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use. On account of the difficulty of obtaining a good article of flint glass, more particularly, and the trouble and skill required in grinding and polishing the faces of each piece so that they may have the proper curvature and fit accurately together, achromatic lenses have always been and will probably continue to be very expensive, especially the larger sizes. Dr. Dick mentions one of 5 1/2 inches aperture and 5 1/2 feet focal length, which cost 200 guineas. Plopl, an optician of Vienna, has recently invented an improvement on the achromatic, which he calls the dialytic telescope, in which the several different kinds of glass composing the compound object-glass are not placed close together, but at regulated distances apart. This arrangement allows a shortening of the tube. Chester More Hall, of Essex, England, invented the achromatic telescope in 1729, but did not make it public. Dollond had to invent it over again. Acid-ime-ter. An instrument for determining t
ery.) A small pillar supporting a hand-rail, coping, balcony, or terrace. A row of such makes a balustrade. They are usually cast hollow, or, when solid, are turned out of stone or wood. The balusters, hand-rails, and base are sometimes made of swaged sheet-metal. Bal-us-trade′. A hand-rail with its supporting balusters, such as that of a terrace, parapet, balcony, staircase, altar, chancel, or inclosure. Bal′us-tre. (Fabric.) A superior variety of gold cloth, manufactured at Vienna. Bal-za-rine. (Fabric.) A light mixed material of worsted and cotton for ladies' dresses. Band. 1. (Vehicle.) A circular collar, hoop, or strap, such as that on a nave; a hub-band; an axleband. 2. (Architecture.) a. A narrow, flat projecting surface. When narrow, it is a fillet; wider, it is a facia. b. The leaden came which holds the lozenge-shaped panes in the old-fashioned casement windows. 3. (Fire-arms.) One of the metallic sleeves which bind the barrel to
k. c, breast. d, flue. e, hearth. f, slab. g, floor. h, mitered border. i, brick-trimmer. j, ceiling. k, joists. l, mantel-shelf. m, reveal or coving. n, throat. o, mantel. p, jamb. q, plinth. r, bridging. The chimney at the Port Dundas Works, Glasgow, is the tallest chimney and one of the highest masonry structures in existence. In Europe there are only two church steeples, those of the Strasburg Cathedral and of St. Stephen's Church, in Vienna, which, by a few feet, exceed the hight of this chimney, and the great Pyramid of Ghizeh was — but is not now — the only other human erection exceeding this great chimney in hight. The dimensions of this chimney are: — Total hight from foundation, 468 feet; hight above ground, 454 feet; outside diameter at the level of ground, 32 feet; outside diameter at the top, 12 feet 8 inches; thickness at ground level, 7 bricks; thickness at the top, 1 1/2 bricks. The internal diameter at the base is<
in the fourth century of our era. Jerome, A. D. 422, states that glass was melted and cast into plates for windows. In the sixth century Paulus Silentarius notices that the windows of the Church of St. Sophia at Constantinople were glazed. The oldest glass windows now in existence are of the twelfth century, and are in the church of St. Denis, France. In the thirteenth century, the Venetians exceeded all others in glass-making. Aeneas Sylvius states that, in 1458, the houses in Vienna had glass windows. He regarded it as a sign of opulence. In France, church windows were generally glazed in the sixteenth century, though there were but few glass windows in private dwellings. Talc, isinglass, horn, oiled paper, and thinly shaved leather were generally used instead of glass throughout the civilized world. Blue glass, colored by the addition of cobalt to the frit, was discovered about 1550 by Christopher Schurer of Platten, Bohemia. Glass was imported into Engla
He elsewhere states that they buy it of the Northern people. Hesychius says the Thracian women made sheets of hemp. The people of that country yet wear tunics of hemp, and some are employed in towing the boats on the Danube between Pesth and Vienna. Hempen ropes were used on board the Syracusia, built for Hiero, as recorded by Moschion. There are many other notices of hemp by later authors. It was imported in the hank or bale from the country of the Rhodaunus, which empties into the Viltural purposes. Regular hot-houses are of late introduction in our botanic gardens. Ripe pineapples were first obtained in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century. Linnaeus states that the first banana which flowered in Europe was in Vienna, in the garden of Prince Eugene, in 1731. The accordant accounts of Hernando Cortes, in his reports to the Emperor Charles V., of Bernal Diaz, Gomara, Oviedo, and Hernandez, leave no doubt that at the time of the conquest of Montezuma's empire
ver and strengthened by a backing of cement, pieces of metal being employed to bind the two together and impart firmness to the slab. The process of Pichler of Vienna is recommended for plastic decorations of all kinds: Take one pound of good glue and boil it down so that it will be quite thick; add then half a pound of resin, ed, in which phosphorus was substituted for sulphide of antimony. In March, 1842, Reuben Partridge patented a machine for making splints. 1845, Schrotter of Vienna discovered amorphous or allotropic phosphorus, which rendered the manufacture less unhealthy, and the matches less dangerous. The process of manufacture is, ace inventors. The mitrailleur of 37 barrels weighs 180 kilogrammes, or 400 pounds, without the carriage, and can be worked by two men. It was found, however, at Vienna, in December, 1869, that to obtain the most rapid firing, or 481 balls per minute, five men were necessary to work the piece. The front carriage contains from
eavored to obtain half-tones by the interposition of crape, etc. He termed it Photoglyptic engraving. Paul Pretsch of Vienna, working in London, about 1854, established the photo-galvanographic company in that city. His method consisted in prepaeded that of Macpherson of Rome (October 14, 1852) by only a few months; five years later the Imperial printing office in Vienna experimented in the same direction. See Heliotype. 2. Poitevin, of Paris, patented in England, December, 1855, a pronsively used from 1842 for mattresses, coverlets, etc. Five hundred of these coverlets were purchased for the hospital of Vienna in the former year, and shortly afterward at other places. It was particularly useful as stuffing for beds and for uphol master Faust. Faust and Schoeffer printed the Codex Psalmorum (with cut types), in 1457, now in Imperial Library, Vienna. Durandi rationale, 1459, Earl of Pembroke's Library, England. Catholicon Januensis, 1460, Royal Library, France.
ganese. The molten metal is worked beneath the scum and rolled into balls. Captain Uchatius, of the Imperial Arsenal, Vienna, granulates cast-iron by running it from the furnace into agitated cold water. The grains are put into a crucible with a the condition that is produced by the process of condensation set forth. Colonel Uchatius, director of the Arsenal at Vienna, uses an alloy of 90 to 92 per cent of copper and 10 to 8 per cent of tin, and casts under a pressure of 80 tons, produci is injected. Also called a dermopathic syringe. Subcutaneous syringe. Fig. 6019 is an improved form by Leiter of Vienna. In this, the lower end of the tube a is conically enlarged, for the more ready introduction of the lancet or needle b amithThamesLondon, England422.2529.51824Tierney Clarke. Albert 3 spans; 150, 400, 150.ThamesChelsea, England400 DanubeVienna33421.41828Von Mitis. ConwayArm of the seaWales32722.331826Telford. Chain PierBrighton, England255181823Sir S. Brown. I