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I was unable to bring a private action （for there were no actions at that time, since you put off all such matters because of the warThe reference is to the hostilities between Athens and Thebes in the period between the battle of Leuctra （371 B.C.） and the battle of Mantinea （362 B.C.）.）, but I indicted him before the ThesmothetaeSee note a on p. 202 of vol. 1. on the charge of outrage.The u(/brews grafh/ was a public indictment for wanton outrage. It was a criminal charge, and involved the penalty of a fine payable to the State, or, in extreme cases, even the penalty of death. It was far more serious than a charge of common assault （ai)kei/as di/kh）. See Dem. 54.1 However, time passed and the indictment was evaded （seeing that actions were not being held
so, when peace was made in the archonship of Phrasicleides,That is, in 371 B.C. and the battle was fought at LeuctraLeuctra was a town in Boeotia. In this battle the Thebans under Epameinondas broke the power of Sparta. The date was 371 B.C. between the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians, this man Stephanus, having at the time come to Megara and 371 B.C. between the Thebans and the Lacedaemonians, this man Stephanus, having at the time come to Megara and having put up at Neaera's house, as at the house of a courtesan, and having had intercourse with her, she told him all that had taken place and her brutal treatment by Phrynion. She gave him besides all that she had brought away from Phrynion's house, and as she was eager to live at Athens, but was afraid of Phrynion because she had wronged him and he was bitter against her, and she knew he
. . . make accusations. And they make it clear that even when they were friends of the LacedaemoniansHyperides may be alluding to the period from 378 to 371 B.C., when Athens and Thebes were at war with Sparta. their speeches were prompted not by love for them but by hatred of Athens and a willingness to flatter those whose power at any time threatened you.
And again, when fortune shifted her favorThebes became the supreme power in Greece by the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. and the Thebans and the Peloponnesians were one and all trying to devastate Lacedaemon, we alone among the Hellenes formed361 B.C. an alliance with the Lacedaemonians and helped to save them from destruction.In 362 B.C., when Epaminondas, at the head of the Thebans and their allies, including the Argives, Arcadians, Messenians, and the Eleans, marched on Sparta to destroy her, the Athenians dispatched Iphicrates with an army of twelve thousand to the rescue. See Isoc. 8.105; Xen. Hell. 6.5.23 ff.; Grote, Hist. x. pp. 89 ff.
The Lacedaemonians were the leaders of the Hellenes,The hegemony of Sparta lasted from the battle of Aegospotami, 405 B.C., to the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. not long ago, on both land and sea, and yet they suffered so great a reversal of fortune when they met defeat at Leuctra that they were deprived of their power over the Hellenes, and lost such of their warriors as chose to die rather than survive defeat at the hands of those over whom they had once been masters.
But what is most deplorable of all is that, during the intervals when their enemies cease from harrying them, they themselves put to death the most eminent and wealthy of their citizens;The conflict between democracy and oligarchy, which raged with varying intensity in most of the Greek cities, in Argos was most bitter. In 371 B.C. occurred a massacre in which twelve hundred of the leading men were slain by the mob. Dio. Sic. 15.57-58; Grote, Hist. ix. p. 417. and they have more pleasure in doing this than any other people have in slaying their foes. The cause of their living in such disorder is none other than the state of war; and if you can put a stop to this, you will not only deliver them from these evils but you will cause them to adopt a better policy with respect to their other interests as well.
And as for the condition of the Thebans, surely you have not failed to note that also. They won a splendid victoryBattle of Leuctra, 371 B.C. and covered themselves with glory, but because they did not make good use of their success they are now in no better case than those who have suffered defeat and failure. For no sooner had they triumphed over their foes than, neglecting everything else, they began to annoy the cities of the Peloponnese;Epaminondas invaded the Peloponnese in 369, 368, 366, 362, stirring up the cities there against Sparta. Dio. Sic. 15.62-75. they made bold to reduce Thessaly to subjection;By conquering Alexander of Pherae. Dio. Sic. 15.67. they threatened their neighbors, the Megarians;The Megarians sided with Sparta when Agesilaus invaded Boeotia in 378. Xen. Hell. 5.4.41. they robbed our city of a portion of its territory;The border town of Oropus, 366 B.C. Xen. Hell. 7.4.1. they ravaged Euboea;See Dem. 18.99. they sent men-of-war to Byzantium,One hundred s
having ceased sacrificing victims at the altars they slaughter one anotherPossibly Isocrates may have in mind the massacre at Corinth in 392 B.C. （Xen. Hell. 4.4.3）, the murder of certain Achaean suppliants, who took refuge in the temple of Heliconian Poseidon （Pausanias vii. 25）, or the slaughter of 1200 prominent citizens in Argos in 371 B.C. （Diodorus xv. 58）. Cf. Isoc. 5.52. there instead; and more people are in exile now from a single city than before from the whole of the Peloponnesus. But although the miseries which I have recounted are so many, those which remain unmentioned far outnumber them; for all the distress and all the horror in the world have come together in this