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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 30 30 Browse Search
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Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 40-42 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 4 4 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 3 3 Browse Search
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Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Wars in Spain (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER VIII (search)
onsequences. Flaccus replied that he would bring them plenty of cloaks, and following closely after their messengers, he encamped before the city. Far from making good their threats, they took to their heels, plundering the neighboring barbarians on the road. These people wore a thick outer garment with a double fold which they fastened with a clasp after the manner of the military cloak, and they called it the sagum. Y.R. 575 Flaccus was succeeded in the command by Tiberius B.C. 179 Sempronius Gracchus, at which time the city of Caravis, which was in alliance with Rome, was besieged by 20,000 Celtiberians. As it was reported that the place was about to be taken Gracchus hastened all the more to relieve it. He could but circle about the besiegers, and had no means of communicating to the town his own nearness. Cominius, a prefect of horse, having considered the matter carefully, and communicated his plan to Gracchus, donned a Spanish sagum and secretly mingled with the en
Polybius, Histories, book 22, Origin of the Last Macedonian War (search)
onia. I am aware that some historians of the war between Rome and Perseus, when they wish to set forth the causes of the quarrel for our information, assign as the primary one the expulsion of Abrupolis from his principality, on the ground of having made a raid upon the mines at Pangaeum after the death of Philip, which Perseus repulsed, finally expelling him entirely out of his own dominions.Abrupolis, a Thracian prince and friend of the Romans. See Livy, 42, 13, 40. Death of Philip V. B. C. 179. Next they mention the invasion of Dolopia, and the visit of Perseus to Delphi, the plot against Eumenes at Delphi, and the murder of the ambassadors in Boeotia; and from these they say sprang the war between Perseus and the Romans.B. C. 176-172. But my contention is that it is of most decisive advantage, both to historians and their readers, to know the causes from which the several events are born and spring. Most historians confound these, because they do not keep a firm hold upon the dist
Polybius, Histories, book 24, Rome and the Achaean League (search)
met with misfortunes, and show favour to all who fly to them for protection; but directly any one claims anything as of right, on the ground of having been faithful to their alliance, they at once draw in and correct their error to the best of their ability. Thus then Callicrates, who had been sent to Rome to plead for the rights of the Achaeans, acted in exactly the opposite spirit; and dragging in the subject of the Messenian war, on which the Romans themselves had made no complaint, returned to Achaia to overawe the people with the threat of the hostility of Rome. Having therefore by his official report frightened and dismayed the spirits of the populace, who were of course ignorant of what he had really said in the Senate, he was first of all elected Strategus, and, to make matters worse, proved to be open to bribery; and then, having got the office, carried out the restoration of the Lacedaemonian and Messenian exiles. B. C. 180-179.See Hicks's Greek Inscriptions, p. 330. . . .
Polybius, Histories, book 25, The Accession of Perseus (search)
the treaty with Eumenes. "The persons included under this treaty are, of the princes in Asia, Artaxias, lord of the greater part of Armenia, and Acusilochus: of those in Europe, Gatalus the Sarmatian: of the autonomous peoples, the Heracleotes, the Mesembrians in the Chersonese, and the Cyzicenes." The number and quality of hostages to be given by Pharnaces was also specified. The armies of the several parties then marched away, and thus was concluded the war of Eumenes and Ariarathes against Pharnaces. Philip V. died at Amphipolis towards the end of B.C. 179. His last days were embittered by remorse for the death of his son Demetrius, whose innocence had been demonstrated to him. He wished to leave his crown to Antigonus, the son of Echecrates and nephew of Antigonus Doson, in order to punish his elder son Perseus for his treachery in securing his brother's death. But Philip died suddenly before this could be secured, and Perseus succeeded him without opposition. See Livy, 40, 55-57.
