They were the means by which the islands were reached and reduced, those of
the smallest area falling the easiest prey.
Wars by land there were none, none at least by which power was acquired;
we have the usual border contests,
but of distant expeditions with conquest
for object we hear nothing among the Hellenes.
There was no union of subject cities round a great state,
combination of equals for confederate expeditions;
what fighting there was consisted merely of local warfare between rival
The nearest approach to a coalition took place in the old war between
Chalcis and Eretria; this was a quarrel in which the rest of the Hellenic name did to some
extent take sides.
Athenians marched into Boeotia under
the command of Myronides,
defeated the Boeotians in battle at Oenophyta, and became masters of
Boeotia and Phocis.
They dismantled the walls of the Tanagraeans, took a hundred of the richest
men of the Opuntian Locrians as hostages, and finished their own long walls.
This was followed by the surrender of the Aeginetans to Athens on
conditions; they pulled down their walls, gave up their ships, and agreed to pay
tribute in future.
The Athenians sailed round Peloponnese under Tolmides, son of Tolmaeus,
burnt the arsenal of Lacedaemon, took Chalcis, a town of the Corinthians,
and in a descent upon Sicyon defeated the Sicyonians in battle.
oldiers; besides which, they never dreamed of the twenty Athenian ships venturing to
engage their forty-seven.
However, while they were coasting along their own shore, there were the
Athenians sailing along in line with them; and when they tried to cross over from Patrae in Achaea to the mainland on
the other side, on their way to Acarnania, they saw them again coming out
from Chalcis and the river Evenus to meet them.
They slipped from their moorings in the night, but were observed, and were
at length compelled to fight in mid passage.
Each state that contributed to the armament had its own general; the Corinthian commanders were Machaon, Isocrates, and Agatharchidas.
The Peloponnesians ranged their vessels in as large a circle as possible
itutions to the colony.
Zancle was originally founded by pirates from Cuma, the Chalcidian town in
the country of the Opicans: afterwards, however, large numbers came from
Chalcis and the rest of Euboea, and helped to people the place; the founders being Perieres and Crataemenes from Cuma and Chalcis
It first had the name of Zancle given it by the Sicels, because tChalcis
It first had the name of Zancle given it by the Sicels, because the place
is shaped like a sickle, which the Sicels call Zanclon; but upon the original settlers being afterwards expelled by some Samians
and other Ionians who landed in Sicily flying from the Medes,
and the Samians in their turn not long afterwards by Anaxilas, tyrant of
Rhegium, the town was by him colonised with a mixed population, and its name
changed to Messina, after h
r present want of money, they sent back at once the Thracians who came
too late for Demosthenes, under the conduct of Diitrephes, who was
instructed, as they were to pass through the Euripus, to make use of them if
possible in the voyage along shore to injure the enemy.
Diitrephes first landed them at Tanagra and hastily snatched some booty; he then sailed across the Eurious in the evening from Chalcis in Euboea and
disembarking in Boeotia led them against Mycalessus.
The night he passed unobserved near the temple of Hermes, not quite two
miles from Mycalessus, and at daybreak assaulted and took the town, which is
not a large one; the inhabitants being off their guard and not expecting that any one would
ever come up so far from the sea to molest them, the wall too bei
after holding their own for some little while
notwithstanding, were at length put to flight and chased to the shore.
Such of their number as took refuge in Eretria, which they presumed to be
friendly to them, found their fate in that city, being butchered by the
inhabitants; while those who fled to the Athenian fort in the Eretrian territory, and
the vessels which got to Chalcis, were saved.
The Peloponnesians, after taking twenty-two Athenian ships, and killing or
making prisoners of the crews, set up a trophy, and not long afterwards
effected the revolt of the whole of Euboea （except Oreus, which was
held by the Athenians themselves）, and made a general settlement of
the affairs of the island.