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The Annals of the Civil War Written by Leading Participants North and South (ed. Alexander Kelly McClure), The Exchange of prisoners. (search)
l restoration of the cartel, I expressed in writing to General Mulford their readiness to resume and to deliver all prisonersveries would be made. I delivered at the same time to General Mulford more prisoners than he brought, notifying him that I ah of August, 1864, I addressed the following letter to General Mulford, Assistant Agent of Exchange: You have several tf Exchange, covering a copy of the foregoing letter to General Mulford, and requesting an acceptance of my proposal. No answthese letters, nor were they ever noticed, except that General Mulford, on the 31st of August of the same year, informed me ion. He is mistaken. The offer in August was made to General Mulford, and by him communicated to the Federal authorities. arly in the morning, to be brought up the James river. General Mulford, the courteous flag-of-truce officer, knowing the clot when he was relieved to give place to a supple tool. General Mulford was a flower of chivalry and standing toast with Confe
The Annals of the Civil War Written by Leading Participants North and South (ed. Alexander Kelly McClure), Union view of the Exchange of prisoners. (search)
ith the negroes as a measure of degradation. In December, 1863, General Benjamin F. Butler was made Federal Commissioner of Exchange, by an order from the War Department. The Confederate Government refused to communicate with him, because Jeff Davis had, at one time during Butler's military administration at New Orleans, issued a proclamation, solemnly and pompously declaring General Butler an outlaw. All communications from the Confederate Government, for a time, were addressed to Major Mulford, who was in command of the flag-of-truce steamer; but the Confederates soon saw their folly, and subsequently treated with General Butler in relation to the exchange of prisoners. But the refusal to treat with General Butler was another obstruction thrown in the way of the exchange of prisoners used by the Confederate Government. A cartel binds both belligerent parties, and when one party violates it for the purpose of gaining some advantage, the other party is not bound to abide by
J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, chapter 49 (search)
act organizing the artillery force of Lee's army-submitted by Gen. Pendleton (Episcopal clergyman), who writes the Secretary that Col. Pemberton (Northern man and once lieutenant-general) is making efforts to induce the President to withhold his approval of the bill, which he deprecates and resents, as the bill is sanctioned by the judgment of Gen. Lee. From this letter I learn we have 330 guns and 90 mortars under Lee; enough to make a great noise yet! Lieut.-Gen. Grant has directed Col. Mulford, Agent of Exchange, to say that some 200 prisoners escaped from us, when taken to Wilmington for exchange, and now in his lines, will be held as paroled, and credited in the general exchange. Moreover, all prisoners in transitu for any point of exchange, falling into their hands, will be held as paroled, and exchanged. He states also that all prisoners held by the United States, whether in close confinement, in-irons, or under sentence, are to be exchanged. Surely Gen. Grant is trying
General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 40: talk of peace. (search)
sunderstood what I said to the former on the subject, or I may have failed to make myself understood possibly. A few days before the interview between Generals Longstreet and Ord I had received a despatch from General Hoffman, Commissary-General of Prisoners, stating in substance that all prisoners of war who were or had been in close confinement or irons, whether under charges or sentence, had been ordered to City Point for exchange. I forwarded the substance of that despatch to Lieutenant-Colonel Mulford, Assistant Agent of Exchange, and presumed it probable that he had communicated it to Colonel Robert Ould. A day or two after, an officer who was neither a prisoner of war nor a political prisoner, was executed, after a fair and impartial trial, and in accordance with the laws of war and the usage of civilized nations. It was in explanation of this class of cases I told General Ord to speak to General Longstreet. Reference to my letter of February 16 will show my understanding o
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The exchange question-another letter from Judge Ould. (search)
l authorities sent three thousand and received thirteen thousand. They would have received more if there had been accdmmodation. Why was transportation sent to Savannah for the prisoners unless I haa agreed to deliver them? Why were thirteen thousand delivered and only three thousand received if I insisted on receiving equivalents? There is nothing in the published correspondence referred to by General Butler which in any manner contests any one of the facts I have mentioned. General Mulford will sustain every thing I have herein written. He is a man of honor and courage, and I do not think will hesitate to tell the truth. I think it would be well for you to make the appeal to him, as it has become a question of veracity. General Butler says the proposition was made in the fall, and that seven thousand prisoners were delivered. It was in August, and over thirteen thousand were delivered. You can make public any portion of this letter. I defy contradiction as to
