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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 22 22 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 5 5 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 3 3 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 21-22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 26-27 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
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Polybius, Histories, book 2, Hasdrubal Dies and Hannibal Succeeds Him (search)
Hasdrubal Dies and Hannibal Succeeds Him Our narrative now returns to Hasdrubal, whom we left Death of Hasdrubal in Spain, B. C. 221. See chap. 13. in command of the Carthaginian forces in Iberia. After eight years command in that country, he was assassinated in his own house at night by a certain Celt in revenge for some private wrong. Before his death he had done much to strengthen the Carthaginian power in Iberia, not so much by military achievements, as by the friendly relations which he maintained with the native princes. Now that he was dead, the Carthaginians invested Hannibal with the command in Iberia, in spite of his youth, because of the ability in the conduct of affairs, and the daring spirit which he had displayed.Succession of Hannibal to the command in Spain. His hostility to Rome. He had no sooner assumed the command, than he nourished a fixed resolve to make war on Rome; nor was it long before he carried out this resolution. From that time forth there were constant s
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal Succeeds to Command in Spain (search)
the feelings of the army; but when news came from thence that the troops had elected Hannibal as commander in-chief, a popular assembly was at once held, and the choice of the army confirmed by a unanimous vote. Death of Hamilcar, B. C. 229. As soon as he had taken over the command, Hannibal set out to subdue the tribe of the Olcades; and, having arrived before their most formidable city Althaea, he pitched his camp under its walls; and by a series of energetic and formidable assaults succeeded before long in taking it: by which the rest of the tribe were overawed into submission to Carthage. Death of Hasdrubal, B. C. 221.Having imposed a contribution upon the towns, and thus become possessed of a large sum of money, he went to the New Town to winter. There, by a liberal treatment of the forces under his command, giving them an instalment of their pay at once and promising the rest, he established an excellent feeling towards himself in the army, as well as great hopes for the future.
Polybius, Histories, book 4, The Revenge of Dorimachus (search)
The Revenge of Dorimachus The Strategus of the Aetolians at that time was Ariston; Dorimachus becomes practically Strategus of Aetolia, B. C. 221. but being from physical infirmities unable to serve in the field, and being a kinsman of Dorimachus and Scopas, he had somehow or another surrendered his whole authority to the former. In his public capacity Dorimachus could not venture to urge the Aetolians to undertake the Messenian war, because he had no reasonable pretext for so doing: the origin of his wish being, as everybody well knew, the wrongs committed by himself and the bitter gibe which they had brought upon him. He therefore gave up the idea of publicly advocating the war, but tried privately to induce Scopas to join in the intrigue against the Messenians.He induces Scopas to go to war with Messenia, Epirus, Achaia, Acarnania, and Macedonia. He pointed out that there was now no danger from the side of Macedonia owing to the youth of the king (Philip being then only seventeen
Polybius, Histories, book 5, Xenoetas Sent Against Molon (search)
essful issue of their first hopes, the terror which he inspired became absolute, and he was believed by the Asiatics to be irresistible. Taking advantage of this, he first of all resolved to cross the Tigris and lay siege to Seleucia; but when his passage across the river was stopped by Zeuxis seizing the river boats, he retired to the camp at Ctesiphon, and set about preparing winter quarters for his army. When King Antiochus heard of Molon's advance and theXenoetas sent against Molon, B. C. 221. retreat of his own generals, he was once more for giving up the expedition against Ptolemy, and going in person on the campaign against Molon, and not letting slip the proper time for action. But Hermeias persisted in his original plan, and despatched the Achaean Xenoetas against Molon, in command of an army, with full powers; asserting that against rebels it was fitting that generals should have the command; but that the king ought to confine himself to directing plans and conducting nation
Polybius, Histories, book 5, The Fall of Xenoetas (search)
ver, but threw their beasts of burden in also, with their packs, as though they thought that the river by some providential instinct would take their part and convey them safely to the opposite camp. The result was that the stream presented a truly pitiable and extraordinary spectacle,—horses, beasts of burden, arms, corpses, and every kind of baggage being carried down the current along with the swimmers. Having secured the camp of Xenoetas, Molon crossed theMolon's successful campaign. B.C. 221. river in perfect safety and without any resistance, as Zeuxis also now fled at his approach; took possession of the latter's camp, and then advanced with his whole army to Seleucia; carried it at the first assault, Zeuxis and Diomedon the governor of the place both abandoning it and flying; and advancing from this place reduced the upper Satrapies to submission without a blow. That of Babylon fell next, and then the Satrapy which lay along the Persian Gulf. This brought him to Susa, which he
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 21 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 15 (search)
For the battle at the Trebia cannot have been fought as late as the consulship of Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius; for Gaius Flaminius began his consulship at Ariminum, having been elected under the presidency of Tiberius Sempronius who was then consul, and had, after the battle at the Trebia, come to Rome to hold the consular elections, and thenB.C. 219 returned to the winter quarters of the army.This paragraph is a footnote, in which Livy attempts to clear up the chronological muddle which he has got himself into by disregarding the clear statements of Polybius and following an inferior authority. According to Polybius, Hannibal was made general and attacked the Olcades in 221 B.C. In 220 came the war with the Vaccaei and Carpetani. In 219 (consulship of M. Livius Salinator and L. Aemilius Paulus) came the siege of Saguntum, after which Hannibal put his army in winter quarters in New Carthage, and in 218 set forth on the march to Italy (Polybius, III. xiii, xvii, xxxiii).
