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the secession of these states resulted in the establishment of a separate Confederacy or in the restoration of the Union, was there any authority by virtue of which it could either restore a disaffected state to the Union by force of arms, or make any change in any of its institutions. I refer especially for the verification of this assertion to the dispatches addressed by the Secretary of State of the United States, under direction of the President, to the ministers of the United States at London and Paris, under date of the 10th and 22d of April, 1861. This proclamation was therefore received by the people of the Confederate States as the fullest vindication of their own sagacity in foreseeing the uses to which the dominant party in the United States intended from the beginning to apply their power. For what honest purpose were these declarations made? They could deceive no one who was familiar with the powers and duties of the federal government; they were uttered in the sea
ntman to be built in one of their ports and to leave it without any armament or crew, which could have enabled it, in that condition, to make war upon a country with which Great Britain was at peace. Referring to the Alabama, as she was when she left the Mersey, Mr. Laird said: If a ship without guns and without arms is a dangerous article, surely rifled guns and ammunition of all sorts are equally and even more dangerous. I have referred to the bills of entry in the custom-houses of London and Liverpool, and I find that there has been vast shipments of implements of war to the Northern States through the celebrated houses of Baring & Co.; Brown, Shipley & Co.; and a variety of other names. . . . I have obtained from the official custom-house returns some details of the sundries exported from the United Kingdom to the Northern States of America from the 1st of May, 1861, to the 31st of December, 1862. There were—muskets, 41,500; rifles, 341,000; gun-flints, 26,500; percussion
as approached by a bark which, to give succor, hove to. Not being able to receive all the passengers, the commissioned officers left, as the colonel naively reported, in the order of their rank. Winder alone remained with the troops; in great discomfort and by strenuous exertion the wreck was kept afloat until a vessel bound for Liverpool came to the relief of the sufferers. Arriving at Liverpool, Winder left the soldiers there, went to the General James Longstreet American consul in London, got means to provide for their needs, and returned with them. Soon afterward four regiments were added to the army, and, for his good conduct so full of promise, he was nominated a captain of infantry, and, notwithstanding his youth, was confirmed and commissioned accordingly. He died manifesting the same spirit as on the wreck—that which holds life light when weighed against honor. The enemy's infantry advanced about 5 P. M., and attacked General Early in front, while another body, co
countries to alleviate it. Instead, however, of adopting those measures required in the exercise of justice to the Confederacy, and which would have been sustained by the law of nations, by declaring the blockade ineffective, as it really was, they sought, through informal applications to Seward, the Secretary of State for the United States, to obtain opportunities for an increased exportation of cotton from the Confederacy. This is explained by Seward in a letter to Adams, the Minister at London, dated July 28, 1862, in which he writes as follows: The President has given respectful consideration to the desire informally expressed to me by the Governments of Great Britain and France for some further relaxation of the blockade in favor of that trade. They are not rejected, but are yet held under consideration, with a view to ascertain more satisfactorily whether they are really necessary, and whether they can be adopted without such serious detriment to our military operations a
er. This continued unchanged to the close. Mason became our representative in London, Slidell in Paris, Rost in Spain, and Mann in Belgium. They performed the posiign Affairs, Drouyn de l'huys, addressed a note to the ambassadors of France at London and St. Petersburg. In this dispatch he stated that the Emperor had followed wntly communicated it to him, and even read in his presence the dispatch sent to London and St. Petersburg. I could not but be surprised that the Minister of the Unitd to abandon for themselves. On June 12, 1861, the United States Minister in London informed Her Majesty's Minister for Foreign Affairs that the fact of his having. On May 21, 1861, Earl Russell pointed out to the United States Minister in London that the blockade might, no doubt, be made effective, considering the small nume year, Earl Russell entertained the complaint of the United States minister in London that the Confederate States were importing contraband of war from the island of