ted. Only one wagon was allowed to each brigade headquarters, one to each regimental battery, one to the New-York cavalry, and two to the Pennsylvania cavalry. A proper allowance of ambulances — so read the orders — were allowed to each column. Scarcely had the head of the first column begun to move on the outskirts of the encampment when General Keyes and staff rode from Headquarters toward the front. The General's staff on the occasion was composed of the following officers: Medical Director Mulford, Major White-head, Major Jackson, Captain Howard, and Captain Rice. Though the kindness of Captain Howard, I was mounted on a captured secesh horse, which kept me well up with the staff during the march and the many inspections personally made by the General during the two days of our operations. The usual line and order of march were observed during the expedition. In this order the expedition took up the march for Baltimore Cross-Roads — the first designated halting-place o<
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 22: prisoners.-benevolent operations during the War.--readjustment of National affairs.--conclusion. (search)
tirely ceased in March, 1864, because justice required it. Then the Government referred the matter of exchange to General Grant, when that officer first instructed General Butler, in charge of the business at Fortress Monroe, with the active Colonel Mulford (who afterward became the chief Commissioner of exchange of prisoners) as his assistant, to decline, until further ordered, all negotiations for exchange, and afterward instructed him to consider the determination of the Confederate authorithe United States, in exchange for the half-starved, sick, emaciated, and unserviceable soldiers of the United States, now languishing in your prisons. Finally, at the middle of autumn, arrangements for special exchanges were made, and Lieutenant-Colonel Mulford went with vessels to Savannah, after about 12,000 Union prisoners from Andersonville and elsewhere. They were brought to Annapolis, in Maryland, and in them the writer saw the horrible workings of the barbarity of the Conspirators.
n M. Stanton, Secretary of War. Hon. B. F. Wade, Chairman of Joint Committee on Conduct of the War. office of Commissary General of prisoners, Washington, D. C., May 3, 1864. sir: I have the honor to report that, pursuant to your instructions of the second instant, I proceeded, yesterday morning, to Annapolis, with a view to see that the paroled prisoners about to arrive there from Richmond were properly received and cared for. The flag-of-truce boat New-York, under the charge of Major Mulford, with thirty-two officers, three hundred and sixty-three enlisted men, and one citizen on board, reached the wharf at the Naval School hospital about ten o'clock. On going on board, I found the officers generally in good health, and much cheered by their happy release from the rebel prisons, and by the prospect of again being with their friends. The enlisted men who had endured so many privations at Belle Isle and other places were, with few exceptions, in a very sad plight, mentally
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 6. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Two witnesses on the treatment of prisoners --Hon. J. P. Benjamin and General B. F. Butler. (search)
utter an indignant word in self-defence. A very material fact in relation to this charge of cruelty was omitted in the recent letter from your Richmond correspondent, who was probably not aware of it, but which I can attest from personal knowledge. During the difficulties which prevented the exchange of prisoners of war, cases arose which appealed so strongly to humanity that it was impossible for the most obdurate to remain insensible. The Federal authorities, therefore, empowered Colonel Mulford, their Commissioner of Exchange, to consent to a mutual delivery of such sick and disabled prisoners as were incapable of performing military service. To this class was the exchange of prisoners rigorously restricted. Colonel Ould, the Confederate Commissioner of Exchange (who has recently been honorably acquitted by the Federals themselves of the same false charge of cruelty to prisoners), made to the President, to the Secretary of War and to myself repeated complaints that prisoners
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 8. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Prison life at Fort McHenry. (search)
he chaplains were personally known to the officers of the fort, and a detection of the ruse would probably lead to the retention of the whole body of chaplains in prison. But bold as the expedient was, it was immediately put into execution. An old razor was brought into requisition. The largest coats in the party were put at the disposal of the adventurous four. A very grave and reverend air was assumed, and they took their places in line, and we were all marched to the wharf, where Colonel Mulford's flag-of-truce boat awaited us. As each chaplain's name was called, he was required to step to the front. The counting went on well until the last name was called — that of Chaplain B, when a tall, handsome surgeon, clerically shorn and dressed, stepped to the front, and a Federal soldier, recognizing him, whispered to the Provost-Marshal: That is not Chaplain B. Who is it, then? It is Surgeon R----. The Provost-Marshal looked confused for a moment, and said to his clerk: How many
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