. ’
The New York press and the riots — editorials of Monday morningThe editorials to be found in the New York papers, of Monday morning, upon the conscription that was to commence that day are extremely interesting in view of the events which followed a few hours after they were given to the public. The New York Daily News has the following under the head of "The Inquisition Conscription." It is sincerely to be hoped that measures will be taken to test the constitutionality of the law which threatens to remove sixty odd thousand of our citizens from the State of New York, before a single individual is permitted to be forced, against his will, to take part in the ungodly conflict which is distracting the land. It is said that Gov. Seymour openly expresses his belief that neither the President nor Congress, without the consent of the State authorities has any right to enforce such an act as is now being carried into effect under the auspices of the War Department, but that he thinks his interference would do more harm than good, and that the question ought to be settled by the Courts. The manner in which the draft is being conducted in New York is such an outrage upon all decent and fairness as has to parallel and can find no apologists. No proclamation has been issued upon the subject, and it is only a matter of surmise whether three or six hundred thousand men are to be raised. If, as is supposed, three hundred thousand additional troops are to be added to the Union army by the present conscription, the proper quota to be drawn from this city would be about twelve thousand of our citizens. Instead of this number, however, over twenty-two thousand are being drafted, and, with fifty per cent, extra required for exemptions, thirty-three thousand six hundred! No allowance is made for the militia who are in Pennsylvania and Maryland, and the $300 to be paid by rich conscripts, instead of purchasing substitutes, is to be diverted, against the spirit of the law, to some other direction. The evident aim of those who have the Conscription act in hand, in this State, is to lesson the number of Democratic votes at the next election. The miscreants at the head of the Government are bending all their powers, as was revealed in the late speech of Wendell Phillips, at Framingham, to securing a perpetuation of their ascendancy for another four years, and their triple method of accomplishing this purpose is to kill off Democrats, stuff the ballot-boxes with bogus soldier votes, and deluge recusant districts with negro suffrages. The crafty, quiet way in which the enrollment has been carried on forestalled both criticism and opposition. Nevertheless, the work has neither been fairly performed, nor has it been thorough. And now that it is over the people are notified that one out of about two and a half of our citizens are destined to be brought off into Messrs. Lincoln & Company's church house God forbid! We hope that instant measures will be taken to prevent the outrage, and to secure such a decision from our Courts as will exempt New York from further compelled participation in the suicidal war which is desolating the land. If the workingmen of this city are disinclined to be forced into a fight for emancipation, let them clamor so long for peace that their voices shall be potential with our rulers. It is a strange perversion of the laws of self preservation which would compel the white laborer to leave his family destitute and unprotected while he goes forth to free the negro, who, bring free, will compete with him in labor. Let the laboring population assemble peaceably in mass meeting and express their views upon the subject. Let it be no political gathering — no partisan demonstration, but a spontaneous congregation of the working classes, to give vent, within legal bounds, but firmly, to the sentiments of their fraternity with regard to this odious war. The conscription brings it home to their own thresholds as much as if Gen. Lee's worse men were rattling down Broadway. If they would avoid conscription, let them speak in opposition to that which has given birth to conscription. Let them protest against the continuance of the war. Let them swell the cry for peace that is already ascending from all parts of the North. Let them make it a necessity with the Administration to give up its insane emancipation scheme. Let them insist that in place of the conscription of white men to serve the blacks we shall have negotiation, compromise, and peace. The New York World has an article denouncing the draft. It thinks the very manner in which the conscription bill was forced through Congress is sufficient to enrage the people against it. It says: ‘ The Saturday Review, an English journal, conspicuously hostile to the Union, observed a fortnight ago, in its malignant way, that the "full of Vicksburg might perhaps embolden the Government to venture on enforcing the conscription." The enemies of the country throughout the world will unquestionably thus interpret the coincidence is point of time between events which ought to have warmed the people and the Government into the fullest reciprocal confidence, and what will be not unfairly held to be a deliberate attempt to execute darkly and aggressively a most unpopular statute. An Administration ordinarily sensible and capable of subordinating party to patriotism would never for a moment have permitted such an act as the act of conscription to be so enforced as to create the impression that the greatest city in the nation — a city which has poured out its blood and its treasure without stint or measure — is to be melted in largely more than its due proportion of men. Such an Administration would have taken the greatest pains to explain to the whole people the imperative reasons which demand the formation of a fresh army, and while clearly defining the exact legal proportion of conscripts to be called out, it would have done everything in its power to make the execution of the act unnecessary by encouraging enlistments and making a fresh opportunity for that spirit of devotion to the national cause which has already done and borne and dared so much, so freely and so long. It is not too late for the Administration at least to remedy its errors of omission. It is due to the past sacrifices and to the present temper of the country that no shadow of a doubt should be permitted to rest upon the impartiality of the conscription now imposed upon a free people for the first time in their history. It is vital to the permanence of our institutions, and to interests not less important than any which are involved in the actual contest we are waging, that the utmost pains should be taken in the execution of the work now commenced to make the people understand and feel that the force which thus presses down upon their purses and their persons is imposed in the name and for the service of their country, their whole country, and nothing but their country. They will acquiesce, perhaps, in even an unconstitutional sacrifice to maintain the Constitution; but it is a dangerous experiment to insult the popular will at once in the policy of their rulers and in the means by which that policy is sought to be enforced. ’ The New York Journal of Commerce has an editorial, of which the following is an extract: ‘ It is a melancholy fact that war, sad and terrible as it is, becomes oftentimes the tool of evil-minded men to accomplish their ends.