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The Annals of the Civil War Written by Leading Participants North and South (ed. Alexander Kelly McClure), The campaign in Pennsylvania. (search)
were driven in disorder through and beyond the town of Gettysburg, leaving over five thousand prisoners in our hands. In this action the force engaged on the Confederate side, as already stated, consisted of the divisions of Heth and Pender, of Hill's Corps, and those of Early and Rodes, of Ewell's Corps. On the side of the Federals there was the First Corps, embracing the divisions of Wadsworth, Doubleday, and Robinson; the Eleventh Corps, embracing the divisions of Schurz, Barlow, and Steinwehr, and the cavalry force under General Buford. The infantry force on each side was about the same, and the preponderance in numbers was with the Federals--to the extent of General Buford's cavalry command. General Lee witnessed the flight of the Federals through Gettysburg, and up the hills beyond. He then directed me to go to General Ewell, and to say to him that, from the position which he occupied, he could see the enemy retreating over those hills, without organization, and in grea
ington, on the very day that the cartel was signed in Virginia, directs the military commanders of the United States to take the private property of our people for the convenience and use of their armies without compensation. The general order issued by General Pope on July 23d, the day after the signing of the cartel, directs the murder of our peaceful inhabitants as spies, if found quietly tilling their farms in his rear, even outside of his lines ; and one of his Brigadier-Generals, Steinwehr, has seized upon innocent and peaceful inhabitants to be held as hostages, to the end that they may be murdered in cold blood if any of his soldiers are killed by some unknown persons whom he designates as bushwhackers. Major-General Pope, July 13, 1862, issued an order that if any soldier should be fired upon on the march, the house nearest should be razed to the ground ; and if any were injured where no house was near, every household in the radius of five miles should be made to pay
Varina Davis, Jefferson Davis: Ex-President of the Confederate States of America, A Memoir by his Wife, Volume 2, Chapter 45: exchange of prisoners and Andersonville. (search)
d by the United States Secretary of War in Washington, on the very day that the cartel was signed in Virginia, directs the United States commanders to take the private property of our people for the convenience and use of their armies, without compensation. The General Order issued by Major- General Pope, on the day after the cartel was signed, directs the murder of our peaceful inhabitants as spies if found quietly tilling the farms in the rear, even outside of his lines; and Brigadier-General Steinwehr has seized upon peaceful inhabitants to be held as hostages, that they may be murdered in cold blood if any of his soldiers are killed by some unknown persons whom he designates as bush-whackers. Under this state of facts Mr. Davis issued a General Order, recognizing General Pope and his commissioned officers to be robbers and murderers, and not public enemies, entitled, if captured, to be considered prisoners of war. We are driven by the enemy to a course we abhor, and have v
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 5. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), A review of the First two days operations at Gettysburg and a reply to General Longstreet by General Fitz. Lee. (search)
at 26,000 men. Upon the Federal side there had been engaged the First and Eleventh corps, (save one brigade, Smith's of Steinwehr's division, left on Cemetery Hill as a reserve,) and Baford's two brigades of cavalry. As bearing directly upon this p1,200 organized men of that corps in position on Cemetery Hill at the time I arrived there, and these were a portion of Steinwehr's division, which, with the artillery of the corps, was left there by Howard when he marched up in the morning. In rrched all of that night and until two o'clock P. M. on the 2nd, before it reached the field. It has been stated that Steinwehr's division of Howard's corps, dn the first day, threw up lunettes around each gun, on Cemetery Hill-solid works of such, historically, the exact numbers, but I will say that there was but one brigade that had not been engaged: Smith's, of Steinwehr's division, which, with one battery remained in reserve on Cemetery Hill; Costar's brigade, of the same division, was s
lure of Gen. Scott to prevent the erection of batteries at various points on the right bank of the Potomac. The impending advance of the Union army toward Richmond, however, will either compel the Rebels to remove their batteries or render them an easy prey to the Union forces. Gen. Scott is simply indisposed to take at a great sacrifice of life what will be had in due time without bloodshed.--Ohio Statesman, June 22. The Twenty-ninth Regiment N. Y. S. V., under the command of Colonel Von Steinwehr, and the Seventeenth Regiment, Colonel H. C. Lansing, left New York for Washington. The Twenty-sixth Regiment N. Y. S. V., Colonel Christian, left Elmira, N. Y., for Washington.--(Doc. 27.) Two free negroes, belonging to Frederick, Md., who concealed themselves in the cars which conveyed the Rhode Island Regiment to Washington from that city, were returned this morning by command of Colonel Burnside, who supposed them to be slaves. The negroes were accompanied by a sergeant of
