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Polybius, Histories, book 4, Chilon's Fruitless Attempts In Sparta (search)
is way across Laconia, arrived in Achaia alone and an exile. But the Lacedaemonians who were in the territory of Megalopolis, terrified by the arrival of Philip, stowed away all the goods they had got from the country, and first demolished and then abandoned the Athenaeum. The fact is that the Lacedaemonians enjoyed a mostDecline of Sparta. excellent constitution, and had a most extensive power, from the time of the legislation of Lycurgus to that of the battle of Leuctra. B. C. 800 (?)-B. C. 371. But after that event their fortune took an unfavourable turn; and their political state continued ever growing worse and worse, until they finally suffered from a long succession of internal struggles and partisan warfare; were repeatedly agitated by schemes for the redivision of lands and the banishment of one party or another; and were subjected to the severest possible slavery, culminating in the tyrannical government of Nabis: though the word "tyrant" was one which they had in old times
Polybius, Histories, book 8, Flawed Structure of Theopompus's History (search)
e that he could find. There are therefore but two alternatives: either this writer in the preface to his work has shown himself a liar and a flatterer; or in the body of that history a fool and utter simpleton, if he imagined that by senseless and improper invective he would either increase his own credit, or gain great acceptance for his laudatory expressions about Philip. But the fact is that the general plan of this writer is one Thucydides breaks off in B. C. 411. Battle of Leuctra, B. C. 371. also which can meet with no one's approval. For having undertaken to write a Greek History from the point at which Thucydides left off, when he got near the period of the battle of Leuctra, and the most splendid exploits of the Greeks, he threw aside Greece and its achievements in the middle of his story, and, changing his purpose, undertook to write the history of Philip. And yet it would have been far more telling and fair to have included the actions of Philip in the general history of Gr
Polybius, Histories, book 12, General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian (search)
to me to have had some idea of naval tactics, but to be quite unacquainted with fighting on shore. Accordingly, if one turns one's attention to the naval battles at Cyprus and Cnidus, in which the generals of the king were engaged against Evagoras of SalamisTyrant of Salamis in Cyprus, B.C. 404-374. See Isocrates, Orat. x. and then against the Lacedaemonians, one will be struck with admiration of the historian, and will learn many useful lessons as to what to do in similar circumstances.B.C. 371. B.C. 362. But when he tells the story of the battle of Leuctra between the Thebans and Lacedaemonians, or again that of Mantinea between the same combatants, in which Epaminondas lost his life, if in these one examines attentively and in detail the arrangements and evolutions in the line of battle, the historian will appear quite ridiculous, and betray his entire ignorance and want of personal experience of such matters. The battle of Leuctra indeed was simple, and confined to one division o
Polybius, Histories, book 38, Previous Disasters (search)
their own city and territory, but soon afterwards disputed the supremacy in Greece with the Lacedaemonians. The defeat of the Athenians at Aegospotami, B. C. 405. Subsequently, indeed, they were beaten by the Spartans in war, and forced to submit to the destruction of their own city walls: but even this one might assert to be a reproach to the Lacedaemonians, for having used the power put into their hands with excessive severity, rather than to the Athenians. of the Spartans at Leuctra, B. C. 371. Then the Spartans once more, being beaten by the Thebans, lost the supremacy in Greece, and after that defeat were deprived of their outside rule and reduced to the frontiers of Laconia. But what disgrace was there in having retired, while disputing for the most honourable objects, to the limits of their ancestral dominion? Therefore, these events we may speak of as failures, but not as misfortunes in any sense. The destruction of Mantinea, B. C. 362,The Mantineans again were forced to leave
us, afterwards called Cænopolis. The present town of Kisternes, or Kimaros, occupies its site., AmyclæIts site is generally placed at Sklavokhori, six miles from Sparta; but Leake supposes it to have been situate on the hill called Aghia Kyriaki, between that place and Sparta., PheræOr Pharis. The present Chitries occupies its site., and LeuctraOr Leuctrum, on the river Pamisus, now called Levtros. It must not be confounded with the town in Bœotia where the Thebans defeated the Spartans, B.C. 371.; and, in the interior, SpartaOr Lacedæmon. Its site is occupied by the modern villages of Magula and Psykhiko. The principal modern town in the vicinity is Mistra., TheramneOr Therapne, on the left bank of the Eurotas. Some ruins of it are still to be seen., and the spots where CardamyleConsiderable ruins of it are still to be seen to the N.E. of the modern town of Skarhamula., PitaneAuthors are not agreed as to the site of this town and that of Anthea or Anthene., and Anthea formerly stood;
