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Administration. It matters not what ability an officer may possess; if he is not politically identified with his masters, promotion is denied, and the press so effectually gagged that no word of commendation may escape it. Sigel, Major-General Franz Sigel has proved himself an excellent soldier; and if he had been untrammelled by those in power, or given a distinct command away from Fremont and other incapables, he would have made a great name for himself long ere this. He was born in Baden in 1824, and graduated with much honor in the military college of Carlsruhe; and, in 1847, was considered one of the ablest artillerists in Europe. When the revolution broke out in Germany, he threw up his command and joined the insurgents. At one time he was in command of the insurgent army, and successfully retreated with thirty thousand, despite all the traps and snares laid for him by an army of eighty thousand. His generalship drew forth praise from some of the best soldiers in Europ
onel Schaefer, of the Second Missouri Infantry, had been absent on sick-leave during the Kentucky campaign, but about this date he returned to duty, and by seniority fell in command of the second brigade. He was of German birth, having come from Baden, where, prior to 1848, he had been a non-commissioned officer in the service of his State. He took part as an insurgent in the so-called revolution which occurred at Baden in that year, and, compelled to emigrate on the suppression of the insurrBaden in that year, and, compelled to emigrate on the suppression of the insurrection, made his way to this country and settled in St. Louis. Here the breaking out of the war found him, and through the personal interest which General Sigel took in him he was commissioned a colonel of volunteers. He had had a pretty fair education, a taste for the military profession, and was of tall and slender build, all of which gave him a student-like appearance. He was extremely excitable and nervous when anticipating a crisis, but always calmed down to cool deliberation when the c
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Advertisement (search)
ed by itself at Glogau in Silesia. The fall of Napoleon, by giving up many studious officers to the leisures of peace, became the signal for the apparition of a host of military writings of all kinds. General Rogniat gave matter for controversy in wishing to bring back the system of the legions, or of the divisions of the republic, and in attacking the somewhat adventurous system of Napoleon. Germany was especially fertile in dogmatic works; Xilander in Bavaria, Theobald and Muller of Wurtemberg, Wagner, Decker, Hoyer and Valintini in Prussia, published different books, which presented substantially but the repetition of the maxims of the Arch Duke Charles and mine, with other developments of application. Although several of these authors have combatted my chapter on central lines of operations with more subtlety than real success, and others have been, at times, too precise in their calculations, we could not refuse to their writings the testimonials of esteem which they merit
ed to General Gortschakoff. The 5th division, General Lorges, 12,000 men, distributed from Schlieren to Baden. The 6th division, General Menard, 8000 men, at Baden and on the lower banks of the river. The reserve, division of Klein, in the Frickthal. There dispositions for the passage were-- 1st. The division of Loroward Zurich, to cut off the retreat of the Russian left wing under General Gortschakoff. 3d. General Menard, with his remaining troops, was to demonstrate near Baden, and to draw the attention of the 6000 Russians under General Durasoff on him, while the real passage took place at Dietikon. 4th. To prevent General Gortschakto put the Russians on the alert. One of the sentries fired; this was repeated by all the others along the river; and the alarm spread through the whole line from Baden to Zurich, and in a few minutes the entire Russian army was under arms. No time was to be lost; the boats were pushed into the river, manned, and rowed to the o
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
fficers, number of pupils not known; a military orphan school, with about twelve thousand pupils; and numerous depot and regimental schools of practice. The smaller European powers-Belgium, Sardinia, Naples, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Sweden, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, have each several military schools, with a large number of pupils. It is seen from these statistics, that the European powers are not so negligent in educating their officers, and in instructing and disciplining their soldieBaden, have each several military schools, with a large number of pupils. It is seen from these statistics, that the European powers are not so negligent in educating their officers, and in instructing and disciplining their soldiers, as some in this country would have us believe. Washington, Hamilton, Knox, Pickering, and others, learning, by their own experience in the war of the American revolution, the great necessity of military education, urged upon our government, as early as 1783, the importance of establishing a military academy in this country, but the subject continued to be postponed from year to year till 1802. In 1794, the subaltern grade of cadet was created by an act of Congress, the officers of this