h as would not take the oath of allegiance to the United States to be sent South, and those having violated the oath to be shot, and their property seized and applied to the public use; and third, the order issued on the thirteenth July, by General Steinwehr, directing five prominent citizens of Page County, Va., to be held as hostages, and to suffer death in the event of any of his command being shot by bushwhackers. On account of these orders it was declared in that now issued by Jeff Davis that Generals Pope and Steinwehr were not to be considered as soldiers, and therefore not entitled, in case they should be captured, to the benefit of parole of prisoners of war, but that they, or any commissioned officer serving under them taken captive, should be held in close confinement so long as the above orders of the United States should continue in force. The order further declared that in the event of any rebels being executed by virtue or under the pretext of the above orders, wheth
Winona, while making a reconnoissance of the fortifications at Port Hudson, was fired upon by a party of rebel artillerists, under the command of Captain Boone, and compelled to retire.--About day-break this morning, a large body of General Stuart's rebel cavalry entered Dumfries, Va., and captured thirty-five National pickets and sutlers. After destroying the telegraph and several Government wagons, they retreated, and the town was soon after occupied by the Union troops, under Brigadier-General Steinwehr.--A skirmish took place on the Kinston road, about fourteen miles from New-bern, N. C., between the column of the expeditionary forces, under General Foster, and a small body of rebels, resulting in a rout of the latter with some loss.--(Doc. 73.) The rebel salt-works, at Yellville, Ark., were completely destroyed by a body of Union troops, under the command of Captain Milton Birch. Six thousand dollars' worth of saltpetre was destroyed. The works cost the rebels thirty thou
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 2., Chapter 17: Pope's campaign in Virginia. (search)
f the army to be arrested, and those taking the oath of allegiance, or giving security for good behavior, to be allowed to remain; all others to be sent beyond the lines, and if found within them again, to be treated as spies. On the 13th, General Steinwehr issued an order for the arrest of five of the most prominent citizens of Page County, to be held as hostages, and to suffer death if any of the soldiers under his command should be killed by bushwhackers, as lurking armed citizens were calldetermined to violate all the rules and usages of war, and to convert the hostilities hitherto waged against armed forces into a campaign of robbery and murder against unarmed citizens and tillers of the soil. He ordered that Generals Pope and Steinwehr, and all commissioned officers under their respective commands, should not be considered as soldiers, but as out-laws; and in the event of their capture, to be held as hostages for the lives of bushwhackers or spies, one of each to be hung for
being among the the wounded, and one-third of his force, including every General and Colonel, either disabled or captured. Driven back in wild rout down the Chancellorsville road upon the position of Gen. Schurz, it was found that his division had already retreated — perhaps fled is the apter word — and an attempt made to rally and form here proved abortive; the 17th Connecticut, which bore a resolute part in the effort, had its Lt.-Col. killed and its Colonel severely wounded. Back upon Steinwehr's division rolled the rabble rout, in spite of Howard's frantic exertions; and, although a semblance of organization and consistency was here maintained, the great majority of the corps poured down to Chancellorsville and beyond, spreading the infection of their panic, and threatening to stampede the entire army. Sickles had been preparing to strike a still heavier blow than that of Birney, and had, to that end, obtained from Hooker Pleasanton's cavalry, perhaps 1,000 strong, with permi
m into his lines; but they found him wide awake, and no wise inclined to panic or running. Charged at once on three sides, he met the enemy with a fire as deadly as theirs, and with ranks steadier and firmer than those of a charging column could be, and was fully holding his own against them, when Carl Schurz's division of Howard's corps came rushing from Hooker to his aid; Tyndale's brigade assaulting and carrying the hill whence they were enfiladed on their left, while a thin brigade of Steinwehr's division, which closely followed, was led by Col. Orlan Smith, 73d Ohio, on a charge up a very steep, difficult hill farther behind; carrying it without a shot, and taking some prisoners. It was now time for the Rebels to be off, and they left — all save 153 who lay dead in Geary's front, and over 100 prisoners. Their reports admit a loss of 361. Darkness prevented any effective pursuit. Hooker's total loss here was 416. Since crossing the Tennessee, 437: 76 killed, 339 wounded, 22
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