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AFTER the death of king Henrie the eight, sir Anthonie Sentleger knight, was Sir Anthonie Sentleger reuoked. 1547 Sir Edward Bellingham made lord deputie. reuoked; who deliuered vp the sword at his departure vnto sir William Brabston knight; and he was lord iustice, vntill such time as sir Edward Bellingham was sent ouer to be deputie. This man was seruant to king Edward the sixt, and of his priuie chamber: a man verie well learned, graue and wise, and therewith stout & valiant, and did verie worthilie direct his gouernment. In his time there was a mint A mint in Dublin. kept in the castell of Dublin, which being at his commandement, he was the better able to doo good seruice to the king his maiestie, and to the benefit of that realme. In the ciuill gouernment he was carefull to place learned and wise magistrats, vnto Sir Edward Bellinghams carefulnesse in gouernement. whome he had a speciall eie for the dooing of their offices; as he had the like care for good and expert capteins, to serue in the martiall affaires. And for the more spéedie seruice to be doone therein at all times needfull, he kept sundrie stables of Sundrie stables of horsses kept. horsses: one at Leighlin, one at Lex, and some in one place and some in another, as he thought most méet for seruice. And whatsoeuer he had to doo, or what seruice soeuer he meant to take in hand, he was so secret, and kept the same so His secrecie in his seruice. priuie, as none should haue anie vnderstanding thereof, before the verie instant of the seruice to be doone; and for the most part, whensoeuer he tooke anie iournie in hand, his owne men knew not whither, or to what place he would ride, or what he would doo. It happened that vpon some occasion he sent for the earle of Desmond, who refused to come vnto him. Wherevpon calling vnto him his companie as he thought good, and without making them acquainted what he minded to doo, tooke horsse & rode to Leighlin bridge. The abbeie there (being suppressed) he caused Leighlin abbeie inclosed with a wall and made a fort. to be inclosed with a wall, and made there a fort. In that house he had a stable of twentie or thirtie horsses, and there he furnished himselfe and all his men with horsses and other furniture, and foorthwith rode into Mounster, vnto the house of the earle, being then Christmas; and being vnlooked and vnthought of, he went in to The earle of Desmond taken in his house. the earle, whome he found sitting by the fire, and there tooke him, and caried him with him to Dublin.

This earle was verie rude both in gesture and in apparell, hauing for want of good The earle is rude without nurture. The earle instructed in ciuilitie. nurture as much good maners as his Kerns and his followers could teach him. The deputie hauing him at Dublin, did so instruct, schoole, and informe him, that he made a new man of him, and reduced him to a conformitie in maners, apparell, and behauiours apperteining to his estate and degree; as also to the knowledge of his dutie and obedience to his souereigne & prince; and made him to knéele vpon his knées sometimes an houre togither, before he knew his dutie. This though it were verie strange to the earle, who hauing not béene trained vp in anie ciuilitie, knew not what apperteined to his dutie and caning: neither yet of what autheritie and maiestie the king his souereigne was; yet when he had well digested and considered of the matter, he thought himselfe most happie that euer he was acquainted with the said deputie, and did for euer after so much honor him, as that continuallie all his life time at euerie dinner and supper, he would praie for the good sir Edward The earle praieth for sir Edward Bellingham. Bellingham: and at all callings he was so obedient and dutifull, as none more in that land.

