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Demosthenes, Exordia (ed. Norman W. DeWitt, Norman J. DeWitt), exordium 53, section 4 (search)
when you are freed of this lamentable weakness you will be unable to endure even the sight
of them. At present with their drachma and gallon measure and four obolsThe drachma was the fee for attending the Assembly; the
four obols is the juror's fee, which had long been three obols. The xou=s is the measure for a largess of grain. Its content is
more accurately known than formerly from a specimen found on the side of the Acropolis
in 1937, which measures 3.2 liters or 2.816 imperial qts. or
3.379 U.S. qts. This find was confirmed by the discovery of a clepsydra in the Agora
marked two xo/es and measuring 6.4 liters. The xou=s was one-twelfth of a medimnus, the portion doled out to
each citizen according to Dem. 34.37. Cf.
Hesperia, 8.1939, 278 ff. they
regulate the populace like a sick man, giving you, men of Athens, doles very similar to the diets of the physicians.
Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22), twenty years later,
"when the people had gained self-confidence." Professor T. Leslie Shear has kindly allowed me
to see an as yet unpublished paper of his, "Ostracism and the Ostraka from the Agora," which
he prepared in 1941. Whereas Carcopino for the second edition of his
L'Ostracisme athénien (1935) had 62
examples of the ballots used in Athenian ostracophoria (the balloting), the collection from
the Agora now totals 503, and in 1937 a well on the North Slope
yielded an additional 191 pieces. There are names of persons who were never ostracized and of
many persons who are otherwise unknown. The accuracy of Aristotle's statement that the
institution was first used in 487 B.C. is borne out against Walker's
theory (Camb. Anc. Hist. 4, p. 152) that there may well have been instances of
its use before the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.
Each citizen wrote on a piece of pottery
erged upon him. And at the outset he slew many as they came at
him, but after a while, as numerous missiles assailed him, he suffered many wounds on the front
of his body. In the end he suffered much loss of blood from
the wounds, and as he lost consciousness his arm extended over the side of the ship and his
shield,The inscription on a shield found in the Agora
excavations states that it was taken by the Athenians from Lacedaemonians at Pylos (Shear in Hesperia, 6 (1937), 347-348). It must have originally belonged to the collection of
shields taken at Pylos which Pausanias (Paus. 1.15.4) saw suspended as trophies in the Stoa Poikile, although the cistern in
which it was found had been filled before the third century B.C. No doubt the captured shield
of the Spartan captain occupied a central place in this collection. slipping off and
falling into the sea, came into the hands of the enemy. After
this Brasidas, who had built up a he
d excuses for not doing what they do not want to do. And if there are any bad results from the people's plans, they charge that a few persons, working against them, ruined their plans; but if there is a good result, they take the credit for themselves.
They do not permit the people to be ill spoken of in comedy, so that they may not have a bad reputation;This passage has nothing to do with the known bans on comedy in 440/39-437/6 or in 415: see K.I. Gelzer, Die Schrift vom Staate der Athener (1937), pp. 71 and 128-132. Despite Gelzer's powerful arguments, there is, however, still controversy on this matter. It should be noted that the People (Demos) is a character in Aristophanes' Knights (produced in 424). but if anyone wants to attack private persons, they bid him do so, knowing perfectly well that the person so treated in comedy does not, for the most part, come from the populace and mass of people but is a person of either wealth, high birth, or influence. Some few poor and plebeia
ct of Fourierism in France.
In his introductory remarks the editor said:
We have written something, and shall yet write much more, in illustration and advocacy of the great Social revolution which our age is destined to commence, in rendering all useful Labor at once attractive and honorable, and banishing Want and all consequent degradation from the globe.
The germ of this revolution is developed in the writings of Charles Fourier, a philanthropic and observing Frenchman, who died in 1937, after devoting thirty years of a studious and unobtrusive life to inquiries, at once patient and profound, into the causes of the great mass of Social evils which overwhelm Humanity, and the true means of removing them.
These means he proves to be a system of Industrial and Household Association, on the principle of Joint Stock Investment, whereby Labor will be ennobled and rendered attractive and universal, Capital be offered a secure and lucrative investment, and Talent and Industry find