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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), A vindication of Virginia and the South. (search)
with the sacrifice made by the South to satisfy it, maintain the public faith and preserve the Union, it is necessary to refer to a map of the country, and to remember that at that time neither Texas, New Mexico, California nor Arizona belonged to the United States; that the country west of the Mississippi which fell under that compromise is that which was acquired from France in the purchase of Louisiana, and which includes West Minnesota, the whole of Iowa, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, Kansas, Nebraska, and Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Washington and Oregon, embracing an area of 1,360,000 square miles. Of this the South had the privilege of settling Arkansas alone, or less than four per cent. of the whole. The sacrifice thus made by the South, for the sake of the Union, will be more fully appreciated when we reflect that under the Constitution Southern gentlemen had as much right, and the same right to go into the Territories with their slaves, that
General Scott suggested to General Harney, on the 26th of June, to send part of his horse in advance to Fort Laramie to recruit in strength before the main body came up; but, unfortunately, this was not done. The Second Dragoons were detained in Kansas in consequence of the political troubles there; and, finally, at the request of Governor Walker, and probably in accordance with his own wishes, General Harney was himself retained in command of that department. From information received, it ly-approaching winter threatened. So much was a terrible disaster feared by those well acquainted with the rigors of a winter life in the Rocky Mountains, that General Harney was said to have predicted it, and to have induced Governor Walker (of Kansas) to ask for his retention. The route was not then, as now, lined with settlements and ranches, which would afford some comfort to man and beast. The narrow valleys, already grazed over by thousands of animals, yielded a scanty subsistence fo
rusted to one chief, and that he must be a man to whom both President and people should give their entire confidence. Men of ability commanded the small armies of observation stationed at intervals along the extended frontiers, from Virginia to Kansas; but no general plan of defense had been adopted, and each emergency was met as best it might be. Want of coherence and cooperation, not lack of vigor or valor, prevented efficient action, and combined movement seemed impossible. Accordingly,tment No. 2, which will hereafter embrace the States of Tennessee and Arkansas, and that part of the State of Mississippi west of the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern and Central Railroad; also, the military operations in Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian country immediately west of Missouri and Arkansas. He will repair to Memphis, Tennessee, and assume command, fixing his headquarters at such point as, in his judgment, will best secure the purposes of the command. By command
high ground, it commanded all approaches from the interior, while the river was kept open for the transit of any number of troops from St. Louis. Price determined to march forward and attack it, but was informed that large bands of outlaws from Kansas, under General Jim Lane and others, were devastating the whole country on his left flank, and threatened to get in his rear. Suddenly diverging from his proper route, Price sent Rains and Parsons up in that direction, with a small force of deteg reached a point twenty-five miles above the city, two thousand of this force crossed with Saunders, Atcheson being left in charge of the remainder. General Jim Lane, however, was also approaching in the same direction with a heavy force of his Kansas Jayhawkers to reenforce Mulligan in Lexington, and, finding Atcheson with so small a force, vigorously attacked him. The Missourians knew these Jayhawkers of old, in many a border fight, and, taking to the woods, they maintained such a murderous
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Organization of the two governments. (search)
Governors of the States during the War. Union States California Governor John G. Downey (1860-1) Governor Leland Stanford (1861-3) Governor Frederick F. Low (1863-8) Connecticut Governor William A. Buckingham (1858-66) Delaware Governor William Burton (1859-63) Governor William Cannon (1863-7) Illinois Governor Richard Yates (1861-5) Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton (1861-7) Iowa Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood (1860-4) Governor William M. Stone (1864-8) Kansas Governor Charles Robinson (1861-3) Governor Thomas Carney (1863-5) Maine Governor Israel Washburn, Jr. (1861-3) Governor Abner Coburn (1863-4) Governor Samuel Cony (1864-7) Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew (1861-6) Michigan Governor Austin Blair (1861-4) Governor Henry H. Crapo (1865-9) Minnesota Governor Alexander Ramsey (1859-63) Governor Stephen Miller (1863-6) Nevada (State admitted 1864) Governor Henry G. Blasdell (18
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Washington on the Eve of the War. (search)
