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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 8-10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 40-42 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 309 BC or search for 309 BC in all documents.

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Acro'tatus (*)Akro/tatos). 1. The son of Cleomenes II. king of Sparta, incurred the displeasure of a large party at Sparta by opposing the decree, which was to release from infamy all who had fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated Agis, B. C. 331. He was thus glad to accept the offer of the Agrigentines, when they sent to Sparta for assistance in B. C. 314 against Agathocles of Syracuse. He first sailed to Italy, and obtained assistance from Tarentum; but on his arrival at Agrigentum he acted with such cruelty and tyranny that the inhabitants rose against him, and compelled him to leave the city. He returned to Sparta, and died before the death of his father, which was in B. C. 309. He left a son, Areus, who succeeded Cleomenes. (Diod. 15.70, 71; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1, 2; Plut. Agis 3
A'lcimus (*)/Alkimos), a Greek rhetorician whom Diogenes Laertius (2.114) calls the most distinguished of all Greek rhetoricians, flourished about B. C. 309. Works It is not certain whether he is the same as the Alcimus to whom Diogenes in another passage (3.9) ascribes a work pro\s *)Amu/ntan. Athenaeus in several places speaks of a Sicilian Alcimus, who appears to have been the author of a great historical work, parts of which are referred to under the names of *)Italika\ and *Sikelika/. Confusion with the rhetorician Alcimus But whether he was the same as the rhetorician Alcimus, cannot be determined. (Athen. 10.44], xii. p. 518, vii. p. 322.) [L.
A'reus I. 1. (*)Areu/s), succeeded his grandfather, Cleomenes II., as king of Sparta, of the Eurysthenid family, B. C. 309, his father, ACROTATUS, having died before him. He reigned 44 years. (Diod. 20.29.) In the year 280 B. C., a league of the Greek states was formed, at the instigation of Sparta, acting under the influence of its ally, Ptolemy Ceraunus, to free themselves from the dominion of Antigonus Gonatas. The first blow was struck by Areus, who, having obtained a decree of the Amphyctions against the Aetolians, because they had cultivated the sacred land of Cirrha, attacked Cirrha unexpectedly, and plundered and burnt the town. His proceedings were viewed by the Aetolian shepherds on the mountains, who formed themselves into a body of about 500 men, and attacked the scattered troops of Areus. These, ignorant of the number of their enemies, were struck with a panic and fled, leaving 9000 of their number dead. Thus the expedition turned out fruitless, and the attempts of Spa
r's invasion of Asia, she and her children were sent by Memnon to Dareius III. as hostages for his fidelity; and in the ensuing year, when Damascus was betrayed to the Macedonians, she fell into the hands of Alexander, by whom she became the mother of a son named Hercules. On Alexander's death, B. C. 323, a claim to the throne on this boy's behalf was unsuccessfully urged by Nearchus. From a comparison of the accounts of Diodorus and Justin, it appears that he was brought up at Pergamus under his mother's care, and that she shared his fate when (B. C. 309) Polysperchon was induced by Cassander to murder him. (Plut. Alex. 21, Eum. 1; Diod. 17.23, 20.20, 28; Curt. 3.13.14, 10.6.10; Just. 11.10, 13.2, 15.2; Paus. 9.7.) Plutarch (Eum. l.c.) mentions a sister * Perhaps a half-sister, a daughter of Artabazus by the sister of Memnon and Mentor. of hers, of the same name, whom Alexander gave in marriage to Eumenes at the grand nuptials at Susa in B. C. 324; but see Arrian, Anab. vii. p. 148e.
