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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The treatment of prisoners during the war between the States. (search)
ublished report made by four returned Andersonville prisoners, who were allowed to come North on their representation that they could induce their humane Government to assent to an exchange. Vana spes. Edwin M. Stanton would have seen the whole of them die before he would give General Lee one able-bodied soldier. These prisoners alleged (I quote from memory). that out of a population of about thirty-six thousand at that pen, six thousand, or one-sixth of the whole, died between the first of February and the first of August, 1864. Now at Elmira the quota was not made up till the last of August, so that September was the first month during which any fair estimate of the mortality of the camp could be made. Now, out of less than nine thousand five hundred prisoners on the first of September, three hundred and eighty-six died that month. At Andersonville the mortality averaged a thousand a month out of thirty-six thousand, or one thirty-sixth. At Elmira it was three hundred and e
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Official correspondence of Governor Letcher, of Virginia. (search)
t respect, I have the honor to remain, Your obedient servant, Winfield Scott. Headquarters of the army, New York, October 22, 186<*>. Lieutenant-Colonel W. J. Hardee, First United States Cavalry: Sir — By direction of the Lieutenant-General commanding the army, I send you the enclosed copy of a letter received by him from the Governor of Virginia. I am also instructed by the General to say, that as you have been authorized to delay proceeding to join your new post until the first of February next, you are, of course, at liberty to accept or to decline Governor Letcher's invitation to visit the encampment of cavalry, as you may think proper. I am, sir, very respectfully, Your obedient servant, (Signed) E. D. Keys, Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army, Military Secretary to Lieutenant-General Scott. The following from Honorable George W. Summers, and the reply of Governor Letcher, are important: Kanawha Courthouse, May 3d, 1861. John Letcher, Esq., Gove
angements were made for an army and navy, and for all the functions of civil government, and inducements were offered to volunteers to join their standard. In January, 1836, Austin wrote, advising a declaration of independence; and, on the 1st of February, delegates in favor of that measure were elected to a national convention, which, on the 2d day of March, 1836, declared Texts: a free, sovereign, and independent republic. On the 17th of March a constitution was adopted, and an executive ghe felt a slight as if it were a stain, and this rendered him, even when most useful, most unhappy. His colleagues were men of like patriotism and fine abilities. In the mean time events had moved rapidly. Santa Anna had set out on the 1st of February from Saltillo, with his grand army of invasion, computed at 7,500 men. On the 16th he crossed the Rio Grande, and on the 23d appeared before San Antonio. Instead of finding this stronghold of the west fortified, garrisoned, and provisioned
rolina began by seceding December 20, 1860; the others quickly followed; and the government of the Confederate States was formed. The Confederate Government was organized February 8, 1861, by South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, which adopted a Constitution not differing materially from the old one. It was not of the provisions of the Constitution that they complained, but of their infraction. The Convention of Texas passed an ordinance of secession February 1st, which was ratified by a vote of the people February 23d, and went into effect March 2d. Thus, the seven most southern States presented a compact front to the Union, from the Rio Grande to the Atlantic. The party in those States which had preferred cooperation to separate State action found in the prompt organization of the new Confederacy a more practical solution of their policy than in prolonged and indecisive deliberation, and at once coalesced with their opponents. The Provisi
is converted into the praises of to-morrow by a simple success. All I require to rectify that is to get in position where I can fight a battle, and I think all will be well. The conversation was closed by his assuring me he would hold Bowling Green as long as it was safe to do so-even to the last moment. In a few weeks the enemy's plans were developed just as he had foretold, and that moment came. General John C. Brown informs the writer that he was sent by General Buckner, between the 1st and 4th of February, from Russellville to Bowling Green, in order to have a full conversation with General Johnston touching the reorganization of the troops and some other matters. During this confidential interview, which was frank and extended, General Johnston explained to him the positions and relative strength of Buell's army and his own, and read to him a good deal of his correspondence elucidating these points. Among other things, General Johnston told him that if he should lose Hen
