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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 54 54 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Speeches 51-61 1 1 Browse Search
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Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 8-10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 331 BC or search for 331 BC in all documents.

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Acro'tatus (*)Akro/tatos). 1. The son of Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displeasure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the decree, which was to release from infamy all who had fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated Agis, B. C. 331. He was thus glad to accept the offer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta for assistance in B. C. 314 against Agathocles of Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained assistance from Tarentum; but on his arrival at Agrigentum he acted with such cruelty and tyranny that the inhabitants rose against him, and compelled him to leave the city. He returned to Sparta, and died before the death of his father, which was in B. C. 309. He left a son, Areus, who succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. 15.70, 71; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1, 2; Plut. Agis 3
ommanders in the Aegean, Pharnabazus and Autophradates, to request money and an armament for carrying on hostile operations against Alexander in Greece. They gave him 30 talents and 10 triremes. The news of the battle of Issus, however, put a check upon their plans. He sent the galleys to his brother Agesilaus, with instructions to sail with them to Crete, that he might secure that island for the Spartan interest. In this he seems in a great measure to have succeeded. Two years afterwards (B. C. 331), the Greek states which were leagued together against Alexander, seized the opportunity of the disaster of Zopyrion and the revolt of the Thracians, to declare war against Macedonia. Agis was invested with the command, and with the Lacedaemonian troops, and a body of 8000 Greek mercenaries, who had been present at the battle of Issus, gained a decisive victory over a Macedonian army under Corragus. Having been joined by the other forces of the league he laid siege to Megalopolis. The city
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
to the conqueror, for the Egyptiaus had ever hated the Persians, who insulted their religion and violated their temples. In the beginning of the following year (B. C. 331), Alexander founded at the mouth of the western branch of the Nile, the city of Alexandria, which he intended should form the centre of commerce between the east he turned southward through the desert and thus reached the temple. He was sahtted by the priests as the son of Jupiter Ammon. In the spring of the same year (B. C. 331), Alexander set out to meet Darius, who had collected another army. He marched through Phoeniciaand Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed at the ford of Thapswith the immense hosts of Darius, said to have amounted to more than a million of men, in the plains of Gaugamela. The battle was fought in the month of October, B. C. 331, and ended in the complete defeat of the Persians, who suffered immense slaughter. Alexander pursued the fagitives to Arbela (Erbil), which place has given its n
Ampho'terus (*)Amfotero/s), the brother of Craterus, was appointed by Alexander the Great commander of the fleet in the Hellespont, B. C. 333. Amphoterus subdued the islands between Greece and Asia which did not acknowledge Alexander, cleared Crete of the Persians and pirates, and sailed to Peloponnesus B. C. 331, to put down a rising against the Macedonian power. (Arrian, 1.25, 3.6; Curt. 3.1, 4.5, 8
e plot. The suspicion was strengthened by their known intimacy with Philotas, and by the fact that their brother Polerno had fled from the camp when the latter was apprehended (Arr. iii. pp. 72, f., 73, a.), or according to Curtius (7.1.10), when he was given up to the torture. Amyntas defended himself and his brothers ably (Curt. 7.1.18, &c.), and their innocence being further established by Polemo's re-appearance (Curt. 7.2.1, &c.; Arr. iii. p. 73a.), they were acquitted. Some little time after, Amyntas was killed by an arrow at the siege of a village. (Arr. iii. l.c.) It is doubtful whether the son of Andromenes is the Amyntas mentioned by Curtius (3.9.7) as commander of a portion of the Macedonian troops at the battle of Issus, B. C. 333; or again, the person spoken of as leading a brigade at the forcing of the "Persian Gates," B. C. 331. (Curt. 5.4.20.) But " Amyntas" appears to have been a common name among the Macedonians. (See Curt. 4.13.28, 5.2.5, 8.2.14, 16, 6.7.15, 6.9.28.)
ip of Macedon (Just. 9.4), who after his victory at Chaeroneia, B. C. 338, selected him to conduct to Athens the bones of the Athenians who had fallen in the battle. (Just. l.c.; Plb. 5.10.) He joined Parmenion in the ineffectual advice to Alexander the Great not to set out on his Asiatic expedition till he had provided by marriage for the succession to the throne (Diod 17.16); and, on the king's departure, B. C. 334, he was left regent in Macedonia. (Diod. 17.17; Arr. Anab. i. p. 12a.) In B. C. 331 Antipater suppressed the Thracian rebellion under Memnon (Diod. 17.62), and also brought the war with the Spartans under Agis III. to a successful termination. (See p. 72b.) It is with reference to this event that we first find any intimation of Alexander's jealousy of Antipater--a feeling which was not improbably produced or fostered by the representations of Olympias, and perhaps by the known sentiments of Antipater himself. (Curt. 6.1.17, &c., 10.10.14; Plut. Ages. p. 604b., Alex. pp. 6
Apollodo'rus 2. Of AMPHIPOLIS, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, was entrusted in B. C. 331, together with Menes, with the administration of Babylon and of all the satrapies as far as Cilicia. Alexander also gave them 1000 talents to collect as many troops as they could. (Diod. 17.54 ; Curtius, 5.1; comp. Arrian, Arr. Anab. 7.18; Appian, de Bell. Civ. 2.152.)
Apollo'nius (*)Apollw/nios), historical. 1. The son of Charinus, appointed by Alexander the Great, before leaving Egypt, as governor of the part of Libya on the confines of Egypt, B. C. 331. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 3.5; Curtius, 4.8
Ariobarza'nes 2. The satrap of Persis, fled after the battle of Guagamela, B. C. 331, to secure the Persian Gates, a pass which Alexander had to cross in his march to Persepolis. Alexander was at first unable to force the pass; but some prisoners, or, according to other accounts, a Lycian, having acquainted him with a way over the mountains, he was enabled to gain the heights above the Persian camp. The Persians then took to flight, and Ariobarzanes escaped with a few horsemen to the mountains. (Arrian, 3.18 Diod. 17.68; Curt. 5.3, 4.)
Atropates (*)Atropa/ths), called Atrapes by Diodorus (18.4), a Persian satrap, apparently of Media, had the command of the Medes, together with the Cadusii, Albani, and Sacesinae, at the battle of Guagamela, B. C. 331. After the death of Dareius, he was made satrap of Media by Alexander. (Arrian, 3.8, 4.18.) His daughter was married to Perdiccas in the nuptials celebrated at Susa in B. C. 324; and he received from his fatherin-law, after Alexander's death, the province of the Greater Media. (Arrian, 7.4; Just. 18.4 ; Diod. l.c.) In the northern part of the country, called after him Media Atropatene, he established an independent kingdom, which continued to exist down to the time of Strabo. (Strab. xi. p.523.) It was related by some authors, that Atropates on one occasion presented Alexander with a hundred women, said to be Amazons; but Arrian (7.13) disbelieved the stor
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