e., PalantiumNear Tegea; said to have been the birth-place of Evander. On the foundation of Megalopolis, it was nearly deserted, but was restored by Antoninus Pius. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near the modern village of Thana, according to Ansart. (from which the PalatiumIt being said to have been so called in compliment to Evander, a native, as above stated, of Palantium. at Rome derives its name), MegalopolisFounded by the advice of Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra, B.C. 371, near the frontiers of Messenia. The ruins of its theatre, once the largest in Greece, are the only remains of it now to be seen, near the modern village of Sinano., GortynaIt contained a famous temple of Æsculapius. Its ruins are to be seen near the village of Atzikolo. The exact site of Bucolion, which was near Megalopolis, is probably unknown, though Ansart says that the spot is called Troupiais. Of Carnion nothing is known., Bucolium, Carnion, ParrhasiaThe town of Parrhasia, which is ment
iv. p. 445; Mitford, ch. 25. sec. 7, ch. 27. sec. 2. Our notices of the rest of the life of Antalcidas are scattered and doubtful. From a passing allusion in the speech of Callistratus the Athenian (Hell. 6.3. 12), we learn that he was then (B. C. 371) absent on another mission to Persia. Might this have been with a view to the negotiation of peace in Greece (see Hell. 6.3), and likewise have been connected with some alarm at the probable interest of Timotheus, son of Conon, at the Persian ctalcidas was one of the ephors, and that, fearing the capture of Sparta, he conveyed his children for safety to Cythera. The same author informs us (Artax. p. 1022d.), that Antalcidas was sent to Persia for supplies after the defeat at Leuctra, B. C. 371, and was coldly and superciliously received by the king. If, considering the general looseness of statement which pervades this portion of Plutarch, it were allowable to set the date of this mission after the invasion of 369, we might possibly
robably derived from his replying to a man who reviled him as not being a genuine Athenian citizen, that the mother of the gods was a Phrygian. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (B. C. 426), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom he never quitted, and at whose death he was present. (Plat. Phaed. § 59.) He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment. (D. L. 6.10.) He survived the battle of Leuctra (B. C. 371), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master (Plut. Lyc. 30), and died at Athens, at the age of 70. (Eudocia, Violarium, p. 56.) He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Hercules. Hence probably his followers were called Cynics, though the Scholiast on Aristotle (p. 23, Brandis) deduces the name from the habits of the school, either their dog-like neglect of a
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Archida'mus Iii. king of Sparta, 20th of the Eurypontids, was son of Agesilaus II. We first hear of him as interceding with his father in behalf of Sphodrias, to whose son Cleonymus he was attached, and who was thus saved, through the weak affection of Agesilaus, from the punishment which his unwarrantable invasion of Attica had deserved, B. C. 378. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33 ; Diod. 15.29; Plut. Ages. 100.25; comp. Plut. Pel. 100.14.) In B. C. 371, he was sent, in consequence of the illness of Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5.4.58; Plut. Ages. 100.27), to succour the defeated Spartans at Leuctra; but Jason of Pherae had already mediated between them and the Thebans, and Archidanmus, meeting his countrymen on their return at Aegosthena in Megara, dismissed the allies, and led the Spartans home. (Xen. Hell. 6.4. §§ 17-26; comp. Diod. 15.54, 55; Wess. ad loc.; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 78, note.) In 367, with the aid of the auxiliaries furnished by Dionysius I. of Syracuse, he defeated the
Au'tocles 2. Son of Strombichides, was one of the Athenian envoys empowered to negotiate peace with Sparta in B. C. 371. (Xen. Hell. 6.3.2; comp. Diod. 15.38.) Xenophon (Xenoph. Hell. 6.3.7, &c.) reports a somewhat injudicious speech of his, which was delivered on this occasion before the congress at Sparta, and which by no means confirms the character, ascribed to him in the same passage, of a skilful orator. It was perhaps this same Autocles who, in B. C. 362, was appointed to the command in Thrace, and was brought to trial for having caused, by his inactivity there, the triumph of Cotys over the rebel Miltocythes. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 655, c. Polycl. p. 1207.) Aristotle (Aristot. Rh. 2.23.12) refers to a passage in a speech of Autocles against Mixidemides, as illustrating one of his rhetorical to/poi. [E.E]
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