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1527. Dative of Accompanying Circumstance.—The dative, usually of an abstract substantive, may denote accompanying circumstance and manner.

a. The substantive has an attribute: ““πολλῇ βοῇ προσέκειντοthey attacked with loud shoutsT. 4.127, παντὶ σθένει with all one's might 5. 23, ““τύχῃ ἀγαθῇwith good fortuneC.I.A. /lref>So παντὶ (οὐδενὶ, ἄλλῳ, τούτῳ τῷ) τρόπῳ. Manner may be expressed by the adjective, as βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν to die (by) a violent death X. Hi. 4.3 (= βίᾳ).

b. Many particular substantives have no attribute and are used adverbially: ““θεῖν δρόμῳto run at full speedX. A. 1.8.19, βίᾳ by force, δίκῃ justly, δόλῳ by craft, (τῷ) ἔργῳ in fact, ἡσυχῇ quietly, κομιδῇ (with care) entirely, κόσμῳ in order, duly, κύκλῳ round about, (τῷ) λόγῳ in word, προφάσει ostensibly, σι_γῇ, σιωπῇ in silence, σπουδῇ hastily, with difficulty, τῇ ἀληθείᾳ in truth, τῷ ὄντι in reality, ὀργῇ in anger, φυγῇ in hasty flight.

N.—When no adjective is used, prepositional phrases or adverbs are generally employed: σὺν κραυγῇ, σὺν δίκῃ, μετὰ δίκης, πρὸς βία_ν (or βιαίως).

c. Here belongs the dative of feminine adjectives with a substantive (ὁδῷ, etc.) omitted, as ταύτῃ in this way, here, ἄλλῃ in another way, elsewhere, πῇ, in what (which) way. So δημοσίᾳ at public expense, ἰδίᾳ privately, κοινῇ in common, πεζῇ on foot.

N.—Some of these forms are instrumental rather than comitative, e.g. ταύτῃ.

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