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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 20 20 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Letters (ed. Norman W. DeWitt, Norman J. DeWitt) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 346 BC or search for 346 BC in all documents.

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onfided to him that he would undertake nothing against either Phocis or Athens. Demosthenes saw through the king's plans as well as the treachery of Aeschines, and how just his apprehensions were became evident soon after the return of Aeschines, when Philip announced to the Athenians that he had taken possession of Phocis. The people of Athens, however, were silenced and lulled into security by the repeated assurances of the king and the venal orators who advocated his cause at Athens. In B. C. 346, Aeschines was sent as pulago/ras to the assembly of the amphictyons at Pylae which was convoked by Philip, and at which he received greater honours than he could ever have expected. At this time Aeschines and Demosthenes were at the head of the two parties, into which not only Athens, but all Greece was divided, and their political enmity created and nourished personal hatred. This enmity came to a head in the year B. C. 343, when Demosthenes charged Aeschines with having been bribed an
ls, whence she probably derived the surname of taurobo/los (Suid. s. v.), rams, and cows. (Hom. Il. 2.550; Ov. Met. 4.754.) Eustathius (ad Hom. l.c.) remarks, that only female animals were sacrificed to her, but no female lambs. In Ilion, Locrian maidens or children are said to have been sacrificed to her every year as an atonement for the crime committed by the Locrian Ajax upon Cassandra; and Suidas (s. v. poinh/) states, that these human sacrifices continued to be offered to her down to B. C. 346. Respecting the great festivals of Athena at Athens, see Dict. of Ant. s. vv. Panathenaea and Arrhephoria. Athena was frequently represented in works of art; but those in which her figure reached the highest ideal of perfection were the three statues by Pheidias. The first was the celebrated colossal statue of the goddess, of gold and ivory, which was erected on the acropolis of Athens; the second was a still greater bronze statue, made out of the spoils taken by the Athenians in the bat
ver came to nothing in consequence of the refusal of Amadocus to allow Philip a passage through his territory. But after the passing of the decree above-mentioned, Philip became the enemy of Cersobleptes, and in B. C. 352 made a successful expedition into Thrace, gained a firm ascendancy in the country, and brought away a son of Cersobleptes as a hostage. (Dem. Olynth. i. p. 12 ad fin.; Isocr. Phil. p. 86c.; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 38.) At the time of the peace between Athens and Philip in B. C. 346, we find Cersobleptes again involved in hostilities with the Macedonian king, who in fact was absent in Thrace when the second Athenian embassy arrived at Pella, and did not return to give them audience till he had completely conquered Cersobleptes. (Dem. de Fals. Leg. pp. 390, 391, de Cor. p. 235; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. pp. 29, 40, &c.) In the course of the next three years, Cersobleptes seems to have recovered strength sufficient to throw off the yoke, and, according to Diodorus, persisted
om Delphi, and some of which had found its way into his hands. (Diod. 16.52-55; Philochor. apud Dionys. p. 735; Theopomp. and Heracleid. apud Athen. xii. p. 532.) On his eu)qu/nh he was impeached by Cephisodotus, who complained, that "he was endeavouring to give his account after having got the people tight by the throat" (Arist. Rhet. 3.10.7), an allusion perhaps merely to the great embarrassment of Athens at the time. (See a very unsatisfactory explanation in Mitford, ch. 39, sec. 2.) In B. C. 346 we find him commanding again in Thrace; and, when Philip was preparing to march against Cersobleptes, complaints arrived at Athens from the Chersonesus that Chares had withdrawn from his station, and was nowhere to be found; and the people were obliged to send a squadron in quest of him with the extraordinary message, that " the Athenians were surprised that, while Philip was marching against the Chersonese, they did not know where their general and their forces were." That he had been eng
Eretria by Phocion, B. C. 350, popular government was at first established ; but strong party struggles ensued, in which the adherents of Athens were at length overpowered by those of Macedonia, and Philip then sent Hipponicus, one of his generals, to destroy the walls of Porthmus, the harbour of Eretria, and to set up Hipparchus, Automedon, and Cleitarchus as tyrants. (Plut. Phoc. 13; Dem. (de Cor. § 86, Philipp. 3. §§ 68, 69.) This was subsequent to the peace between Athens and Philip in B. C. 346, since Demosthenes adduces it as one of the proofs of a breach of the peace on the part of Macedon. (Philipp. 3.23.) The tyrants, however, were not suffered to retain their power quietly, for Demosthenes (Philip. 3.69) mentions two armaments sent by Philip for their support, at different times, under Eurylochus and Parmenion respectively. Soon after, we find Cleitarchus in sole possession of the government ; but he does not seem to have been at open hostility with Athens, though he held Er
