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Alexander (*)Ale/candros), tyrant of PHERAE. The accounts of his usurpation vary somewhat in minor points; Diodorus (15.61 ) tells us that, on the assassination of Jason, B. C. 370, Polydorus his brother ruled for a year, and was then poisoned by Alexander, another brother. According to Xenophon (Xenoph. Hell. 6.4.34), Polydorus was murdered by his brother Polyphron, and Polyphron, in his turn, B. C. 369, * This date is at variance with Pausanias (6.5); but, see Wesseling on Diod. (15.75.) by Alexander--his nephew, according to Plutarch, who relates also that Alexander worshipped as a god the spear with which he slew his uncle. (Plut. Pelop. p. 293, &c.; Wess. ad Diod. l.c.) Alexander governed tyrannically, and according to Diodorus (l.c.), differently from the former rulers, but Polyphron, at least, seems to have set him the example. (Xen. l.c.) The Thessalian states, however, which had acknowledged the authority of Jason the Tagus (Xen. Hell. 6.1.4, 5, &c.; Diod. 15.60), were not s
2), we learn that he was then (B. C. 371) absent on another mission to Persia. Might this have been with a view to the negotiation of peace in Greece (see Hell. 6.3), and likewise have been connected with some alarm at the probable interest of Timotheus, son of Conon, at the Persian court? (See Diod. 15.50; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1191; Thirlwall, vol. v. p. 63.) Plutarch again (Ages. p. 613e.) mentions, as a statement of some persons, that at the time of the invasion of Laconia by Epaminondas, B. C. 369. Antalcidas was one of the ephors, and that, fearing the capture of Sparta, he conveyed his children for safety to Cythera. The same author informs us (Artax. p. 1022d.), that Antalcidas was sent to Persia for supplies after the defeat at Leuctra, B. C. 371, and was coldly and superciliously received by the king. If, considering the general looseness of statement which pervades this portion of Plutarch, it were allowable to set the date of this mission after the invasion of 369, we might p
of the rhetorician Hippias and Plathane. After the death of his father, his mother married the orator Isocrates, who adopted Aphareus as his son. He was trained in the school of Isocrates, and is said to have written judicial and deliberative speeches (lo/goi dikanikoi\ kai\ sumbouleutikoi/). An oration of the former kind, of which we know only the name, was written and spoken by Aphareus on behalf of Isocrates against Megacleides. (Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 839 ; Dionys. Isocr. 18, Dinarch. 13; Eudoc. p. 67 ; Suid. s.v. Phot. Bibl. 260.) According to Plutarch, Aphareus wrote thirty-seven tragedies, but the authorship of two of them was a matter of dispute. He began his career as a tragic writer in B. C. 369, and continued it till B. C. 342. He gained four prizes in tragedy, two at the Dionysia and two at the Lenaea. His tragedies formed tetralogies, i. e. four were performed at a time and formed a didascalia; but no fragments, not even a title of any of them, have come down to us. [L.S]
Cephiso'dotus 2. An Athenian general and orator, who was sent with Callias, Autocles, and others (B. C. 371) to negotiate peace with Sparta. (Xen. Hell. 6.3.2.) Again, in B. C. 369, when the Spartan ambassadors had come to Athens to settle the terms of the desired alliance between the states, and the Athenian council had proposed that the land-forces of the confederacy should be under the command of Sparta, and the navy under that of Athens, Cephisodotus persuaded the assembly to reject the proposal, on the ground that, while Athenian citizens would have to serve under Spartan generals, few but Helots (who principally manned the ships) would be subject to Athenian control. Another arrangement was then adopted, by which the command of the entire force was to be held by each state alternately for five days. (Xen. Hell. 7.1. §§ 12-14.) It seems to have been about B. C. 359 that he was sent out with a squadron to the Hellespont, where the Athenians hoped that the Euboean adventurer, Char
Cincinna'tus 8. Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus, consular tribune in B. C. 369. (Liv. 6.36.)
Cossus 11. A. Cornelius Cossus, consular tribune in B. C. 369, and a second time in 367, in the latter of which years the Licinian laws were passed. (Liv. 6.36, 42.)
Prace. 23; Paus. 8.27, 9.13; Polyaen. 2.2; C. Nep. Epam. 6; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1.46, de Off. 1.24; Suid. s. v. *)Epaminw/ndas.) The project of Lycomedes for the founding of Megalopolis and the union of Arcadia was vigorously encouraged and forwarded by Epaminondas, B. C. 370, as a barrier against Spartan dominion, though we need not suppose with Pausanias that the plan originated with him. (Xen. Hell. 6.5.6, &c.; Paus. 8.27, 9.14; Diod. 15.59; Aristot. Pol. 2.2, ed. Bekk.) In the next year, B. C. 369, the first invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Thebans took place, and when the rest of their generals were anxious to return home, as the term of their command was drawing to a close, Epaminondas and Pelopidas persuaded them to remain and to advance against Sparta. The country was ravaged as far as the coast, and the city itself, thrown into the utmost consternation by the unprecedented sight of an enemy's fires, and endangered also by treachery within, was saved only by the calm firmness
Etymocles (*)Etumoklh=s) was one of the three Spartan envoys who, happening to be at Athens at the time of the incursion of Sphodrias into Attica (B. C. 378), were arrested by the Athenians on suspicion of having been privy to the attempt Their assurances, however, to the contrary were believed, and they were allowed to depart. Etymocles is mentioned by Xenophon and Plutarch as a friend of Agesilaus, and we hear of him again as one of the ambassadors sent to negotiate an alliance with Athens in B. C. 369. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 22, 23, 32, 6.5.33; Plut. Ages. 25.) [
Eury'dice (*Eu)rudi/kh). 1. An Illyrian princess, wife of Amyntas II., king of Macedonia, and mother of the famous Philip. According to Justin (7.4, 5), she engaged in a conspiracy with a paramour against the life of her husband; but though the plot was detected, she was spared by Amyntas out of regard to their common offspring. After the death of the latter (B. C. 369), his eldest son, Alexander, who succeeded him on the throne, was murdered after a short reign by Ptolemy Alorites, and it seems probable that Eurydice was concerned in this plot also. From a comparison of the statements of Justin (7.5) and Diodorus (15.71, 77, 16.2), it would appear that Ptolemy was the paramour at whose instigation Eurydice had attempted the life of her husband; and she certainly seems to have made common cause with him after the assassination of her son. (Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 164.) But the appearance of another pretender to the throne, Pausanias, who was joined by the greater part of the
aval tactics. On his way he landed in Cephallenia (where he received fill assurance of the death of Mnasippus), and having brought over the island to the Athenians, he sailed on to Corcyra. Defeating here the force which Dionysius I. of Syracuse had sent to the aid of the Lacedaemonians, he carried on the war with vigour till the peace of 371 put an end to operations and recalled him to Athens. (Xen. Hell. 6.2, 3; Diod. 15.29, 41-43, 47, 16.57; Nep. Iph. 2; Dem. c. Tim. pp. 1187, 1188.) In B. C. 369, when the Peloponnesus was invaded by Epaminondas, Iphicrates was appointed to the command of the forces voted by Athens for the aid of Sparta; but he did not effect, perhaps he did not wish to effect, any thing against the Thebans, who made their way back in safety through an unguarded pass of the Isthmus. (See Vol. II. p. 22b; Rehdantz, 4.6.) About B. C. 367, he was sent against Amphipolis, apparently, however, to observe rather than to act, so small was the force committed to him. At th
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