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preparing for the very emergency which now occurred; armies were organized with extraordinary diligence and energy by the self-styled Confederate government, and the American civil war began. From the intestine nature of the struggle and the geographical formation of the continent, the principal theatre of the war, it was evident, must lie in the states bordering on both sections. The belt of territory reaching from the Atlantic westward, and comprising Maryland and Virginia east of the Alleghanies, and Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri west of those mountains, constitutes this border region, and was the stage on which the first acts of the drama were performed. The Potomac and the James, at the east; the Ohio, the Tennessee, the Cumberland, and the Mississippi, at the west, are the great streams, the control of which, and of the populations and regions that lie in their valleys, is indispensable to a mastery of the continent. The Ohio flows westward from Pennsylvania to Missour
quite as great. Beauregard states in his report, that his strength was forty thousand on Sunday, and gives a loss of ten thousand on both days. But he declares that, on Monday, he could put only twenty thousand men into line. This leaves fifteen thousand, at least, for deserters and stragglers on that day, unless he lost many more than he reported. The battle, however, decided little, except the fighting qualities of both combatants. It was the fiercest fight of the war, west of the Alleghanies, and, in proportion to the numbers engaged, equalled any contest during the rebellion. I have heard Sherman say that he never saw such terrible fighting after. wards, and Grant compared Shiloh only with the Wilderness. The ground remained in the hands of Grant, and, with the reenforcements that Buell brought, the national army was doubtless in vastly better condition than the rebels, after the battle. But Halleck arrived on the 9th, and at once took command of all the national forc
ed to his command: There is every indication that the enemy will attack our left this morning, There is every indication that the enemy will attack our left this morning, as troops have been moving in that direction for some time. It will be well to make preparation to send as many of the reserves as can be spared of the right wing in that direction, as soon as an attack is made in force. At any rate be prepared for an order to that effect. and the largest army ever assembled west of the Alleghanies, was accordingly drawn out in line of battle, awaiting an assault. But the rebels had already slipped out of Corinth, on the southern road, leaving wooden guns I saw many wooden guns in the works at Corinth, when Beauregard abandoned the place. and barren defences to impose as long as possible on their enemy. Early in the day, however, the nakedness of the works and the silence of the batteries were discovered, and the national forces marched unmolested into the town. Beauregard's
ounded officers and soldiers as fast as they become able to travel. The paroles for these latter must be signed, however, whilst officers are present authorized to sign the roll of prisoners. By the terms of a cartel, then existing between the national and rebel authorities, all officers and men of either army, captured or surrendered at any point in the entire theatre of war, were to be delivered up to their respective authorities within ten days after capture; those taken east of the Alleghanies, at Richmond, and those west, at Vicksburg. At these places they were to be exchanged, or paroled until exchanged. Grant was therefore obliged to parole and discharge his prisoners. General orders, no. 142. war Department, Adjutant-General's office, Washington, September 25, 1862. The following is the cartel under which prisoners are exchanged in the existing war with the Southern states:. . . . Article 1. It is hereby agreed and stipulated that all prisoners of war held
anapolis, he was met by the Secretary of War, Honorable Edwin M. Stanton, who brought with him from Washington an order creating for Grant a new command—the Military Division of the Mississippi; this was to include all the territory between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi river, excepting such as might be occupied by Banks: the three departments of the Tennessee, the Cumberland, and the Ohio were all to be subordinate to Grant. At this time, Rosecrans was in command of the Department of trate with Grant, but found himself utterly unable to accomplish the task; and it was now determined to cut the knot of Rosecrans's obstinacy and insubordination, by giving to Grant almost absolute control of the forces and operations west of the Alleghanies. The disaster which Rosecrans had suffered at Chickamauga hastened this decision, and the course suggested by Grant, nearly a year before, was at last forced upon the government — the concentration and combination of all the western armies
ainly inaccurate in one particular, as Grant captured two thousand more men than the rebels reported missing. while the national soldiers were without cover. Grant captured six thousand one hundred and forty-two prisoners, forty pieces of artillery, sixty-nine artillery carriages and caissons, and seven thousand stands of small-arms; by far the greatest capture, in the open field, which had then been made during the war. The battle of Chattanooga was the grandest ever fought west of the Alleghanies. It covered an extent of thirteen miles, and Grant had over sixty thousand men engaged. Hooker's force amounted to about ten thousand; Sherman's, including Howard's, to over twenty thousand; and Thomas's command included almost thirty thousand soldiers. The rebels numbered only forty-five thousand men, On the 10th of December, Bragg reported fifty-eight thousand seven hundred and fifty-five men present, of whom forty-three thousand and ninety-four were effective. Of these, howev
municate from one to the other will be so great. But Sherman or McPherson, either one of whom could be intrusted with the distant command, are officers of such experience and reliability, that all objections on this score, except that of enabling the two armies to act as a unit, would be removed. Further and interesting discussions occurred, at this time, between Grant and the generalin-chief, relative to Banks's Red river campaign, then in contemplation, and to the operations east of the Alleghanies. But I omit these subjects at present, as they pertain so closely to the themes of a future volume. The grand movements dictated to Sherman, months afterwards, and by him so grandly executed, were already marked out by the chief for himself, thus long in advance. A copy of this letter was sent to Sherman, with the remark: The letter contains all the instructions I deem necessary in your present move. . . . Nearly all the troops in Thomas's and Dodge's command, having less than
otched, was not killed; it had been cut violently in twain, but the severed parts retained each a convulsive life, while the more important portion, though shorn of its strength and resources, seemed to have lost none at all of its vitality. Kentucky and Tennessee, although in the possession of national forces, were yet debatable ground, and suffered all the ills of border territory in time of civil war; and Grant, ordered to the command of the entire region between the Mississippi and the Alleghanies, had checked the advance of Bragg, it is true, but even he had not yet driven the great rebel army of the West far beyond the northern boundaries of Georgia; for Johnston, the successor of the unlucky Bragg, still confronted the most formidable force that the government could accumulate in all its Western territory, and Longstreet occasionally threatened to assume the offensive in East Tennessee. In the Eastern theatre of war, no real progress had been made during three disastrous ye