r the maintenance of the Constitution and the just cause of the Union. We are not here as Democrats or Republicans, but as men who love liberty, justice and the Union. We desire to retain in the service of our adopted fatherland, the eminent talents of a General who, by his energetic perseverance since May, 1861, probably prevented the secession of one of the brightest stars from the Northern constellation. General Francis Sigel--crowned with the twin laurels of the Old and the New World, Baden and Missouri--is a name which fills with irresistible power each patriotic heart, whether native or adopted, with the fullest confidence and most ardent enthusiasm. In July, 1861, he covered the flag of our Union with ineffable glory at Carthage; there history wrote his New World certificate of the most eminent generalship, while the rebel banner was biting the dust. When Jackson, Price, Rains and Parsons acted the traitors to their country, we find Franz Sigel forming German regiments, an
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Federal Union, the John Fiske (search)
nitial difficulty of securing approximate equality of weight in the federal councils between States of unequal size. The simple device by which this difficulty was at last surmounted has proved effectual, although the inequalities between the States have greatly increased. To-day the population of New York is more than eighty times that of Nevada. In area the State of Rhode Island is smaller than Montenegro, while the State of Texas is larger than the Austrian Empire, with Bavaria and Wurtemberg thrown in. Yet New York and Nevada, Rhode Island and Texas each send two Senators to Washington, while on the other hand in the lower House each State has a number of representatives proportioned to its population. The upper House of Congress is therefore a federal, while the lower House is a national body, and the government is brought into direct contact with the people without endangering the equal rights of the several States. The second great compromise of the American Constitutio
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Harmony Society. (search)
Harmony Society. A communistic society settled at Economy, near Pittsburg. George Rapp, the head of the society, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, October, 1757; died at Economy in 1847. Rapp and a few of his adherents sailed for America in 1803, and began several settlements in Maryland and Pennsylvania. In 1814 they removed to Posey county, Ind., selling their old home for $100,000, which was much below its value. In 1824 they sold the town of Harmony and 20,000 acres of land to Robert Owen for $150,000, and returned to Pennsylvania, settling at Economy. Originally each family retained its property, but in the year 1807 they established a community of goods and adopted celibacy. As the society does not seek new members, it is rapidly approaching extinction, and great curiosity is felt by their neighbors in Pittsburg as to the disposition of the large and valuable property.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Memminger, Charles Gustavus 1803- (search)
Memminger, Charles Gustavus 1803- Financier; born in Wurtemberg, Germany, Jan. 9, 1803; was taken to Charleston, S. C., in infancy; graduated at South Carolina College in 1820, and began to practise law in 1826. In the nullification movement in South Carolina (see nullification) he was a leader of the Union men. In 1860 he was a leader of the Confederates in that State, and on the formation of the Confederate government was made Secretary of the Treasury. He had been for nearly twenty years at the head of the finance committee of the South Carolina legislature. He died March 7, 1888. In January, 1860, as a representative of the political leaders in South Carolina, he appeared before the legislature of Virginia as a special commissioner to enlist the representatives of the Old Dominion in a scheme to combat the abolitionists. In the name of South Carolina, he proposed a convention of the slave-labor States to consider their grievances and to take action for their defence.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mergenthaler, Ottmar 1854-1899 (search)
Mergenthaler, Ottmar 1854-1899 Inventor; born in Wurtemberg, Germany, May 10, 1854; came to the United States friendless and penniless when eighteen years old; and first secured employment under the government in Washington to look after the mechanism of clocks, bells, and signal service apparatus. In 1876 he was employed by a mechanical engineering firm in Baltimore. Later, while in the employment of this firm, he made experiments that led to the invention of a type-setting machine. For four years he spent all his leisure time in perfecting his plans. He first conceived the idea of a rotary apparatus, but afterwards made a complete change in his plan and adopted the linotype scheme, which he finally perfected. His machine was worked by a key-board similar to that of a typewriter, and was capable of setting a line of type or dies, adjusting it to a desired width, and casting it into a solid line of type-metal. He secured patents for his invention, but it was not a practical
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