it is notable that in the greatest works of the kind of modern times, such as the aqueduct of Marseilles and the Croton Aqueduct, their leading principles have been carried out, and the use of pipes
3. The Roquefavour Aqueduct, erected by Montricher to conduct the waters of the Durance to Marseilles.
The aqueduct for supplying Marseilles with water extends from the river Durance, a distancMarseilles with water extends from the river Durance, a distance of 51 miles, though a very hilly country.
It comprises 78 tunnels, having a united length of over 12 miles. It has 500 bridges, embankments, and other artificial constructions.
Marseilles lies in Marseilles lies in a large arid basin, and the aqueduct approaches the edge of the basin at a hight of 500 feet above the level of the sea. Branches extend to and irrigate the area of 25,000 acres, and also supply the city of Marseilles.
The bridge over the valley of the Arc is 1,287 feet in length and 262 feet in hight.
It is formed of a triple tier of arches; is said to have occupied from 700 to 800 workmen for
er than those which are worked by a hammer; in drill- img holes that are vertical or nearly so, and in moderately hard rock, they are found more advantageous than the others, two men being able to bore about 16 feet per day with a churn-jumper of 1 1/8 to 1 1/2 in diameter.
They are sometimes used with a spring rod and line, much in the manner of the most primitive way of boring artesian wells.
General Burgoyne mentions seeing the same device in use in blasting the calcareous rocks of Marseilles, at the foot of the hill on which the fort of Notre Dame de la Garde now stands.
The common way of charging the hole is, where the moisture is not excessive, to pour loose powder into it to a certain depth, depending on the judgment of the miner (one third the depth of the hole is a common allowance under ordinary circumstances); the needle, which is a wire sufficiently long to reach well down into the charge of powder, and provided with a handle to enable its easy withdrawal, is then i
o about 18,799 feet, so that it would seem the canal was more than half cut through.
A canal across the Isthmus of Corinth would shorten the route from Trieste to Athens forty-one hours for sailing-vessels, and fifteen hours for steamers; from Marseilles to Athens fourteen hours for sailing-vessels and five hours for steamers; and, finally, from Gibraltar to Athens six hours for the former and two and a half for the latter.
A large ship-canal to connect the Baltic and North Seas.
There are ntinople, but does not appear to have been publicly sold till 1554.
Its use was forbidden by the mufti, but again permitted by an edict of Solyman the Great.
The Venetians brought it from the Levant in 1615, and in 1645 it was introduced into Marseilles.
Coffee was introduced into England by Daniel Edwards, a Turkey merchant, in 1657.
The first coffee-house in England was in St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, London; opened by Pasqua, a Greek servant of Mr. Edwards.
It was then sold at from f
passage of air through the duct.
A pit sunk through an impervious stratum of earth to reach a pervious stratum and form a means of drainage for surface water, or a means of discharge of such liquid waste from manufactories as would foul the running water of streams.
Such wells are properly termed absorbing-wells (which see), and by Arago are called negative artesian-wells, — a term more curious than profound.
In former times the plain of Paluns, near Marseilles, was a morass, but was drained by means of absorbing-wells dug by King Rene; the waters thus carried off are said to have formed the fountains of Mion, near Cassis.
The lake of Joux is supplied from the river Orbe in the Jura and the lake of Rousses, and has no visible outlet.
It, however, maintains about an even level, and has evidently, as observed by Saussure, subterranean issues by which the waters are engulfed and disappear.
The inhabitants of this valley keep up their absorbing-we
dows were known in Rome, though white-glass windows are found at Herculaneum and Pompeii.
The art is supposed to have been brought from Byzantium to Venice and Marseilles, and was practiced by the Saracens throughout the cities of the East.
Stained-glass windows were in the basilica of St. Sophia and other churches in Constantll the required colors (see glass-coloring) are painted upon the same piece of glass and fired in the kiln, producing the effect of an oil-painting.
William of Marseilles (1475 – 1537) was a distinguished enameler on glass.
