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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 29 29 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
in him by the researches of Aristotle. Nor was his physical education neglected. He was early trained in all manly and athletic sports; in horsemanship he excelled all of his age; and in the art of war he had the advantage of his father's instruction. At the early age of sixteen, Alexander was entrusted with the government of Macedonia by his father, while he was obliged to leave his kingdom to march against Byzantium. He first distinguished himself, however, at the battle of Chaeroneia (B. C. 338), where the victory was mainly owing to his impetuosity and courage. On the murder of Philip (B. C. 336), just after he had made arrangements to march into Asia at the head of the confederate Greeks, Alexander ascended the throne of Macedon, and found himself surrounded by enemies on every side. Attalus, the uncle of Cleopatra, who had been sent into Asia by Parmenion with a considerable force, aspired to the throne; the Greeks, roused by Demosthenes, threw off the Macedonian supremacy ;
s in Phoenicia. There he seized some ships, with which he passed over to Cyprus, and thence to Egypt, of the sovereignty of which--a double traitor--he designed to possess himself. The gates of Pelusium were opened to him on his pretending that he came with authority from Dareius : thence he pressed on to Memphis, and being joined by a large number of Egyptians, defeated in a battle the Persian garrison under Mazaces. But this victory made his troops over-confident and incautious, and, while they were dispersed for plunder, Mazaces sallied forth upon them, and Amyntas himself was killed with the greater part of his men. (Diod. 17.48; Arr. ii. p. 40c; Curt. 4.1.27, &c., 4.7.1, 2.) It is possible that the subject of the present article may have been the Amyntas who is mentioned among the ambassadors sent to the Boeotians by Philip, B. C. 338, to prevent the contemplated alliance of Thebes with Athens. It may also have been the son of Andromenes. (Plut. Dem. pp. 849, 854; Diod. 16.85.)
Antipater (*)Anti/patros), the father of CASSANDER, was an officer in high favour with Philip of Macedon (Just. 9.4), who after his victory at Chaeroneia, B. C. 338, selected him to conduct to Athens the bones of the Athenians who had fallen in the battle. (Just. l.c.; Plb. 5.10.) He joined Parmenion in the ineffectual advice to Alexander the Great not to set out on his Asiatic expedition till he had provided by marriage for the succession to the throne (Diod 17.16); and, on the king's departure, B. C. 334, he was left regent in Macedonia. (Diod. 17.17; Arr. Anab. i. p. 12a.) In B. C. 331 Antipater suppressed the Thracian rebellion under Memnon (Diod. 17.62), and also brought the war with the Spartans under Agis III. to a successful termination. (See p. 72b.) It is with reference to this event that we first find any intimation of Alexander's jealousy of Antipater--a feeling which was not improbably produced or fostered by the representations of Olympias, and perhaps by the known sent
Auto'lycus (*Au)to/lukos). 1. An Areiopagite, who was accused by the orator Lycurgus on account of removing his wife and children from Athens after the battle of Chaeroneia, B. C. 338, and was condemned by the judges. The speech of Lycurgus against Autolycus was extant in the time of Harpocration, but has not come down to us. (Lycurg. c. Leocr. p. 177, ed. Reiske; Harpocrat. s. vv. *Au)to/lukos, h)ri/a Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 843c. d
dit of releasing him and receiving the submission of Bubastus; and henceforth an alliance was formed between them for their mutual interest, which was ever strictly preserved, and conduced to the power of both,-- Mentor enjoying the satrapy of the western provinces, while Bagoas directed affairs at his pleasure in the centre of the empire,--and the king was reduced to a cipher. (Diod. 16.50.) The cruelties of Ochus having excited general detestation, Bagoas at length removed him by poison, B. C. 338, fearing perhaps lest the effects of the odium in which he was held might extend to himself, and certainly not from the motive absurdly assigned by Aelian, viz. the desire of avenging the insult offered by Ochus, so many years before, to the religion of Egypt. To the murder of the king he joined that of all his sons except Arses, the youngest, whom he placed upon the throne; but, seeing reason to apprehend danger from him, he put him also to death in the third year of his reign, B. C. 336.