fell by the sword of Valerius. A general battle then ensued, in which the Gauls were entirely defeated. The consul presented Valerius with ten oxen and a golden crown, and the grateful people elected him, in his absence, consul for the next year, though he was only twenty-three years of age. He was consul in B. C. 348 with L. Popillius Laenas. There was peace in that year both at home and abroad: a treaty was made with Carthage. (Liv. 7.26, 27; Gel. 9.11; V. Max. 8.15.5; Eutrop. 2.6.) In B. C. 346 Corvus was consul a second time with C. Poetelius Libo. He carried on war against the Volsci, defeated them in battle, and then took Satricum, which he burnt to the ground with the exception of the temple of Mater Matuta. He obtained a triumph on his return to Rome. (Liv. 7.27; Censorin. de Die Nat. 17.) In B. C. 343 Corvus was consul a third time with A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina. Young as he was, Corvus was already regarded as one of the very first generals of the republic, and the state
Critobu'lus (*Krito/boulos), a citizen of Lampsacus, who appeared at Athens as the representative of Cersobleptes in B. C. 346, when the treaty of peace between Philip and the Athenians was about to be ratified, and claimed to be admitted to take the oath on behalf of the Thracian king as one of the allies of Athens. A decree to this effect was passed by the assembly in spite of a strong opposition, as Aeschines asserts, on the part of Demosthenes. Yet when the treaty was actually ratified before the board of generals, Cersobleptes was excluded from it. Demosthenes and Aeschines accuse one another of thus having nullified the decree; while, according to Philip's account, Critobulus was prevented by the generals from taking the oath. (Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 39, Ep. Phil. ad Ath. p. 160; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 395; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 356.) [E.
on to his becoming a member of the Amphictyonic league. The mischief, however, was done, and in order to prevent still more serious consequences, Demosthenes, in B. C. 346, delivered his oration " on the peace" (pepi\ ei)rh/nhs), and the people gave way. From this time forward the two political parties are fully developed, and option of the Olynthiac orations, with notes, by C. H. Frotscher and C. H. Funkhänel, Leipzig, 1834, 8vo. 5. On the Peace The oration on the Peace, delivered in B. C. 346. Respecting the question as to whether this oration was actually delivered or not, see Becker, Philippische Reden, i. p. 222, &c., and Vömel, Prolegom. ad Orat. in date. 55. *Kata\ *Dionusodw/rou bla/bhs *Kata\ *Dionusodw/rou bla/bhs, B. C. 329. 56. *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn, after B. C. 346. 57. *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis, belongs to B. C. 325, but is probably the work of Deinarchus. (Dionys. Deinarch. 10; Argum.
Dercylus or DERCYLLUS (*Derku/los, *De/rkullos), an Athenian, was one of that embassy of ten, in which Aeschines and Demosthenes were included, and which was sent to Philip to treat on the subject of peace in B. C. 347. In B. C. 346, the same ambassadors appear to have been again deputed to ratify the treaty. (See the Argument prefixed to Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 336; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 41; Thirwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 356; comp. the decree apud Dem. de Cor. p. 235; Classical Museum, vol. i. p. 145.) Dercylus was also one of the envoys in the third embassy (*e)pi\ tou\s *)Amfiktu/onas), which was appointed to convey to Philip, then marching upon Phocis, the complimentary and cordial decree of Philocrates, and to attend the Amphictyonic coullncil that was about to be convened on the affairs of Phocis. When, however, the ambassadors had reached Chalcis in Euboea, they heard of the destruction of the Phocian towns by Philip, and of his having taken part entirely with the Thebans, and
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Diony'sius or Diony'sius the Younger or the Younger Diony'sius (search)
great rapidity. Callippus, the murderer of Dion, was in his turn driven from the city by Ilipparinus (son of the elder Dionysius by Aristomache, and therefore nephew of Dion), who reigned but two years: another of Dion's nephews, Nysaeus, subsequently obtained the supreme power, and was in possession of it when Dionysius presented himself before Syracuse with a fleet, and became master of the city by treachery. According to Plutarch, this took place in the tenth year after his expulsion, B. C. 346. (Diod. 16.31, 36; Justin, 21.3; Athen. 11.508; Plut. Tim. 1.) The Locrians meanwhile took advantage of his absence to revolt against him : they drove out the garrison which he had left, and wreaked their vengeance in the most cruel manner on his wife and daughters. (Strab. vi. p.260; Clearch. apud Athen. xii. p. 541.) Dionysius was not however able to reestablish himself firmly in his former power. Most of the other cities of Sicily had shaken off the yoke of Syracuse, and were governed s
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