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Colonial settlements. Settlements were made, as productive germs of colonies, in the following order of time: St. Augustine, Fla., was settled by Spaniards, under Menendez, 1565, and is the oldest settlement by Europeans within the domain of the United States. It was permanently occupied by the Spaniards, excepting for a few years, until Florida passed from their control (see Florida and St. Augustine). Virginia was first settled by the English temporarily (see Raleigh, Sir Walter). The first permanent settlement was made by them in 1607, under the auspices of London merchants, who that year sent five ships, with a colony, to settle on Roanoke Island. Storms drove them into the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, when they ascended the Powhatan River 50 miles, landed, and built a hamlet, which they called Jamestown. The stream they named James River—both in compliment to their King. After various vicissitudes, the settlement flourished, and, in 1619, the first representative Assembly