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 31 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh), chapter 1 (search)
the assumption that it was not ratified until the next year, Livy's chronology is often confused, as a result of unskilful handling of annalistic sources. The so-called Second Macedonian War, the account of which begins here, was practically ended by the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 B.C. (XXXIII. vi-x; Polyb. XVIII. xx-xxvii), but lasted diplomatically until 196 B.C. (XXXIII. xxxii). Thereafter Philip pursued a policy of alternating friendship and hostility towards Rome until his death in 179 B.C. begun about ten years before this time, had some time before been laid aside for a period of three years, the Aetolians being the cause of the truce as they had been of the beginning of hostilities. Then later the Romans, being at last unoccupied by any war, as a result of the peace with Carthage, and being indignant with Philip both because of the treacherous peace which he had concluded with the AetoliansSee the preceding note for the peace of 205 B.C., which might seem due to the t
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 39 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D.), chapter 2 (search)
The other consul, Marcus Aemilius, burned and ravaged the farms and villages of the Ligurians which were in the plains or valleys, the people themselves holding the two mountains Ballista and Suismontium. Then, attacking the men who were on the mountains, he first wore them out with small skirmishes, then forced them to come down to face his battle-line and defeated them in a regular battle, in the course of which he vowed a temple to Diana.In XL. lii. 1-3, Aemilius, as censor in 179 B.C., received an appropriation for games in connection with the dedication of temples to Diana and Juno Regina (sect. 11 below). Both were near the Circus Flaminius. Having subdued all the tribes on this side of the Apennines, Aemilius then attacked those beyond the mountains —among whom there were those Ligurian Friniates also whom Gaius Flaminius had not visited —and subdued them all, took away their arms and transferred the population from the hills to the plains. Leaving the Lig
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 40 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.), chapter 41 (search)
Postumius was incommand. The brother of Quintus Fulvius, Marcus Fulvius NobiliorThe brother of either Q. Fulvius Flaccus —the consul of 180 B.C. or the consul of 179 B.C., who was at this time still in Spain or on the way back —should have had the cognomen Flaccus, unless he had been adopted by some Fulvius Nobilior, and ofime. One naturally assumes from Livy's language here that Q. Fulvii refers to the consul of 180 B.C., but no brother Marcus is mentioned elsewhere. The consul of 179 B.C. had a brother Marcus (xxx. 4 above), but it is not likely that after serving in some unspecified capacity under his brother in Spain in 181 B.C. he should have served as military tribune under his cousin in 180 B.C. in Italy. The consul of 179 B.C., during his censorship in 174 B.C., expelled from the senate his own brother, and Valerius Maximus (II. vii. 5, repeated by Frontinus, Strat. IV. i. 31) asserts that the degradation was due to the discharge of a legion of which he was military
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 40 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.), chapter 46 (search)
and ended their feud. After that, followed by the applause of all, they were escorted to the Capitoline. Both the interest of the leaders in such a situation and the readiness of the censors to yield were notably approved and lauded by the senate. Then, on the demand of the censors that the sum of money which they were to use on public works be assigned them, one year's revenue was decreed to them.Livy has not mentioned a corresponding sum before. The censors of 169 B.C. received the revenue for half a year (XLIV. xvi. 9). There is no translation of the expression into definite figures until 62 B.C. (Plutarch, Pompey, 45), when one year's revenue amounted to 50,000,000 denarii. Frank (Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, Baltimore, 1933, I. 152-153) estimates the revenue in 179 B.C. as perhaps one-tenth of that sum. He further calculates that the Basilica Aemilia (li. 5 below) would have cost 12,000 denarii, so that a good deal could be done with 5,000,000 denarii.
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 41 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.), chapter 26 (search)
The Celtiberians in Spain, who had surrendered to Tiberius GracchusGracchus went to Spain in 179 B.C. (XL. xlvii. 1); his return and triumph in 177 B.C. were reported at vi. 4 and vii. 2 above. after their defeat in the war, had remained quiet while Marcus TitiniusTitinius was one of the unnamed praetors for 178 B.C. (XL. lix. 5). held the province as praetor. They rebelled on theB.C. 174 arrival of Appius ClaudiusThe election of Claudius as praetor in 175 B.C. was presumably recorded in the lost text of chap. Xviii. and began the war by a surprise attack on the Roman camp. It was about daybreak, when the sentinels were on the rampart and the outposts were on guard at the gates, that they saw the enemy coming afar off and called the troops to arms. Appius Claudius, after displaying the signal for battle and briefly exhorting the troops, led them out by three gates at once. The Celtiberians met them as they came out, and at first there was a drawn battle, since on acco
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 41 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. and Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.), chapter 27 (search)
the son of Africanus, and speaks of him as holding a judicial assignment, whereas the praetor of 177 B.C. was in Gaul. It is therefore impossible to be certain which, if either, was the son of Africanus. The basis for the expulsion of this Scipio is unknown. His election was mentioned in the lost portion of chap. xx. and Lucius Fulvius who was own brother to the censor and, as Valerius Antias writes, held their father's property jointly with the censor.The censor of this year was consul in 179 B.C. (a cousin of the same name was consul in 180 B.C.). Each of them seems to have had a brother Marcus, the brother of the consul of 180 B.C. perhaps having the cognomen Nobilior (XL. xli. 7-10 and the note). Possibly, however, Nobilior, who was banished in 180 B.C., is the man who is here referred to with the praenomen Lucius; he may have been expelled from the senate in 175 B.C. (XL. li. 1). Velleius (I. x. 6) calls him Fulvius Gnaeus, while Valerius Maximus (II. vii. 5) mentions him without
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