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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 13 13 Browse Search
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cclesiastical condemnation front Aetius (Phil. 7.5), and he was made Bishop at Constantinople. (S. Ep. 76. p. 992c.) He spreads his heresy by fixing a bishop of his own irreligion at Constantinople (Phil. 8.2) and by missionaries, till the death of Jovin, A. D. 364. Valens, however, took part with Eudoxius, the Acacian Bishop of Constantinople, and Aetius retired to Lesbos, where he narrowly escaped death at the hands of the governor, placed there by Procopius in his revolt against Valens, A. D. 365, 366. (See Gibbon. ch. 19.) Again he took refuge in Constantinople, but was driven thence by his former friends. In vain he applied for protection to Eudoxius, now at Marcianople with Valens; and in A. D. 367 (Phil. 9.7) he died, it seems, at Constantinople, unpitied by any but the equally irreligious Eunomius, who buried him. (Phil. 9.6.) The doctrinal errors of Aetius are stated historically in the article on ARIUS. From the Manichees he seems to have learned his licentious morals, which
St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr. Hist. Eccl. 4.23.) They lived together thus for 18 years, when at her wish, for greater perfection, they parted, and he retired to Scetis and Mt. Nitria, to the south of Lake Mareotis, where he lived 22 years, visiting his sister-wife twice in the year. (Ibid. and Pallad. Hist. Laus. 100.7; Ruffin. Vit. Patr. 100.29.) He died before St. Antony (from whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. Opp. vol. i. pt. 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i. e. before A. D. 365, for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of Amoun borne by angels to heaven (Vit. S. Antonii à S. Athanas. § 60), and as St. Athanasius's history of St. Antony preserves the order of time, he died perhaps about A. D. 320. Works Rules of Asceticism There are seventeen or nineteen Rules of Asceticism (kefa/laia) ascribed to him; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambecius, Biblioth. Vindol. lib. iv. cod. 156, No. 6). Editions They are published in the Latin version of Gerhard
being omitted by Proclus and Pappus, we feel strongly inclined to place him towards the end of the fifth century of our era at the earliest. If the Diophantus, on whose astronomical work (according to Suidas) Hypatia wrote a commentary, and whose arithmetic Theon mentions in his commentary on the Almagest, be the subject of our article, he must have lived before the fifth century: but it would be by no means safe to assume this identity. Abulpharagius, according to Montucla, places him at A. D. 365. The first writer who mentions him, (if it be not Theon) is John, patriarch of Jerusalem, in his life of Johannes Damascenus, written in the eighth century. It matters not much where we place him, as far as Greek literature is concerned: the question will only become of importance when we have the means of investigating whether or not he derived his algebra, or any of it, from an Indian source. Colebrooke, as to this matter, is content that Diophantus should be placed in the fourth century
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Hila'rius or Hila'rius Pictaviensis (search)
ds of Scripture, excluding apostolical tradition and the authority of the hierarchy. The most extravagant violence of the first requires no comment ; the second is remarkable, since it proves that some of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church, as opposed to the Protestant, had already been called in question. (See Milman's History of Christianity, book 3.100.5.) 7. Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem Liber unus ; otherwise, Epistola ad Catholicos et Auxentium, written in A. D. 365, to which is subjoined a letter addressed by Auxentius to the emperors Valentinianus and Valens. The subject of these will be sufficiently understood from the circumstances recorded in the life of Hilarius. 8. Commentarii (s. Tractatus, s. Expositiones) in Psalmos, composed towards the very close of his life. Not so much verbal annotations as general reflections upon the force and spirit of the different psalms, and upon the lessons which we ought to draw from them, mingled with many my
Hypere'chius (*(Upere/xios). 1. Ammianus Marcellinus mentions an officer of this name who commanded (A. D. 365) a body of troops sent by Procopius to oppose the forces of the emperor Valens, against whom he had revolted. Hyperechius had previously been " castrensis apparitor," or, as some have proposed to read the words, " gastrensis apparitor," sc. "ventris vel gulae minister;" and Arinthaeus, the general of Valens,despising him too much to engage him in the field, induced the soldiers of Hyperechius to seize their general. Valesius thinks that the Hyperechius, son of Maximus, whom Libanius praises for his talents, and for whom he endeavoured to obtain the office of praeses of one of the provinces, is the Hyperechius of Ammianus; but this is perhaps hardly consistent with the contemptuous manner in which the latter speaks of him. An Hyperechius, apparently the same as the friend of Libanius, appears among the correspondents of Basil of Caesareia (Epist. 367, or ed. Bened. 328), an