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 22 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.), chapter 49 (search)
estors of both consuls, Lucius Atilius and Lucius Furius Bibaculus, and twenty-nine military tribunes,There would have been forty-eight when the battle began (six for each legion), assuming that there were eight legions, as some of Livy's authorities held (chap. xxxvii. § 2). some of consular rank, some of praetorian or aedilician —amongst others are mentioned Gnaeus Servilius Geminus and Marcus Minucius, who had been master of the horse in the preceding years and consul several years before221 B.C. —and besides these, eighty senators or men who had held offices which would have given them the right to be elected to the senate,The Ovinian Law (soon after 368 B.C.) had provided that the censors must enrol in the senate such as had held curule office (curule aedileship, praetorship, consulship) since the last censorship. but had volunteered to serve as soldiers in the legions. The prisoners taken in this battle are said to have numbered three thousand foot-soldiers and fi
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 26 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University), chapter 8 (search)
before this happened Fulvius Flaccus had learned from deserters that it was to be done, and had so written to the senate at Rome; whereupon men's feelings were differently stirred according to their several natures. as was natural in so alarming a situation, the senate was at once summoned, and Publius Cornelius, surnamed Asina,He had been consul before this war, in 221 B.C.; cf. XXII. xxxiv. 1. with no thought of Capua or of anything else, was for recalling all the generals and armies from the whole of Italy for the defence of the city. but Fabius Maximus thought it a shameful thing to withdraw from Capua, to be frightened and led about at the beck of Hannibal and in response to his threats. to think, he said, that the man who, though victor at Cannae, had not ventured to go to the city, on being beaten back from Capua should have conceived the hope of capturing the city of Rome! it was not to besiege Rome that he was onB.C. 211 the march, but to raise th
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh), chapter 26 (search)
Also, great fleets were assembling: Lucius Quinctius had now arrived from Leucas with forty ships, together with eighteen warships of the Rhodians, and King Eumenes was off the Cyclades islands with ten warships, thirty cruisers and with them other vessels of smaller size. Many exiles of the Lacedaemonians, driven out by the misdeeds of the tyrants, also came to the Roman camp in the hope of being restored to their homes. There were many who had been driven out by one tyrant or another, through the several generationsThe next sentence reveals the exaggeration of the statement: Cleomenes was tyrant during the period 235-221 B.C. (Polyb. II. xlvii). which had elapsed since tyrants first got control of Sparta. The chief of the exiles was Agesipolis, to whom the throne of Lacedaemon belonged by right of birth, who had been exiled in his childhood by the tyrant Lycurgus after the death of Cleomenes, who had been the first to hold the tyranny inB.C. 195 Sparta.
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CAMPUS MARTIUS (search)
were domiciled in temples erected here. We know certainly of only three other cult centres besides that of Mars in the campus Martius before the Punic wars-the ara Ditis et Proserpinae in Tarento, the Apollinare, an altar or grove, and the temple of Apollo which was built in 431 B.C., and the temple of Bellona built in 296 B.C. Between 231 and the battle of Actium at least fifteen other temples were erected, and more during the next century. The construction of the circus Flaminius in 221 B.C. marked an epoch in the history of the southern part of the campus, but there was no public building of any note in the campus Martius proper before the end of the republic, when Pompeius built the first stone theatre in Rome in 55 B.C. Caesar conceived the idea of changing the course of the Tiber by digging a new channel on the west of the Janiculum, and of building over all the plain between that hill and those on the east side of the city (Cic. ad Att. xiii. 33). The river bed
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