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The United States army.

--The U. S. Army Register for August, 1863, gives us some interesting information relative to the organization of that body and the changes which have taken place in the last month. It consists of 23 army corps, but as two of them, the 4th and 7th, have been so decimated by battle as to render their consolidation with others necessary, there are only 21 corps organized. These corps are commanded by the following officers: 1st corps, Maj Gen Newton; 2d, Maj Gen Hancock; 3d, Maj Gen Sickles; 5th, Maj Gen Sykes, 6th, Maj Gen Sedgwick; 8th, Maj Gen Schenck; 9th, Maj Gen Parke; 10th, Brig Gen Gillmore; 11th, Maj Gen Howard; 12th, Maj Gen Slocum; 13th, Maj Gen Ord; 14th, Maj Gen Thomas; 15th, Maj Gen Sherman; 16th, Major Gen Hurlbut; 17th, Maj Gen McPherson; 18th, Maj Gen Foster; 19th, Maj Gen Banks; 20th, Maj Gen McCook; 21st, Maj Gen Crittenden; 22d, Maj Gen Heintzleman; 23d, Maj Gen Hartsuff.--Besides these corps there is a cavalry corps under Maj Gen Stoneman, who is now on duty in Washington, as chief of the cavalry bureau. There are in the volunteer army 71 Major Generals and 194 Brigadier Generals. The rank of these volunteer Generals in the regular army is also given. We find that Major General Pleasanton, the raider, ranks only as a Major in the 2d U. S. regular cavalry. Maj Gen Stoneman as Major in the 4th cavalry. Maj Gen Thomas as Colonel of the 5th cavalry. Maj Gen Sherman as a Colonel in the 3d artillery. Maj Gen Casey, who ran so at Seven Pines, is Colonel of the 4th infantry.--Maj Gen Keyes, lately on the Peninsula, is Colonel of the 11th infantry. Maj Gen W T Sherman, who lost a leg at Port Hudson, is Colonel of the 13th infantry. Major Gen Heintzleman is Colonel of the 17th infantry; and Maj Gen Doubleday, who was at the first bombardment of Fort Sumter, ranks only as a Major in the 17th infantry.

Meade, Pope, Hooker, Rosecrans, and McDowell, are Brigadiers in the regular army, and Fremont, McClellan, Grant, and Halleck, are Major Generals.

Of the twelve General officers who were in the regular army in August, 1862, two--Gen'ls Sumner and Mansfield — are dead, and their places were filled by the appointment of Gen'ls Hooker and Meade, the former from the volunteer force and the latter from the engineers; and two--Gens. Wool and Harney--have been retired from active service. Their places are not yet filled. Maj Gen U S Grant, of the volunteer army, was rewarded for his success at Vicksburg by being appointed Major Gen in the regular army, to fill the original vacancy in that grade remaining out of the four created during the present war. One Major Generalship (vice Wool retired) and two Brigadier Generalships (one vice Harney retired, and one original vacancy) remain unfilled. Should Brig Gen Philip St. Geo Cooke be retired (he has been summoned before the Retiring Board,) a third vacancy will occur. Gen Heintzleman's chances for a regular Brigadier Generalship are considered good. The following regular army officers were dismissed from the service last year:

Maj Gen Fitz John Porter, Colonel 15th; Maj Haller, 7th; Maj Davidson, 4th; and Capts Beall, 2d; Stivers, 7th; Mayer and Wilkinson, 12th; Woodson, 16th; Cady, 17th; Breslin and Kellogg, 18th; Goodwin, 10th.

The act of July 17th, 1862, gave Lincoln discretionary power to retire all officers whose names have been borne on the army register 45 years, or who are 65 years of age, without submitting their cases to a Retiring Board. The recent retirement, under this act, of Gens Wool, Harney, and Brown; and Colonels Long, Thayer, Craig, Symington, Gates, Merchant, Dimick, Loomis, and Burke, together with the summoning of many field officers before the Retiring Board, is considered very strong evidence that the authorities intend to take full advantage of the act referred to by laying all old officers "on the shelf,"

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