e orthodox party: but though the death of Eustathius seemed to present a fair opportunity for such reconciliation, all the efforts made were frustrated by the intemperate zeal of Lucifer of Cagliari [LUCIFER], who ordained Paulinus bishop of the Eustathians. Meanwhile, Arians appear to have retained possession of most of the churches, the orthodox having one or two assigned for their use, of which, however, on the accession of the emperor Valens, they were deprived, and Meletius was again (A. D. 365?) banished from the city. According to Tillemont, who grounds his assertion on two passages of Gregory Nyssen (ibid.), Meletius was twice banished under Valens, or three times in all, which supposes a return from his first banishment under that prince. Gregory's assertion, however, is not corroborated by any of the ecclesiastical historians; and we have no means of determining the dates of Meletius's return and subsequent exile, if they really took place. Tillemont thinks he was recalled i
Proco'pius (*Proko/pios), Roman emperor in the East, through rebellion, from A. D. 363 to 366. According to all probability, he was a relation of the emperor Julian through Basilina, the mother of that emperor, and the second wife of Constantius Consul, who was the youngest son of Constantius Chlorus. [See the genealogical table Vol. I. p. 832.] Procopius was a native of Cilicia, where he was born about A. D. 365. Constantius II. made him his secretary, and employed him in the field as tribune. The emperor Julian created him comes, and appointed him commander in Mesopotamia, when he set out against Persia in A. D. 363. It was then said that Julian had advised him to assume the purple, or manifested a wish that he should be his successor in case he should lose his life in the projected expedition, and this saying afterwards found many believers, to the great advantage of Procopius. However, it was Jovian who succeeded Julian, in 363, and by him Procopius was charged with conducting th
(Symmach. Ep. 9.83), apparently at Bourdeaux or Toulouse, in that age the most renowned seminaries in the world, in early life he became devoted to the liberal arts. By his example and authority he, at a subsequent period, inspired for a time new life and vigour into the literature of his country, which had long been wasting by gradual decay, and seemed now to be fast approaching the hour of dissolution. Having discharged the functions of quaestor and praetor, he was afterwards appointed (A. D. 365, Cod. Theod. 8. tit. 5. s. 25) Corrector of Lucania and the Bruttii; in A. D. 373 (Cod. Theod. 12. tit. 1. s. 73; comp. Symmach. Ep. 8.10, 10.3) he was proconsul of Africa, and became, probably about the same time, a member of the pontifical college. His zeal for the ancient faith of Rome, which exercised throughout life a marked influence on his character, checked for a while the prosperous current of his fortunes, and involved him in danger and disgrace. For having been chosen by the sen
spoken of as having made their appearance in Thrace in this year, but they were induced to retire, probably by money. Valens left Constantinople in the spring of A. D. 365, for Asia Minor, and he was at Caesarea in Cappadocia in the month of July, when the great earthquake happened, which shook all the country round the Mediterranean. The revolt of Procopius for a time rendered the throne of Valens insecure. Procopius assumed the imperial title at Constantinople, on the 28th of September, A. D. 365, and Valens received the intelligence as he was going to leave Caesarea. [PROCOPIUS]. After the death of Procopius, A. D. 366, Valens treated the partisans of the rebel with great clemency according to Themistius; but Ammianus and Zosimus say that he punished many innocent persons. The fact of some persons being punished is certain : the nature and degree of their participation in the revolt may be doubtful. The emperor had sworn to demolish the walls of Chalcedon for the share which it ha
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
is partition Valens set out for Constantinople to govern the East, of which he knew not even the language, and Valentinian for Italy. Valentinian went to Milan, where he arrived some time in November, and he stayed there till the beginning of A. D. 365. Volusianus, prefect of Rome, was succeeded in this year by Symmachus, the father of the orator, to whom some constitutions of Valentinian are addressed, by which the emperor endeavoured to secure the provisioning of Rome, and provided for thf the province had nothing to complain of. The result was, that those who had complained of Romanus were punished (Amm. Marc. 28.6). It appears from various constitutions, that Valentinian visited several places in North Italy during the year A. D. 365. A constitution of this year appears to be the earliest in which the Defensores are spoken of, and it is addressed to " Seneca Defensor" (Cod. Just. i. tit. 55). In the month of October Valentinian left Italy for Gaul, and he was at Paris about
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