--The horrors of its continuance are nothing to their view. The blood shed counts as of no value in their measurement. The mourning it causes produces no impression on their sensibilities. Such men love all consciousness of personal responsibility for the war, and only look to selfish desires to be realized. What right has any man, or any class of men, to use this war for any purpose beyond its original object? If they indeed have diverted it from that; if they have prolonged it one day, added one drop of blood to its sacrifice, by their efforts to use it for other ends than its original design, then they are responsible before God and man for the blood and cost. There is no evading that responsibility. Some men say, "now that the war has commenced it must not be stopped till slaveholding is abolished." Such men are neither more nor less than murderers. The name seems severe. It is, nevertheless, correct. Would it have been justifiable for the Northern States to commence a war on the Southern States for the sole purpose of abolishing slavery in them? No! It would have been murder to commence such a war. By what reasoning, then, does it become less murder to divert a war commenced for other purposes to that object? How can it be any less criminal to prolong a war commenced for the assertion of Government power, into a war for the suppression of slavery, which it is agreed would have been unjustifiable and sinful if begun for that purpose? If there were a possibility of peace and the restoration of the power of the Government, and instead of making peace, men should say "No, we will have no peace till we have destroyed slavery," and should continue the war, the men thus doing would be precisely as guilty as if they had commenced a war for that purpose only. We are not talking about the incidental effect of war on slaves or slavery. But we speak of the proposal of some men to make abolition a condition of peace. No right exists to add one object to that for which the war began, and the blood of our brave men who should be sent into a war prolonged for such new purposes would rest with fearful stain on the men who prevented peace. ’
Morgan has been creating a decided impression in Indiana. The Cincinnati Gazette gives an account of his capture of two steamers at Brandenburg, Ky. The first-steamer, the McCoombs, suspecting no danger, went up to the wharf and was instantly captured by 30 Confederate soldiers, who leaped aboard and over powered the crew. The Gazette says: ‘ The boat still laid to at the wharf-boat, and in a short time the steamer Alice Dean, the pride of all Cincinnati river men, and the finest boat now running in the Memphis trade, came gracefully rounding the bend of the river. It was soon evident that the Dean intended making no stoppage at Brandenburg, so the McCoombs was headed out just in time to touch her bows, when the rebels, who were still concealed on the McCoombs, jumped on board the Dean and effected the capture of that boat also. The passengers were then liberated, with instructions that they were not to leave the town, around which pickets had been posted to give warning of any approach, as well as to prevent the departure of those in the place. About sundown a rebel Lieutenant came down to Capt. Ballard, of the McCoombs, and Capt. Pepper, of the Dean, and told them he has the honor of informing them that General John Morgan had arrived in the city, and had made the Ashcroft House his headquarters. Our informants made use of their time and the liberty which had been granted them in inspecting the rebel army and its equipments. They estimate the number of rebels under Morgan, their estimation being grounded on their own personal observation, at from six to seven thousand men, while at the same time it may possibly be ten thousand; but they believe their own calculation to be the more correct. The men were all in excellent condition, and were accompanied by a battery of eight steel rifled guns. The same evening of the capture, one of the guns was placed on the J. T. McCoombs, and defences were hastily constructed on her bulwarks with baled hay. The news of the capture having reached across the river, a company of Home Guards from Indiana, numbering about 15 men, marched down to the river the next morning with a six pounder gun, commenced firing across the river into the rebel encampment; but Morgan sent a party of men to cross over the river some way down the stream, and these, by making a considerable detour, succeeded in coming unawares on the Home Guards in their rear, killing four of them and taking the rest prisoners. At a later hour Morgan commenced transporting his men to the Indiana side, using the two captured boats for that purpose. The rebels in Brandenburg were very free in their conversations with the inhabitants. One rebel Captain stated, without the least reserve, that the real object they had in view was to cut the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, so as to cut off direct communication between Cairo and Louisville and Cincinnati, and this was only a precautionary measure for other and far more important military movements. They seem to anticipate a glorious time in Indiana, expressing the intention of burning and destroying everything that lies in the line of their march irrespective of party or creed; so that it is possible our Butternut neighbors in Indiana may be induced to hold different views of their "outraged and ill used, but misguided Southern brethren." Brandenburg is a little town, situated high up on the crest of a hill. The majority of the inhabitants are said to be strongly Secesh while there are at the same time, some few who are, and have always been, strong loyal men. Capt. Bowen, commandant of the Naval Rendezvous at this place, received dispatches yesterday afternoon stating that the gunboats Moose and Victory, under the command of Commodore Laroy Fitch, were at that time just starting from New Albany with the intention of engaging the enemy, and asking him (Capt Bowen) to send ample reinforcements to Louisville. Other dispatches state that gunboats are ascending the river from Cairo, while some of those stationed up the river are already on their way to the scene of action. At a late hour last night we were shown a dispatch received by Capt. Dean, of this city, stating that his boat, the Alice Dean, had been burned by the rebels that morning at seven o'clock. ’