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Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter
: from the 1 U. S.A. Into the C. S.A. (search)
Asphalt, A solid bituminous substance. probably derived from decayed vegetable matter; used as building material in ancient Babylon. The artificial asphalt from gas-works began to be used as pavement about 1838. Various kinds of asphalt pavement have been since laid in New York, and the leading cities of the United States and Europe. The most celebrated deposit of natural bitumen is on the island of Trinidad, whence the United States obtains its chief supply. although in the calendar year 1809 the United States had an aggregate production of asphalt and bituminous rock of 75.085 short tons, valued at $553,904, the mining being in California. Kentucky, Indian Territory, Oklahoma, Texas. Colorado, and Utah, the principal amount being mined in California.
Boycotting, A practice which derives its name from Capt. C. C. Boycott, of Lough Mask House, in Mayo, Ireland, who in 1880, as land agent of Lord Erne, an Irish nobleman, evicted a large number of tenants. These with their friends refused to either work for him or trade with him, and would not permit others to do so. Finally sixty Orangemen from the north of Ireland, armed with revolvers and supported by a strong escort of cavalry, organized themselves into a Boycott relief expedition, and after gathering his crops carried him to a place of safety. In the United States and England the boycott is sometimes used by trade unions in times of strikes. More or less stringent laws against boycotting have been enacted in Illinois, Wisconsin, Colorado, Connecticut. Maine. Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Alabama. Florida, Georgia. Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma. Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Vermont.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing),
Cannon, George Q. 1827- (search)
Cannon, George Q. 1827- Mormon leader; born in Liverpool, England, Jan. 11, 1827; came to the United States in 1844; brought up in the Mormon faith; was driven out of Nauvoo, Ill., with the other Mormons in 1846, and settled in Utah in 1847. In 1857 he was chosen an apostle; in 1872-82 represented the Territory of Utah in Congress; and during this period his right to a seat in that body was many times hotly contested. He became the object of public scorn and suffered much personal calumni in 1847. In 1857 he was chosen an apostle; in 1872-82 represented the Territory of Utah in Congress; and during this period his right to a seat in that body was many times hotly contested. He became the object of public scorn and suffered much personal calumniation both in Congress and in the press, but held his seat till absolutely forced to retire. When Utah was seeking admission into the Union he was one of the chief promoters of the movement. He died in Monterey, Cal., April 12, 1901.