4. The mosaic enamel. In this mode colored glass is used as a groundwork to paint on, instead of white. than now, for measuring altitudes and declinations of the sun and stars.
It was usually a column erected upon level ground or pavement.
An observation made at Marseilles by Pytheas in the time of Alexander the Great showed that the gnomon at that place was as the meridian shadow at the summer solstice, as 213 1/2 to 600.
stone are intended to look.
The printing capability is possessed by a crayon-drawing only after it has been etched with a very weak acid and gum-water.
Lithographic crayon or chalk (Engelmann): —
Yellow wax, 32 parts; Marseilles soap, 24 parts; tallow, 4 parts; saltpeter, 1 part; lampblack, 7 parts.
Melt the wax and tallow first; add the soap gradnally, and heat till the mixture catches fire of itself.
Remove the vessel from the fire, and let its contents burn for r.): Tallow, 10 parts; wax, 10 parts; soap, 16 parts; shellac, 14 parts; lampblack, 5 parts.
Fuse together and treat exactly as above.
The following is Lemercier's recipe for a similar ink: —
Yellow wax, 4 parts; tallow, 3 parts; white Marseilles soap.
13 parts, shellac, 6 parts; lampblack, 3 parts.
Melt the wax and tallow, and add the soap in small quantities, then the shellac, and stir till all is evenly blended.
Raise the temperature till the vapors take fire, burn cautiously for
invented the rolled rail; the iron, while hot, being passed between grooved rollers of the required pattern (i j k l).
m n o p are respectively the Spanish, Marseilles, Strasburg, and Great Western (England) patterns.
q, Durham and Sunderland, England.
r, Berlin and Potsdam, Prussia.
s, London and Blackwall, England.
Kutais (E shore of Black Sea）59.44
Bakou (S oring the process of breathing.
The cut illustrates a party of divers recovering a chest of gold which had been lost overboard from a steamer in the harbor of Marseilles.
1. (Lathe.) A device for supporting a piece of work in a lathe or vise.
A lathe-rest is a horizontal bar attached to the bed or shears, for t
careous substance, as Roman, or, still better, Portland cement, which hardens after being mixed with water.
Ordinary concrete and Beton (which see) are of this class.
Terra-cotta, employed for architectural ornaments, statuary, etc., is in the nature of a fine brick.
Cement stones have been largely employed for constructions in the sea, especially for harbor dams, breakwaters, and quay walling.
We may cite the moles of Dover and Alderney, in England, of Port Vendre, Cette, La Ciotat, Marseilles, and Cherbourg in France, Carthagena in Spain, Pola in the Adriatic, of Algiers and Port Said in Africa, and Cape Henlopen at the mouth of the Delaware.
For the break water at Cherbourg artificial stone blocks of 712 cubic feet each were immersed
The fortifications before Copenhagen are made of a concrete of broken stone and hydraulic mortar.
The sluice of Francis Joseph on the Danube, in Hungary, is built entirely of concrete.
This work forms a reservoir, the bottom and the sides of
1870Gibraltar to Malta1,1201,450
1870*Porthcurno to Mid Channel6562
1870Marseilles, France, to Bona, Africa4471,600
1870Bona, Africa, to Malta386650
1871Majorca to Minorca3593
1871Villa Real to Gibraltar15584
1871Marseilles, France, to Algiers, Africa4471,625
1871Singapore to Saigon, Cochin China62060 74Rye Beach, U. S., to Tarr Bay, Nova Scotia550
1874Barcelona, Spain, to Marseilles, France200
1874Shetland to Orkney60
1874Valentia to Newfoundland1,900
M. Secretan of Paris has constructed one for the observatory of Marseilles exceeding 2 1/2 feet in diameter.
The advantages possessed by glass are thth seeds and trees by gnawing the roots.
They infested Iberia, from Calpe to Marseilles, also the Gymnesian islands (Majorca and Minorca). The inhabitants of these i used by Mahomet II.
They were mentioned, however, by Caesar in the siege of Marseilles; by Diodorus Siculus in that of Aegina; by Livy; and are represented on the c