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se of 1860. Between the 2d and 7th of January, 1861, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Florida took possession of a number of United States forts and arsenals within their borders, although none of these except South Carolina had as yet seceded. On the 8th, Jacob Thompson, of Mississippi, secretary of the interior, resigned from Buchanan's cabinet. Mississippi adopted an ordinance of secession on the 9th, Florida on the 10th, Alabama on the 11th, Georgia on the 19th and Louisiana on the 26th, followed by Texas, February 1st. On the 9th of February, the Star of the West, bringing relief to Fort Sumter, was fired on and driven back from Charleston. The States which seceded quickly seized other United States forts and property, and the United States sent reinforcements to forts within these States still in its possession, the surrender of which had been demanded by authorities of the States in which they were situated. In the midst of this stirring and rapid sequence of events
y of men that Porterfield was able to collect at Grafton, Lee ordered 1,000 muskets and rifles to Beverly, and some from Harper's Ferry to Grafton. Soon after the election upon the ordinance of secession, Porterfield, being advised of a contemplated Federal movement against Grafton, ordered the burning of two important bridges on the branches of the Baltimore & Ohio, northwest and west of Grafton. Considering this an overt act of rebellion, for which he had been waiting, McClellan, on the 26th, ordered Col. B. F. Kelley, of the Wheeling Union regiment, with his so-called First and Second Virginia regiments, which contained but few native Virginians, to move toward Grafton, to be followed by an Ohio regiment, while other regiments were ordered to occupy Parkersburg and thence advance on Grafton. Porterfield, asking for reinforcements, but receiving none, held his position until May 28th, with about 550 badly-armed and undisciplined cavalry and infantry, and then learning of the n
ake command of the forces in the Kanawha region and carry out the orders already given to McCausland. Colonel Tompkins reported from Charleston, May 23d, that he found some 350 men, in five companies, at Buffalo; that within two or three weeks he could probably raise fifteen or sixteen companies, but that the country was destitute of fabric suitable for uniforms. McCausland, covering the front on the Ohio river, reported Federal troops concentrating at and about Gallipolis, Ohio, on the 26th, and Tompkins, hastening to Charleston from his post at Kanawha Falls, sent McCausland as a special messenger to Governor Letcher to inform him of the disaffection of the population of the Kanawha region, of the difficulty of procuring reliable troops, and the imminent danger of invasion. After sending this dispatch on the 28th, Tompkins issued a spirited appeal, calling the men of Virginia—men of Kanawha, to arms. On the 23d of April, ex-Gov. Henry A. Wise tendered his services to Virgin
merit, has been assigned to the command at Norfolk, and I hope will be able to secure it against successful invasion. On May 25th, Governor Ellis notified President Davis that 37,000 stand of arms in the Fayetteville arsenal were at his disposal; that troops were constantly coming in, and he asked what he should do with a regiment that was ready for service, concluding: The people are a unit, waiting for an advance on Washington. Brig.-Gen. Benjamin Huger reported, from Norfolk, on the 26th, that with time and means he hoped to soon get the defenses of Norfolk in order; that Williams' North Carolina regiment had arrived from Richmond, and the Federals were landing troops at Newport News. Major-General Butler moved a body of troops, by transports, from Fort Monroe to Newport News, about 7 a. m., May 27th, and began intrenching a camp, of which he reported, when completed, it will be able to hold itself against any force that may be brought against it, and afford even a better
gh Lee, of the First Virginia cavalry, attacked a Federal picket in the same vicinity, part of the Brooklyn regiment (Fourteenth New York) of hard fighters. Two of Lee's men lost their lives, and 2 of the enemy were killed and 10 captured. On the 26th a squadron of Pennsylvania cavalry, on a reconnoissance to Vienna, was attacked by 120 men of the First North Carolina cavalry, under Col. Robert Ransom, and stampeded. Ransom reported the capture of 26 prisoners, and a considerable number of horses, sabers and carbines. The attention of the government was invited to these successful affairs by General Johnston. Skirmishes followed, of like character, near Dranesville on the 26th, near Fairfax on the 27th, and at Annandale, December 2d. Gen. S. G. French, stationed at Evansport, reported on December 15th that his position had been under fire from Federal batteries on the Maryland shore during the past three weeks. On December 20th Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, with a force comprising