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Recollections of the Twiggs surrender. (search)
nd some were known to have voted three times. It was well known that the Federal civil officers were loyal; the French and German citizens were emphatically so; and yet against the will of the people, by superior political diplomacy, secession triumphed in San Antonio by a small majority. Many Germans gave up their business and left the town, taking refuge in New Braunfels, 31 miles away. Many of these men were political refugees of rare culture and scholarly attainments. On the 1st of February, the ordinance of secession was adopted by the Texas Convention, The secession of Texas was not legally completed until the ratification of this ordinance by the people, February 23d, but the secession party considered the authority of the convention sufficient for the prior seizure of United States property.-editors. and on the 4th commissioners were appointed to confer with General Twiggs, with regard to the public arms, stores, munitions of war, etc., under his control, and belong
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., The defense of Fort Henry. (search)
ommensurate with its seeming importance,--the result being that I was again referred, this time to General A. S. Johnston, who at once dispatched an engineer (Major Jeremy F. Gilmer). to investigate and remedy; but it was now too late to do so effectually, though an effort was made looking to that end, by beginning to: fortify the heights on. the west bank (Fort Heiman). The armament of the fort at the time I assumed command consisted of 6 smooth-bore 32-pounders and 1 6-pounder iron-gun; February 1st,:1862, by the persistent efforts of General Lloyd Tilghman and Colonel A. Heiman, this had been, increased to 8 32-, 2 42-, 1 128-pounders (Columbiad), 5 18-pounder siege guns, all smoothbore, and 1 6-inch rifle; we also had 6 12-pounders, which looked so much like pot-metal that it was deemed best to subject them to a test, and as two of them burst with an ordinary charge, the others were set aside as useless incumbrances. The powder supplied was mostly of a very inferior quality, so mu
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 5: secession. (search)
advocates of immediate or of co-operative secession were right. The purpose to coerce South Carolina illegally was, at once, indicated by the retention of the strongest work commanding her chief city and harbor, Fort Sumter; and the manner in which this threatening act was accompanied, aggravated the indignation of the people. On the 9th of January, 1861, Mississippi left the Union; Alabama and Florida followed on the 11th; Georgia on the 20th; Louisiana on the 26th; and Texas on the 1st of February. On the 9th of February, a Provisional Government of the six seceding States was instituted at Montgomery, in Alabama, with Jefferson Davis for President, and Alexander H. Stephens for Vice-President. Meantime the border Slave States, headed by Virginia, while declaring that they would not remain passive spectators of an attempt to chastise the seceding States for thus exercising their unquestionable right, continued in the Union, and made strenuous efforts at conciliation. The G
diverted-Thomas, commanding the Chattanooga lines, was to advance against that point. The plan was undoubtedly sound, but the general's want of balance caused him to overweight it, until its own ponderousness was its destruction. On the 1st of February, Sherman, with a splendidlyap-pointed force of 35,000 infantry, and corresponding cavalry and artillery, marched out of Vicksburg; to penetrate to Mobile, or some other point more accessible, on the line of the proposed new base. Simultanethe portentous clouds lowering upon her horizon. Meanwhile, Grant, elevated to a lieutenant-generalcy, had been transferred to the Potomac frontier; and men, money, supplieswithout stint or limit-had been placed at his disposal. On the 1st February, Mr. Lincoln had called for 500,000 men; and on the 14th March for 200,000 more! General Grant, himself, testified to the absolute control given him, in a letter to Mr. Lincoln, under date of 1st May, 1864-from Culpeper C. H., which conclu
r cent.; to October 1st, 10 per cent.; October 15th, 12 per cent.; November 15th, 15 per cent.; December 1st, 20 per cent. 1862.-January 1st, 20 per cent.; February 1st, 25 per cent.; February 15th, 40 per cent.; March 1st, 50 percent.; March 15th, 65 per cent.; April 1st, 75 per cent.; April 15th, 80 per cent.; May 1st. 90 per cent.; May 15th, 95 per cent.; June 15th, 2 for 1; August 1st, 2.20 for 1; September 1st, 2.50 for 1. 1863.-February 1st, 3 for 1; February 15th, 3.10 for 1; March 1st, 3.25 for 1; March 15th, 5 for 1; May 15th, 6 for 1; June 1st, 6.50 for 1; June 15th, 7.50 for 1; July 1st, 8 for 1; July 15th, 10 for 1; August 15th, 15 for ; September 15th, 23 for 1; October 15th, 25 for 1; November 15th, 28 for 1; December 1st, 32 for 1; December 31st, 51 for 1. 1865.-January 1st, 60 for 1; February 1st, 50 for 1; April 1st, 70 for 1; April 15th, 80 for 1; April 20th, 100 for 1; April 26th, 200 for 1: April 28th, 500 for ; April 29th, 800 for 1; April 30th, 1,
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