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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 24 24 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 422 BC or search for 422 BC in all documents.

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Anti'stius 1. SEX. ANTISTIUS, tribune of the plebs, B. C. 422. (Liv. 4.42.)
lei=s, Banquetters. Second prize. The play was produced under the name of Philonides, as Aristophanes was below the legal age for competing for a prize. Fifth year of the war. 426. Babylonians (e)n a)/stei). 425. † Acharnians. (Lenaea.) Produced in the name of Callistratus. First prize. 424. † *(Ippei=s, Knights or Horsemen. (Lenaea.) The first play produced in the name of Aristophanes himself. First prize; second Cratinus. 423. † Clouds (e)n a)/stei). First prize, Cratinus; second Ameipsias. 422. † Wasps. (Lenaea.) Second prize. *Ghra=s (?) (e)n a)/stei), according to the probable conjecture of Süvern. (Essay on the *Ghra=s, translated by Mr. Hamilton.) Clouds (second edition), failed in obtaining a prize. But Ranke places this B. C. 411, and the whole subject is very uncertain. 419. † Peace (e)n a)/stei). Second prize; Eupolis first. 414. Amphiaraus. (Lenaea.) Second prize. † Birds (e)n a)/stei), second prize; Ameipsias first; Phrynichus third. Second campaign in Sicily. *Gewr
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Capitoli'nus, Ma'nlius 2. L. Manlius Capitolinus, consular tribune in B. C. 422. (Liv. 4.42.)
Clea'ridas (*Kleari/das), a friend of Brasidas, and apparently one of those young men whose appointment to foreign governments Thucydides considers to have been inconsistent with Spartan principles (4.132). He was made governor of Amphipolis by Brasidas; and in the battle there, in which Brasidas and Cleon were killed, he commanded the main body of the forces, B. C. 422. Clearidas afterwards distinguished himself in the quarrels which arose after the peace of Nicias, by giving up Amphipolis, not (as the terms required) to the Athenians, but to the Amphipolitans themselves. (Thuc. 5.10, 21, 34.) [A.H.
Cleobu'lus (*Kleo/boulos), ephor with Xenares at Sparta B. C. 422-1, the second year of the peace of Nicias. To this peace they were hostile, and signalized their ephoralty by an intrigue with the Boeotians and Corinthians, with the purpose of forming anew the Lacedaemonian league so as to include the Argives, the fear of whose hostility was the main obstacle in the way of the war-party at Sparta. (Thuc. 5.36-38.) [A.H.
f Pericles, succeeding, it is said (Aristoph. Kn. 130, and Schol.), Eucrates the flaxseller, and Lysicles the sheep-dealer, became the most trusted and popular of the people's favourites, and for about six years of the Peloponnesian war (B. C. 428-422) may be regarded as the head of the party opposed to peace. He belonged by birth to the middling classes, and was brought up to the trade of a tanner; how long however he followed it may be doubtful; he seems early to have betaken himself to a mlees. The play is simply one satire on his venality, rapacity, ignorance, violence, and cowardice; and was at least successful so far as to receive the first prize. It treats of hin, however, chiefly as the leader in the Ecclesia; the Wasps, in B. C. 422, similarly displays him as the grand patron of the abuses of the courts of justice. He is said to have originated the increase of the dicast's stipend from one to three obols (See Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, bk. 2.15), and in general he profe
ristophanes also, in the Peace, which was acted in 419 B. C., says that Cratinus died o(/q) oi( *La/kwnes e)ne/balon. (Pax, 700, 701.) A doubt has been raised as to what invasion Aristophanes meant. He cannot refer to any of the great invasions mentioned by Thucydides, and we are therefore compelled to suppose some irruption of a part of the Lacedaemonian army into Attica at the time when the armistice, which was made shortly before the negotiations for the fifty years' truce, was broken. (B. C. 422.) Now Lucian says (l.c.) that Cratinus lived 97 years. Thus his birth would fall in B. C. 519. If we may trust the grammarians and chronographers, Cratinus did not begin his dramatic career till he was far advanced in life. According to an Anonymous writer on Comedy (p. xxix), he gained his first victory after the 85th Olympiad, that is, later than B. C. 437, and when he was more than 80 years old. This date is suspicious in itself, and is falsified by circumstantial evidence. For exampl
e day; his arrival was too early, and the Boeotians, who had moreover received information of the plot, were enabled to bring their whole force against Demosthenes, and yet be in time to meet his colleague at Delium. The whole design was thus overthrown, and Demosthenes was further disgraced by a repulse in a descent on the territory of Sicyon. (Thuc. 4.66-74, 76, 77, 89, 101; Diod. 12.66-69.) He does not reappear in history, except among the signatures to the treaties of the tenth year, B. C. 422 (Thuc. 5.19, 24), till the nineteenth, B. C. 413. On the arrival of the despatch from Nicias giving an account of the relief of Syracuse by Gylippus, he was appointed with Eurymedon to the command of the reinforcements, and, while the latter went at once to Sicily, he remained at home making the needful preparations. Early in the spring he set sail with sixty-five ships; and after some delays, how far avoidable we cannot say, at Aegina and Corcyra, on the coasts of Peloponnesus and of Ital
s only once again, as united, in the last desperate engagement in the harbour, with Demosthenes and Menander in command of the ships. Diodorus names him in the previous sea-fight, as opposed on the left wing to the Syracusan Sicanus. Plutarch, who mentions his appointment with Menander, ascribes the occurrence of the second sea-fight, in which the Athenians received their first defeat, to the eagerness of the two new commanders to display their abilities. But this looks very like a late conjecture, such as Ephorus was fond of making, and is further inconsistent with the language of Thucydides, who represents the Syracusans as acting on the offensive, and shews in Nicias's letter that they had it in their power to force an engagement. Of his ultimate fate we are ignorant: his name (it is probably his) occurs as far back as the eighteenth year of the war, B. C. 422, among the signatures to the Lacedaemonan treaties. (Thuc. 5.19, 24, 7.16, 69; Diod. 13.13; Plut. Nicias, 100.20.) [A.H.C]
d established his colony securely, giving the name Amphipolis to what had hitherto been called "the Nine Ways." (Thue. 4.102.) The date is fixed to the archonship of Euthymenes, B. C. 437, by Diodorns (12.32), and the Scholiast on Aeschines (p. 755, Reiske), and in this the account of Thueydides agrees There were buildings erected in his honour as founder. But when the Athenian part of the colonists had been ejected, and the town had revolted, and by the victory won over Cleon by Brasidas, B. C. 422, had had its independence secured, the Amphipolitans destroyed every memorial of the kind, and gave the name of founder, and paid the founder's honours to Brasidas. (Thuc. 5.11.) It is probably this same Hagnon who in the Samian war, B. C. 440, led, with Thuevdides and Phormion, a reinforcement of forty ships to Pericles; and, without question, it is he who in the second year of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 430, was on the board of generals, and succeeding, with Cleopompus, to the command
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