learned of Jackson's unexpected movement to the left, he informed his government that he believed Jackson had abandoned the valley. Continuing his tardy pursuit, his cavalry entered Harrisonburg on the 22d of April and part of his infantry on the 26th. Looking out at the broadly widening valley before him, recalling that his base of supplies was nearly 100 miles in his rear by a wagon road, and uncertain as to what had become of his elusive foe, he hesitated what to do and asked for instructioia. On May 23d, the day Jackson struck Banks' left at Front Royal, President Lincoln visited McDowell at Fredericksburg, and wired McClellan on the 24th that Shields, with his 10,000 men, had joined McDowell, and that on the following Monday, the 26th, the 40,000 men of his command would march from Fredericksburg to reinforce McClellan's right in front of Richmond. Returning to Washington the night of the 23d, he heard of the attack on Front Royal. The next day more alarming intelligence came
city, McClellan anxiously awaited the arrival of McDowell, that his right might be extended with the 40,000 men that were already on the march from Fredericksburg to Richmond. To open the way for this approach, he ordered Fitz John Porter, on the 26th, to move a strong force northward, along the direct road from Mechanicsville to Hanover Court House, running nearly parallel with the Virginia Central railroad, to destroy that road and also the railroad leading to Fredericksburg, and drive away achmond. He was encamped between these roads, near Slash church, not far from Peake Station of the Virginia Central railroad. The Federal cavalry, moving by roads more to the eastward, sent its scouts to the vicinity of Hanover Court House on the 26th, thus informing Porter as to the condition of affairs in that vicinity. On the 27th, Branch, ignorant of the movements of Porter, had sent a portion of his force to repair the Virginia Central railroad near Peake. Porter's column, which had left
ations, and if attacked to unflinchingly hold their intrenchments. The intense heat and the lack of water exhausted Jackson's men and animals, and the reconstruction of bridges and the removal of obstacles from the roads which Fitz John Porter had destroyed and placed during his movement on Hanover Court House, delayed Jackson's march, so that his column did not reach Ashland until the night of the 25th, although his army had made 50 miles from Gordonsville in three days. By 3 a. m. of the 26th his advance, under Whiting, moved from Ashland on the Ash-cake road; by 9 a. m. it was crossing the Virginia Central railroad, near Peake's, and by 10, Branch was informed of Jackson's progress, some six hours later than Lee had expected. Part of this delay was caused by the failure of the commissary department at Richmond to provide rations for Jackson at Ashland, as had been promised him. Jackson, in person, was pushing forward with all possible dispatch and, as White writes in his Life of
sville, their course was turned from the northwest to the northeast, they looked questioningly one to the other, as to whither they were going, led by Lieutenant Boswell and portions of the noted Black Horse cavalry through their Fauquier home-land. Jackson pressed steadily forward, through the long August day, without halt, until he had covered 25 miles and reached the vicinity of Salem, on the Manassas Gap railroad, just as the sun sank behind the Blue ridge to his left. At dawn of the 26th, Jackson's men were again puzzled on finding themselves marching to the southeast, following the line of the Manassas Gap railroad, through Thoroughfare gap, to Gainesville, where Stuart joined them with his cavalry and led the way from that hamlet directly to Bristoe Station, on the Orange & Alexandria railroad, which they reached about dark, after a march of 24 miles, without having met opposition on the way. Jackson and his 22,000 enthusiastic men, and Stuart with wide-awake and jolly cava
ithdrawn the teams and artillery from his right, across the river, and moved them down in the rear of his left, and would commence a forced march for Hanovertown to seize and hold the crossing. So he withdrew from Lee's front, on the night of the 26th, and sought another road to Richmond, farther to the southeast. General Lee, having been taken seriously ill, was unable to fall upon Grant on the north side of the North Anna, as he fully intended to do. Grant had utterly failed to accomplishfight, of course; otherwise, he will maneuver without attacking. Our forces are strongly intrenched and perfectly safe, even if Lee should attempt to push his whole army upon either division of ours. He concluded a dispatch of the morning of the 26th, after telling of Grant's new movement, in these words: One of the most important results of the campaign, so far, is the entire change which has taken place in the feeling of the armies. Rebels have lost all confidence and are already morally de
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