er, 1860, the military forces of the United States consisted of 1,108 officers and 15,259 men of the regular army; total, 16,367. The distribution of the army may be inferred from the map printed on page 8, and from the following memorandum (made on the 6th of December, 1875), by Adjutant-General E. D. Townsend, exhibiting certain changes in the stations of troops made under the orders of the Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, during the years 1858-60 : After the removal of the troops to Kansas and Utah at the close of Indian hostilities in Florida, in June, 1858, there were left in the country east of the Mississippi River 16 companies of artillery. From that time (June, 1858) till December 31, 1860, some changes of stations occurred, by which the Department of the East gained 3 companies (2 of artillery and 1 of engineers), so that at the end of 1860 there were 18 companies of artillery and 1 of engineers serving east of the Mississippi River. There were no troops in the neighb
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., War preparations in the North. (search)
s the work of the god Pan might seem to have its counterpart in the work of a national divinity rousing a whole people, not to terror, but to a sublime enthusiasm of self-devotion. To picture it as a whole is impossible. A new generation can only approximate a knowledge of the feelings of that time by studying in detail some separate scenes of the drama that had a continent for its stage. The writer can only tell what happened under his eye. The like was happening everywhere from Maine to Kansas. What is told is simply a type of the rest. In those opening days of the war, the National Government seemed for the moment to be subordinated to the governments of the States. A revolution in the seceding South had half destroyed the national legislature, and the national executive was left without a treasury, without an army, and without laws adequate to create these at once. At no time since the thirteen colonies declared their independence have the State governors and the State leg
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., McDowell's advance to Bull Run. (search)
ulties from which the Confederate President was, by the situation, quite free. In the beginning of the war, the military advantage was on the side of the Confederates, notwithstanding the greater resources of the North, which produced their effect only as the contest was prolonged. Irwin McDowell. After the firing of the first gun upon Sumter, the two sides were equally active in marshaling their forces on a line along the border States from the Atlantic coast of Virginia in the east to Kansas in the west. Many of the earlier collisions along this line were due rather to special causes or local feeling than to general military considerations. The prompt advance of the Union forces under McClellan to West Virginia was to protect that new-born free State. Patterson's movement to Hagerstown and thence to Harper's Ferry was to prevent Maryland from joining or aiding the rebellion, to re-open the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and prevent invasion from the Shenandoah Valley. The Sout
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., The first year of the War in Missouri. (search)
h about 2350 men, and directed his course toward Clinton in Henry county, where he had ordered Major Sturgis, who was following Rains with about 2500 regulars and Kansas troops, to unite with him. The two columns came together near Clinton on the 7th of July and pushed on after the Missourians. Lyon did not learn till the 9th thandoned by his men. [See foot-note, page 297.] Rarely have I met so extraordinary a man as Lyon, or one that has interested me so deeply. Coming to St. Louis from Kansas on the 6th of February, this mere captain of infantry, this little, rough-visaged, red-bearded, weather-beaten Connecticut captain, by his intelligence, his abilitook possession of Springfield, and sent Rains with a mounted force to clear the western counties of the State of the marauding bands that had come into them from Kansas. On the 25th of August he moved northward with his army. On the 2(1 of September he met a part of Lane's Kansas Brigade under Colonel Montgomery on the banks of
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., In command in Missouri. (search)
ops moving into Arkansas. On the 5th Marsh reported from Girardeau that the enemy was close upon him, 5000 strong, and would attack him before morning. At midnight a heavy battery of 6 twenty-four-pounders and 1,000 men were embarked to his aid under experienced officers, and Prentiss further reinforced him from below the same morning. On the 6th General Scott telegraphed me that he had ordered all the troops out of New Mexico, and directed me to confer immediately with the governor of Kansas, and arrange for the safety of New Mexico, sending two regiments without delay, as the first detachement would leave on the 15th. On the 9th I informed the Government that the greater part o the old troops were going out of service, while the new levies, totally unacquainted with the rudiments of military training, would be unmanageable before an enemy. Therefore, I asked authority from the President to collect throughout the states educated officers who had seen service. With them I c
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