perchon, who once more appears in opposition to Cassander, advanced against him with Hercules, the son of Alexander the Great and Barsine, whom, acting probably under instructions from Antigonus, he had put forward as a claimant to the crown; but, being a man apparently with all the unscrupulous cruelty of Cassander without his talent and decision, he was bribed by the latter, who promised him among other things the government of the Peloponnesus, to murder the young prince and his mother, B. C. 309. [BARSINE, No. 1.] At this time the only places held by Cassander in Greece were Athens, Corinth, and Sicyon, the two latter of which were betrayed to Ptolemy by Cratesipolis, in B. C. 308; and in 307, Athens was recovered by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, from Demetrius the Phalerean, who had held it for Cassander from B. C. 313, with the specious title of " Guardian" (e)pimelhth/s). In B. C. 306, when Antigonus, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy took the name of king, Cassander was saluted with
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Cleo'menes Ii. the 25th king of Sparta of the Agid line, was the son of Cleombrotus I. and the brother of Agesipolis II., whom he succeeded in B. C. 370. He died in B. C. 309, after a reign of sixty years and ten months; but during this long period we have no information about him of any importance. He had two sons, Acrotatus and Cleonymus. Acrotatus died during the life of Cleomenes, upon whose death Areus, the son of Acrotatus, succeeded to the throne. [AREUS I; CLEONYMUS.] (Diod. 20.29; Plut. Agis 3; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1; Manso, Sparta, 3.1, p. 164, 2. pp. 247, 248: Diod. 15.60, contradicts himself about the time that Cleomenes reigned, and is evidently wrong; see Clinton, Fast. ii. pp. 213, 214.) [P.S]
Cleo'nymus 3. The younger son of Cleomenes II., king of Sparta, and uncle of Areus I., was excluded from the throne on his father's death, B. C. 309, in consequence of the general dislike inspired by his violent and tyrannical temper. In B. C. 303, the Tarentines, being at war with the Romans and Lucanians, asked aid of Sparta, and requested that the command of the required succours might be given to Cleonymus. The request was granted, and Cleonymus crossed over to Italy with a considerable force, the mere display of which is said to have frightened the Lucanians into peace. Diodorus, who mentions this, says nothing of the effect of the Spartan expedition on the Romans, though it is pretty certain that they also concluded a treaty at this time with the Tarentines. (See Arnold, Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. p. 315.) According to some of the Roman annalists, Cleonymus was defeated and driven back to his ships by the consul, M. Aemilius; while others of them related that, Junius Bubulcus the
d, in consequence of the importance of its situation, the Romans settled there a colony of 2,500 men. Corvus obtained the honour of a triumph, and also the surname of Calenus from the conquest of the town. (Liv. 8.16.) With the exception of the years B. C. 332 and 320, in which he acted as interrex (8.17, 9.7), we do not hear of Corvus again for several years. The M. Valerius, who was one of the legates of the dictator L. Papirius Cursor in the great battle fought against the Samnites in B. C. 309, is probably the same as our Corvus, since Livy says, that he was created praetor for the fourth time as a reward for his services in this battle, and we know that Corvus held curule dignities twenty-one times. (9.40, 41.) In B. C. 301, in consequence of the dangers which threatened Rome, Corvus, who was then in his 70th year, was again summoned to the dictatorship. Etruria was in arms, and the Marsi, one of the most warlike of the neighboring people, had also risen. But the genius of Co
which were conducted by dictators, while the consuls are said to have remained at home. It is difficult to account for this state of things. In B. C. 313 Papirius was invested with his fifth (or sixth) consulship. The war against the Samnites was still going on, but no battle was fought, although the Romans made permanent conquests, and thus gave the war a decided turn in their favour. It was, as Livy states, again doubtful as to who had the command of the Roman armies in that year. In B. C. 309 Papirius was made dictator to conduct the war against the Samnites, to save the army of C. Marcius, who was in great distress in Apulia, and to wipe off the disgrace of Caudium, which Rome had suffered the year before. His appointment to the dictatorship was a matter of some difficulty. Q. Fabius, who had once been his magister equitum, and had nearly been sacrificed by him, was ordered to nominate Papirius. The recollection of what had happened sixteen years before rendered it hard to the
Eume'lus (*Eu)/mhlos), one of the three sons of Parysades, King of Bosporus. After his father's death he engaged in a war for the crown with llis brothers Satyrus and Prytanis, who were successively killed in battle. Eumnelus reigned most prosperously for five years nd five months, B. C. 309-304. (Diod. 20.22-26; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 282, 285.) [P.
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