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loss of life was dreadful. The bridge was restored in 1300; again partially burned in 1471, 1632, and 1725. The houses were pulled down in 1756. At what time stone arches were substituted for wooden spans does not appear. When the present London bridge was built in 1831, the elm piles of the old bridge were yet sound, after 600 years use. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries A. D. a very useful society flourished in Europe, called the Brothers of the bridge. The building of bridges wilding, which was understood by the Romans, fell into disuse when that political system became disintegrated. When the arts revived, the Italians took the lead. Much has been done of late years, and the designs become more and more bold. London Bridge, Menai Tubular Bridge, the St. Lawrence Bridge at Montreal, the Cincinnati Bridge, Southwark Bridge, London, the Cabin John Creek Bridge, Maryland, and the Schuylkill Bridge at Philadelphia, are trophies of their kind. The suspension bridge
iter-post, balance-bar, cross-pieces, cleading, and diagonal bracing. There was a lock at London Bridge in Pepys's time, 1661; at least, he calls it such. It was probably a sluice, and the chattyspace between the walls puddled. The interior enclosure is then pumped out. Coffer-dam of London bridge. The pier coffer-dam of London Bridge (Fig. 1375) is described at length in Cresy. It iLondon Bridge (Fig. 1375) is described at length in Cresy. It is elliptical in form, and a portion of it is shown in plan in the figure. It was composed of piles not less than 12 1/2 Coffin-makers (Thebes). inches square, driven in rows and braced by timberf the wallower or lantern-wheel, which was driven by the water-wheel under the north arch of London Bridge, as described by Beighton, 1731. This machine supplied a part of London with water. The warent-mill. The tide and current wheel, erected first in the vicinity of the north end of London Bridge, and subsequently under its northern arch, was erected by Peter Morice, a Dutchman, in 1582,
melt the other. See liquation-furnace. El-lip′so-graph. An instrument for describing ellipses. The pins of the beam traverse in the slots of the trammel, each occupying its own slot, and the pencil at the end, as the beam revolves, is guided in an elliptical path. See trammel. Ellipsograph. Elliptical wheels. There are many varieties of compass for this purpose. El-lip′ tical—arch. (Architecture.) An arch having two foci and an elliptical contour. The arches of London Bridge are the finest elliptical arches in the world: the middle one has 152 feet span. El-lip′ti-cal—gear′ing. See elliptical-wheel. El-lip′ti-cal—wheel. One used where a rotary motion of varying speed is required, and the variation of speed is determined by the relation between the lengths of the major and minor axes of the ellipses. In the upper figure, variable rotary motion is produced by uniform rotary motion. The small spur pinion works in a slot cut in the
each motion of the plunger: the pump has a distinct water-way both above and below the piston, so as both to draw and force water at each stroke, and thus cause a continuous stream, which is rendered more uniform by an air-chamber. The invention of the force-pump is ascribed to Ctesibus of Alexandria, who is assumed to have been the tutor of Hero, who wrote so largely on hydraulics. It was also described by Vitruvius. In 1582, Peter Morice, a Dutchman, erected a pumping-engine at London Bridge, where it or its successors remained till 1821. The power was a current-wheel turned by the flow and ebb, and first placed near the bridge, then under the northern arch; afterwards three wheels were added under the third arch; Smeaton added another under the fifth arch, and afterwards a steam-engine to assist at low-water and neap tides. See current-wheel. The water-wheel of Morice worked sixteen forcepumps, each seven inches in diameter, the pistons having a stroke of thirty inche
D. 1236, and Henry III., about 1270, granted the citizens of London the liberty to convey water from the town of Tyburn to the city, by pipes made of lead. A leaden cistern, built round with stone, was erected in 1285. The length of lead-pipe then laid down, from Paddington to the Cross in Cheapside, was 1,096 rods. Cisterns and supply-pipes of lead were numerous in the fifteenth century. The art of casting them was invented by Rev. Robert Brooke, 1539. In 1582, the water-works of London Bridge were established by Peter Morice, and the water distributed by lead-pipes to certain parts of the city. In 1613, the New River, an open aqueduct 40 miles long, and having a fall of 3 inches to the mile, was finished by Sir Hugh Middleton, and the water was distributed by wooden mains and leaden branches. In 1804, cast-iron pipes were substituted for the wooden mains. Lead-pipe is made by casting, drawing, pressing, and rolling. It may be cast in lengths in an ordinary core-mold
to change a rotary to a reciprocating motion, the inverse of the Watt proposition, was not new at the date. A 4-throw crank was employed on each end of the wallower or lantern-wheel which was driven by the water-wheel under the north end of London Bridge, as described by Beighton, 1731. The water-wheel was first placed there by Morice in 1582, but the mode of driving the pump-piston from the rotary-shaft is not known to the writer. To make the rotary motion continuous, passing the dead pouried the iron till part was consumed by rust, and that the remainder made swords strong enough to cleave a shield or helmet, or cut through a bone. Some wrought bands that were recovered with the piles driven to support the abutments of old London Bridge were bought by a cutler, who became celebrated for the surpassing excellence of the blades forged from the old scrap-pile. Pliny gives a long description of iron and the modes of its manufacture. The varieties of steel in modern practic
which is turned by the action of water upon its floats. In 1701, a lease for 381 years was made of the 4th arch of London Bridge for water-wheel purposes, to raise water for the city of London. The 1st arch was leased in 1581 for the same purp to the king's kitchen in carts. Edward II. gave a reward of 20 shillings to three mariners who caught a whale near London Bridge. Those found on the banks of the Thames were claimed by the lord mayor, and added to the civic feast. Pieces of whaade of elm logs, bored, were used for the mains in the London water-works from 1582, when Morice started the works at London Bridge, down to about 1800. Lead-pipes had previously been used, as early as 1285, in bringing water from the springs of Ty, and will resist decomposition for an indefinite period, when kept totally submerged in the water. The piles of old London Bridge, driven 800 years before, were found to he in good condition when the new bridge was erected in 1829, and those which