r, 1590; Greatorix, 1656; and Morland, 1670.
The fire-engine of Nuremberg described by Caspar Schott, 1657, was of a different character.
It was mounted on a sled 4 × 10 feet, and drawn by two horses.
It had a cistern 2 × 8 feet and 4 feet deep, in which were two horizontal cylinders.
The brakes were worked by twenty-eight men, and the combined streams from the cylinders issued at a one-inch orifice, and reached a hight of 80 feet.
An English patent appears of the date of 1632 to Thomas Grant, and one to John Van der Heyden (or Heide), of Amsterdam, 1663.
He is credited with having brought the machine to the present modern form of hand-engine.
The brothers Van der Heyden appear to have been the inventors of the leathern hose in detachable sections.
In 1699, a patent was granted in France to Duperrier for a pompe portative for extinguishing fires; to this Perrault added the air-chamber.
Papin also adopted it. Hooks and fire-ladders must be assumed to have been long in use
Lighter and Morrell, 1857.
Coal-tar, 1; pine-tar, 50; rosin, 12; caoutchouc, 6; gutta-percha, 6; asphaltum, 12; shellac, 6; linseed-oil, 12; litharge, 6; fire-proof material to be scattered on surface of the above, 12; yellow ocher, 12; beeswax, 3.
Coal-tar, 25 gallons; linseed-oil, 2 gallons; caoutchouc, dissolved, 2 gallons; shellac, dissolved, 2 gallons; asphaltum, 5 pounds; steatite, pulverized, 5 pounds; litharge, 5 pounds; sulp.
baryta, 5 pounds; gypsum, 5 pounds.
Coal-tar, 25 gallons; linseed-oil, 3 gallons; caoutchouc, dissolved, 3 gallons; shellac, dissolved, 1.5 gallons; asphaltum, dissolved, 2.5 gallons; Japan varnish, 2 gallons; white-lead, 25 pounds; mineral paint, 60 pounds; yellow ocher, 6 pounds; acetate lead, 5 pounds.
Pitch, 1; quicklime, 2; Ven. red ocher, 2; linseed-oil, 0.5.
Saturated sheets of paper.
Coal-tar, 20 gallons; linseed-oil, 2 gallons; shellac, 10 pounds; rosin, 4