Camillus 4. L. Furius Sp. F. M. N. CAMILLUS, son of No. 2, consul in B. C. 338, together with C. Maenius. He fought in this year successfully against the Tiburtines, and took their town Tibur. The two consuls united completed the subjugation of Latium; they were rewarded with a triumph, and equestrian statues, then a rare distinction, were erected to them in the forum. Camillus further distinguished himself by advising his countrymen to treat the Latins with mildness. In B. C. 325 he was elected consul a second time, together with D. Junius Brutus Scaeva. In this year war was declared against the Vestinians, and Camillus obtained Samnium for his province; but while he was engaged in the war, he was attacked by a severe illness, and was ordered to nominate L. Papirius Cursor dictator to continue the war. (Liv. 8.13, 16, &c., 29; Plin. Nat. 33.5.)
he republic, in return for it, would make him master of Pydna. This was the *Drulou/meno/n pote a)po/p)p(hton to which Demosthenes refers in Olynth. ii. p. 19, ad fin. (Theopomp. apud Suid. s. v. ti/ e)sti to\ e)n toi=s *Dhmosqe/nous *Filippikoi=s, k. t. l.; comp. Diod. 13.49; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 91, ad fin.) It was perhaps this same Charidemus whom the Athenians, had they not been restrained by Phocion's party, would have made general to act against Philip after the battle of Chaeroneia, B. C. 338, and who, being at the court of Macedonia as an envoy at the time of Philip's murder, B. C. 336, transmitted to Demosthenes, whose friend he was, the earliest intelligence of that event. (Plut. Phoc. 16, Dem. 22 ; Aesch. c. Ctes. p. 64.) He was one of the orators whose surrender was required by Alexander in B. C. 335, after the destruction of Thebes, and the only one in whose behalf he refused to recede from his demand on the mediation of Demades. Charidemus, being thus obliged to leave hi
ns. (Dem. de Coron. p. 299, &c.) This was the last grand effort against the growing power of Macedonia; but the battle of Chaeroneia, on the 7th of Metageitnion, B. C. 338, put an end to the independence of Greece. Thebes paid dearly for its resistance, and Athens which expected a similar fate, resolved at least to perish in a glor in Demosth. Orat. c. Timocrat., Berlin, 1823. 24 and 25. The two orations against Aristogeiton The two orations against Aristogeiton belong to the time after B. C. 338. The genuineness of these two orations, especially of the first, was strongly doubted by the ancients themselves (Dionys. de Admir. vi dic. Dem. 57; Harpocrat. s/rra, dhmopoi/htos, dieggu/hsen, *(/Ipparxos, and *Kwlia/s ; Schaefer, Appar. Crit. v. p. 527.) III. Show Speeches. 59. *)Epita/fios *)Epita/fios, refers to B. C. 338, but is un questionably spurious. (Dionys. de Adnir. vi dic. Dem. 23, 44; Liban. p. 6; Harpocrat. s. tv. *Ai)gei=dai and *Kekroipi/s; Phot. Bibl. p. 491; Suid. s
Diony'sius (*Dionu/sios), tyrant of HERACLEIA on the Euxine. He was a son of Clearchus, who had assumed the tyranny in his native place, and was succeeded by his son Timotheus. After the death of the latter, Dionysius succeeded in the tyranny, about the time of the battle of Chaeroneia, B. C. 338. After the destruction of the Persian empire by Alexander the Great, Dionysius attempted to extend his dominions in Asia. In the meantime, some of the citizens of Heracleia, who had been driven into exile by their tyrants, applied to Alexander to restore the republican government at Heracleia, but Dionysius, with the assistance of Alexander's sister, Cleopatra, contrived to prevent any steps being taken to that effect. But still he does not appear to have felt very safe in his position, as we may conjecture from the extreme delight with which he received the news of Alexander's death, in consequence of which he erected a statue of eu)fumi/a, that is, joy or peace of mind. The exiled Heraclea
a bon vivant, and the author of a treatise on his favourite delicacy-fish. His profession and his propensity are together marked by the name lopadofshth/s, applied to him by the comic poet Mnesimachus, in his play of" Philip." (Ap. Athen. viii. p. 338b.; Meineke, Fragm. Com. vol. iii. p. 578.) He is mentioned too in a fragment of Machon, also preserved by Athenaeus (viii. p. 337c.; Casaub. ad loc.); and there is an anecdote of him at the court of Nicocreon of Salamis (Athen. 8.337f.), which shews that he did not lose anything for want of asking. He was in favour also with Philip of Macedon, who had him in his retinue at Chaeroneia, in B. C. 338. (Athen. 3.118b., vii. pp. 282, d., 287, c., 297, c., 300, f., 304, f., 306, f., 309, f., 312, d., 315, b., 319, d., 320, d., 322, f., 327, f, x. p. 435c.) There was a Dorion too, probably a different person, from whose work, called *Pewpulko/n, a mythological account of the origin of the word (snkh/ is quoted by Athenaeus (iii. p. 78a.). [E.E]
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