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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 4 4 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 1 1 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Fragments of Book 10, Chapter 19 (search)
to the remark of a Babylonian that Darius would take Babylon when mules bear offspring. See Hdt. 3.151 and passim for details of the account of the taking of Babylon. When Megabyzus, who was also called Zopyrus and was a friend of King Darius, had scourged himself and mutilated his countenance,Literally, "cut off the extremities of his face," i.e. the nose and ears; the story is given by Hdt. 3.153 ff., who calls Zopyrus the son of Megabyzus. 520-519 B.C. because he had resolved to become a deserterIn order to trick the Babylonians. and betray Babylon to the Persians, we are told that Darius was deeply moved and declared that he would rather have Megabyzus whole again, if it were possible, than bring ten Babylons under his power, although his wish could not be achieved. The Babylonians chose Megabyzus to be their general, being unaware that the benefaction he would render them would be a kind of bait to
Cincinna'tus 1. L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, L. F. L. N., plays a conspicuous part in the civil and military transactions of the period in which he lived. He particularly distinguished himself as a violent opponent of the claims of the plebeians. He was born about B. C. 519. (Niebuhr, vol. ii. note 927.) The story of his having been reduced to poverty by the merciless exaction of the bail forfeited by the flight of his son Caeso (Liv. 3.13) has no foundation. (Niebuhr, ii. p. 289.) In B. C. 460 he was illegally appointed consul suffectus in the room of P. Valerius. (Liv. 3.19; Niebuhr, ii. p. 295.) Irritated by the death of his son Caeso, he proposed a most arbitrary attempt to oppose the enactment of the Terentilian law, but the design was abandoned. (Liv. 3.20, 21.) Two years afterwards (B. C. 458), according to the common story, Cincinnatus was appointed dictator, in order to deliver the Roman consul and army from the perilous position in which they had been placed by the Aequians.
Cleome'nes I. (*Kleome/nhs), the 16th king of Sparta in the Agid line, was born to Anaxandrides by his second wife, previous to the birth by his first of Dorieus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus. [ANAXANDRIDES.] He accordingly, on his father's death, succeeded, not later it would seem than 519 B. C., and reigned for a period of 29 years. (Clinton, F. H. ii. p. 208.) In B. C. 519 we are told it was to Cleomenes that the Plataeans applied when Sparta, declining to assist them, recommended alliance with Athens. (Hdt. 6.108.) And not much later, the visit of Maeandrius occurred, who had been left in possession of Samos by the death of Polycrates, but had afterwards been driven out by the Persians with Syloson. Maeandrius twice or thrice in conversation with Cleomenes led the way to his house, where he took care to have displayed certain splendid goblets, and, on Cleomenes expressing his admiration, begged he would accept them. Cleomenes refused; and at last, in fear for his own or his citize
( *La/kwnes e)ne/balon. (Pax, 700, 701.) A doubt has been raised as to what invasion Aristophanes meant. He cannot refer to any of the great invasions mentioned by Thucydides, and we are therefore compelled to suppose some irruption of a part of the Lacedaemonian army into Attica at the time when the armistice, which was made shortly before the negotiations for the fifty years' truce, was broken. (B. C. 422.) Now Lucian says (l.c.) that Cratinus lived 97 years. Thus his birth would fall in B. C. 519. If we may trust the grammarians and chronographers, Cratinus did not begin his dramatic career till he was far advanced in life. According to an Anonymous writer on Comedy (p. xxix), he gained his first victory after the 85th Olympiad, that is, later than B. C. 437, and when he was more than 80 years old. This date is suspicious in itself, and is falsified by circumstantial evidence. For example, in one fragment he blames the tardiness of Pericles in completing the long walls which we k
Peitha'goras or PEITHA'GORES (*Peiqago/ras, *Peiqago/rhs). 1. A tyrant of Selinus in Sicily, from whom the Selinuntians freed themselves (B. C. 519) by the help of Euryleon of Sparta (Hdt. 5.46; Plut. Lyc. 20). [DORIEUS; EURYLEON.]