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the chief command, placed him for a time under the guardianship of his friend Mnaseas. But very shortly afterwards Mnaseas having fallen in battle against the Boeotians, Phalaecus, notwithstanding his youth, assumed the command in person, and carried on hostilities with various success. The war had now resolved itself into a series of petty invasions, or rather predatory incursions by the Phocians and Boeotians into each other's territory, and continued without any striking incident until B. C. 347. But it seems that scems that Phalaecus had failed or neglected to establish his power at home as firmly as his predecessors had done : and a charge was brought against him by the opposite party of having appropriated part of tle sacred treasure's to his own private purposes, in consequence of which he was deprived of his power. No punishment, however, appears to have been inflicted on him ; and the follwmving year (B. C. 346) we find hliim again appointed general, switllouit ally explanat
rom Greece, he took care that the Athenians should suffer annoyance from his fleet. With this Lemnos and Imbros were attacked, and some of the inhabitants were carried off as prisoners, several Athesnian ships with valuable cargoes were taken near Geraestus, and the Paralus was captured in the bay of Marathon. These events are mentioned by Demosthenes, in his first Philippic (p. 49, ad fin.), delivered in B. C. 352, but are referred to the period immediately following the fall of Olynthus, B. C. 347, by those who consider the latter portion of the speech in question as a distinct oration of later date [DEMOSTHENES]. It was to the affairs of Thrace that Philip now directed his operations. As the ally of Amadocus against Cersobleptes (Theopomp. apud Harpocr. s. v. *)Ama/dokos), he marched into the country, established his ascendancy there, and brought away one of the sons of the Thracian king as a hostage [see Vol. I. p. 674]. Meanwhile, his movements in Thessaly had opened the eyes of
Philo'crates 3. An Athenian orator, of the demus of Agnus, who took a most prominent part in bringing about the peace with Philip in B. C. 346. Together with Demosthenes, he strongly supported the petition made by the friends of some of the Athenian prisoners taken in Olynthus, in B. C. 347, that an ambassador should be sent to negotiate about their ransom. He also came forward with a motion, which was carried unanimously, to permit Philip to send a herald and ambassadors to Athens to treat for peace. For this he was impeached by Lycinus, as having originated an illegal decree ; but he was defended by Demosthenes (illness preventing his personal appearance at the trial), and was acquitted. Matters being at length ripe for the final step, Philocrates moved that ten ambassadors should be appointed to negotiate with the Macedonian king. A decree to this effect was passed, and he was himself included in the embassy. In the same year, when the Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athens, Phi
Philon (*Fi/lwn), historical. 1. A Phocian, who was charged with the administration of the sacred treasures under PHALAECUS. He was accused of peculation and embezzlement, and put to death in consequence, after having been compelled by the torture to disclose the names of those who had participated in his guilt, B. C. 347. (Diod. 17.56
practising it in the struggle with existing relations. From the time when he opened the school in the Academy (it was only during his second and third journeys to Sicily that one of his more intimate companions--Heracleides Ponticus is named--had to supply his place, Suid. s. v. Heracleid.) we find him occupied solely in giving instruction and in the composition of his works. He is said to have died while writing in the 81st, or according to others the 84th year of his age, in Ol. 108. 1, B. C. 347 (Cic. de Senect. 5; Senec. Epist. lviii. ; Neanthes in D. L. 3.3; D. L. 5.9 ; Athen. 5.217, &c.). According to Hermippus he died at a marriage feast (D. L. 3.3; August. de Civ. Dei, 8.2). Thence probably arose the title of the éloge of Speusippus--*Pla/twnos peri/deipnon. According to his last will his garden remained the property of the school (D. L. 3.43), and passed, considerably increased by later additions, into the hands of the Neo-Platonists, who kept as a festival his birth-day as
Sa'tyrus 2. The son of Theognis, of Marathon, a distinguished comic actor at Athens, and a contemporary of Demosthenes, is said to have given instructions to the young orator in the art of giving full effect to his speeches by appropriate action. (Plut. Dem. 7.) The same orator relates an honourable anecdote of him, that having once been at a festival given by Philip king of Macedon, after the capture of Olynthus (B. C. 347), when the king was making large presents to all the other artists, Satyrus begged, as his reward, the liberation of two of the Olynthian captives, daughters of an old friend of his, to whom he afterwards gave marriage portions at his own cost. (Dem. de fals. Leg. pp. 401, 402; Diod. 16.55.) He is also mentioned incidentally by Plutarch (De se ips. c. inv. laud. p. 545f.). Athenaeus (xiii. p. 591e.) quotes a statement respecting Phryne from the Pamphila of " Satyrus, the actor, of Olynthus," from which it would seem that Satyrus not only acted comedies, but also
probably derived from a very impure source : Athenaeus (vii. p. 279e., xii. p. 546d.) and Diogenes Laertius (4.1, 2; camp. Suid. s.v. Tertullian, Apolog. 100.46) can adduce as authority for them scarcely any thing more than some abuse in certain letters of the younger Dionysius, who was banished by Dion, not without the co-operation of Speusippus. Having been selected by Plato as his successor in the office of president of the Academy, he was at the head of the school for only eight years (B. C. 347-339). He died, as it appears, of a lingering paralytic illness (D. L. 4.1, 3, 4). Another account, at variance with this, appears to rest upon a misunderstanding (l.c. 4.4, ib. Interp.). Works From the list of his numerous dialogues and commentaries Diogenes Laertius gives us an extract, which contains only titles, which do not always admit of any conclusion as to their contents, and the scanty notices in other writers furnish us with little that can supply the void or throw any light u
he fact that he himself was not a Christian. Themistius was instructed by his father in philosophy, and devoted himself chiefly to Aristotle, though he also studied the systems of Pythagoras and Plato. While still a youth he wrote commentaries on Aristotle, which were made public without his consent, and obtained for him a high reputation. He passed his youth in Asia Minor and Syria. He first met with Constantius when the emperor visited Aneyra in Galatia in the eleventh year of his reign, B. C. 347, on which occasion Themistius delivered the first of his extant orations, peri\ filanqrwpi/as. It was not long after that he fixed his residence at Constantinople, where he taught philosophy for twenty years. In A. D. 355 he was made a senator; amid the letter is still extant, in which Constantius recommends him to the senate, and speaks in the highest terms both of Themistius himself and of his father. We also possess the oration of thanks which Themistius addressed to the senate of Const
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
adorned him, and placed it around his own neck ; his comrades in their rude songs gave him the surname of Torquatus, which he continued ever afterwards to bear, and which he handed down to his descendants. His fame became so great that he was appointed dictator in B. C. 353, before he had held the consulship, in order to carry on the war against the Caerites and the Etruscans. In B. C. 349 he was again raised to the dictatorship for the purpose of holding the comitia. Two years afterwards, B. C. 347, he was consul for the first time with C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus; during which year nothing of importance occurred, except the enactment of a law de fenore. He was consul a second time in B. C. 344 with C. Marcius Rutilus, and a third time in B. C. 340 with P. Decius Mus. In his third consulship Torquatus and his colleague gained the great victory over the Latins at the foot of Vesuvius, which established for ever the supremacy of Rome over Latium. An account of this battle, which was mai
Venno the name of a family of the Plautia gens. 1. C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, consul B. C. 347 and 341. [HYPSAEUS. No. 1.]
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