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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 13 13 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 6 6 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
f the year, he accepted an invitation of Herod the Great, and went to Jerusalem. He founded the military colony of Berytus (Beyrut), thence he proceeded in B. C. 16 to the Pontus Euxinus, and compelled the Bosporani to accept Polemo for their king and to restore the Roman eagles which had been taken by Mithridates. On his return he stayed some time in Ionia, where he granted privileges to the Jews whose cause was pleaded by Herod (J. AJ 16.2), and then proceeded to Rome, where he arrived in B. C. 13. After his tribunician power had been prolonged for five years, he went to Pannonia to restore tranquillity to that province. He returned in B. C. 12, after having been successful as usual, and retired to Campania. There he died unexpectedly, in the month of March, B. C. 12, in his 51st year. His body was carried to Rome, and was buried in the mausoleum of Augustus, who himself pronounced a funeral oration over it. Dio Cassius tells us (52.1, &c.), that in the year B. C. 29 Augustus asse
Anto'nius 19. JULUS ANTONIUS, M. F. M. N., the younger son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was brought up by his step-mother Octavia at Rome, and after his father's death (B. C. 30) received great marks of favour from Augustus, through the influence of Octavia. (Plut. Ant. 87; D. C. 51.15.) Augustus married him to Marcella, the daughter of Octavia by her first husband, C. Marcellus, conferred upon him the praetorship in B. C. 13, and the consulship in B. C. 10. (Vell. 2.100 ; D. C. 54.26, 36; Suet. Cl. 2.) In consequence of his adulterous intercourse with Julia, the daughter of Augustus, he was condemned to death by the emperor in B. C. 2, but seems to have anticipated his execution by a voluntary death. He was also accused of aiming at the empire. (D. C. 55.10; Senec. de Brevit. Vit. 5; Tac. Ann. 4.44, 3.18; Plin. Nat. 7.46; Vell. Pat. l.c.) Antonius was a poet, as we learn from one of Horace's odes (4.2), which is addressed to him.
bout the same time he increased the number of senators to 600. The wars in Armenia, in the Alps, and on the Lower Rhine, were conducted by his generals with varying success. In B. C. 16 the Romans suffered a defeat on the Lower Rhine by some German tribes; and Augustus, who thought the danger greater than it really was, went himself to Gaul, and spent two years there, to regulate the government of that province, and to make the necessary preparations for defending it against the Germans. In B. C. 13 he returned to Rome, leaving the protection of the frontier on the Rhine to his step-son, Drusus Nero. In B. C. 9 he again went to Gaul, where he received German ambassadors, who sued for peace; but he treacherously detained them, and distributed them in the towns of Gaul, where they put an end to their lives in despair. Towards the end of this year, he returned to Rome with Tiberius and Drusus. From this time forward, Augustus does not appear to have again taken any active part in the wars
y over the Garamantes, and enjoyed a triumph in consequence in March, B. C. 19, the first instance of this honour having been conferred upon one who was not born a Roman citizen. (Plin. Nat. 5.5; Vell. 2.51; Strab. iii. p.169.) Balbus, like his uncle, had amassed a large fortune; and, as Augustus was anxious to adorn Rome with public buildings, Balbus erected at his own expense a theatre in the city, which was remarkable on account of its containing four pillars of onyx. It was dedicated in B. C. 13, with festive games, on the return of Augustus to Rome; and as a compliment to Balbus for having built it, his opinion was asked first in the senate by Tiberius, who was consul in that year. (D. C. 54.25; Plin. Nat. 36.7. e. 12.) After this we hear nothing further of Balbus. He may have been the Cornelius Balbus whom L. Valerius made his heir, although he had involved Valerius in many law-suits, and had at last brought a capital charge against him. (V. Max. 7.8.7.) (For further informatio
C. Caesar and L. CAESAR, the sons of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and the grandsons of Augustus. Caius was born in B. C. 20 and Lucius in B. C. 17, and in the latter year they were both adopted by Augustus. In B. C. 13, Caius, who was then only seven years of age, took part with other patrician youths in the Trojan game at the dedication of the temple of Marcellus by Augustus. In B. C. 8, Caius accompanied Tiberius in his campaign against the Sigambri in order to become acquainted with military exercises. Augustus carefully superintended the education of both the youths, but they early shewed signs of an arrogant and overbearing temper, and importuned their grandfather to bestow upon them public marks of honour. Their requests were seconded by the entreaties of the people, and granted by Augustus, who, under the appearance of a refusal, was exceedingly anxious to grant them the honours they solicited. Thus they were declared consuls elect and principes juventutis before they had la
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
o the annoyances to which the Jews in lonia were constantly exposed. In a conversation with Herod Nicolaus once directed his attention to the advantages which a prince might derive from history; and the king, who was struck by the truth of the observation, entreated Nicolaus to write a history. Nicolaus complied with the request, and compiled a most voluminous work on universal history, the accomplishment of which, in his opinion, surpassed even the hardest among the labours of Heracles. In B. C. 13, when Herod went to Rome to pay Augustus a visit, he took Nicolaus with him, and both travelled in the same vessel. On that occasion, Nicolaus made Augustus a present of the finest fruit of the palm-tree, which Augustus henceforth called Nicolai, a name by which that fruit was known down to the middle ages. Some writers speak of cakes (plakou=ntes) which Nicolaus presented to Augustus, but this is evidently a mistake. (Suid. s. v. *Niko/laos; Athen. 14.652; Plut. Sympos. 8.4; Isidor. Orig.
d the brothers jointly defeated some of the tribes of the Rhaeti and Vindelici, while others submitted without resistance. A tribute was imposed upon the country. The greater part of the population was carried off, while enough were left to till the soil without being able to rebel. (D. C. 54.22 ; Strab. iv. fin.; Florus, 4.12.) These exploits of the young step-sons of Augustus are the theme of a spirited ode of Horace. (Carm. 4.4, ib. 14.) On the return of Augustus to Rome from Gaul, ill B. C. 13, Drusus was sent into that province, which had been driven into revolt by the exaction of the Roman governor, Licinius, who, in order to increase the amount of the monthly tribute, had divided the year into fourteen months. Drusus made a new assessment of property for the purpose of taxation, and in B. C. 12 quelled the tumults which had been occasioned by his financial measures. (Liv. Epit. cxxxvi. cxxxvii.) The Sicambri and their allies, under pretence of attending an annual festival held
lowed him, however, to retain his private fortune, and his dignity of pontifex maximus. Thus ended the public life of Lepidus. After the conspiracy of his son against the life of Augustus at the time of the battle of Actium (see below), Lepidus was ordered to return to Rome; and, though he had not been privy to it, he was treated by Augustus with the utmost indignity. Still the loss of honour and rank, and the insults to which he was exposed, did not shorten his life, for he survived till B. C. 13. Augustus succeeded him as pontifex maximus. Lepidus was one of those men who have no decided character, and who are incapable of committing great crimes for the same reason that they are incapable of performing any noble acts. He possessed great wealth, and, like almost all his contemporaries, was little scrupulous about the means of acquiring it. Neither in war nor in peace did he exhibit any distinguished abilities; but that he was not so contemptible a character, as he is drawn by Dru
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
and deportment to the rest of the world. He attacked his rival grammarians in the bitterest terms, and did not spare the most distinguished men in the state, of which an instance is given by Suetonius and Macrobius (2.6), though they differ in the name of the Roman noble whom he made game of, the former calling him Varro Murena, and the latter Galba. Orbilius lived nearly a hundred years, but had lost his memory long before his death. As he was fifty in B. C. 63, he must have been born in B. C. 1 13, and have died shortly before B. C. 13. A statue was erected to him at Beneventum in the Capitol. He left a son Orbilius, who followed the profession of his father; and a slave and pupil of his, of the name of Scribonius, also attained some celebrity as a grammarian. Orbilius was the author of a work cited by Suetonius under the title of Perialogos, but the name is evidently corrupt. Oudendorp proposed to read Paedagogus, and Ernesti Periautologos. (Suet. de Illustr. Gramm. 9, 19; comp. 4.)
Rhascu'poris 3. Son of Cotys (probably No. 4), was defeated and slain in battle by Vologaeses, chief of the Thracian Bessi, and leader of the general revolt of Thrace against the Romans in B. C. 13. (D. C. 54.34; comp. Vell. 2.98.) [W.B.D]
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