This sir Edward lord deputie, when and where soeuer he trauelled, he would be The lord deputie would be chargeable to none. chargeable to no man; but would be at his owne charge. It happened that trauelling the countrie, he was lodged on a night in vicount Baltinglasses house, where all things were verie plentifullie prouided for him: which the vicount thought to haue giuen and bestowed vpon his lordship: but at his departure, he commanded his steward to paie & discharge all things, thanking the vicount for his courtesie, but refused his interteinement; saieng: "The king my maister hath placed me here to serue him, and alloweth me therein for my charges and expenses: wherefore, I neither maie nor will be burdenous nor chargable to anie other man." He was verie exquisit & carefull in the gouernement, as few before him the like; aswell in matters martiall, as politike, magnanimous and couragious: in the one, to the appalling of The good gouernement of this deputie. the enimie; and as seuere & vpright in the other, to the benefit of the commonwelth. For neither by flatterie could he be gained, nor by briberie be corrupted; he was feared for his seueritie, and beloued for his integritie; and no gouernor for the most Sir Edward Bellingham well beloued. vniuersallie better reported of than was he. But as vertue hath the contrarie to enimie, so he found it true: for he was so enuied at, and that rebellious nation not brooking so woorthie a man, who trauelled all the waies he could to reduce them to the knowledge of themselues, and of their duties; and also to reforme that corrupt state of gouernement, that great practises and deuises were made for his reuocation; and matters of great importance informed and inforced against him. Wherevpon, before two yeares ended of his gouernement, he was reuoked, and sir Francis Brian 1548 Sir Francis Brian lord iustice. made lord iustice. At his comming into England, great matters were laid vnto his charge: but he so effectuallie did answer the same, that his maiesties doubtfulnesse was resolued; & he not onelie cléered, but also better liked than euer he was before, & should haue béne sent backe againe, had he not alleged his infirmitie; the which was a fistula, and other good reasons, which were accepted for his excuse. Sir Sir Francis Brian maried the countes of Ormond, died and was buried at Waterford. 1549 Sir William Brabston lord iustice. 1550 Sir Anthonie Sentleger lord deputie the second time. Francis Brian had maried the countesse of Ormond, and by that meanes he was a dweller in that land: where he died & was buried in the citie of Waterford. His time of iusticeship was but short, & no great matters could in so short a time be doone by him. After his death, sir William Brabston had the sword deliuered vnto him, and he continued lord iustice, vntill that sir Anthonie Sentleger came ouer, who was now lord deputie the second time: who notwithstanding by his knowledge & experience he had good skill and did well gouerne: yet there remained some coles of the fire in his first gouernement vnquenched; and within a shorter time 1551 Sir Iames Crofts lord deputie. than thought of, he was reuoked: and sir Iames Crofts was sent ouer to supplie the place; his euill successes in good attempts did not answer his valour and good deserts.

And albeit the time of his gouernement were not long, yet it continued vntill the death of king Edward the sixt, and then he was called home, and sir Thomas Cusacke and sir Gerard Elmer were appointed lords iustices, who iointlie gouerned 1552 Sir Anthonie Sentleger lord deputie the third time. the estate, vntill quéene Marie sent ouer sir Anthonie Sentleger; who now the third time was lord deputie. This man ruled and gouerned verie iustlie and vprightlie in a good conscience, and being well acquainted in the courses of that land, knew how to meete with the enimies, and how to staie all magistrates and others in their duties and offices: for which though he deserued well, and ought to be beloued and commended: yet the old practises were renewed, and manie slanderous informations were made and inueighed against him: which is a fatall destinie, and ineuitable to A fatall destinie to euerie good gouernor to be slandered. euerie good gouernor in that land. For the more paines they take in tillage, the worse is their haruest; and the better be their seruices, the greater is the malice and enuie against them; being not vnlike to a fruitefull apple trée, which the more apples he beareth, the more cudgels be hurled at him. Well, this man is called 1555 The lord Fitzwaters made lord deputie. home, and the lord Thomas Fitzwaters was made lord deputie. At sir Anthonies comming ouer, great matters were laid to his charge, and manie heauie aduersaries he had, which verie eagerlie pursued the same against him: wherein he so answered, that he was not onelie acquited; but also gained his discharge for euer to passe ouer anie more into so vnthankefull a land.

The lord Fitzwaters being lord deputie, after a short time of his being there, was 1555 Sir Henrie Sidneie and Corwen lords iustices. sent for into England. And in his absence, sir Henrie Sidneie then treasuror at warres, and doctor Corwen, were for a time ioint lords iustices: but verie shortlie after, a commission was sent to sir Henrie Sidneie to be sole lord iustice, and so continued alone vntill the lord Fitzwaters, now earle of Sussex, came againe and resumed his former office of deputie. After that he was come ouer, he had somewhat to doo with the Oneile. For the whole north part of Ireland began to be The Oneile and all the north be vnquiet. vnquieted, and for preuenting of sundrie inconueniences, which might grow by the Scotish Ilanders in aiding the said Oneile, the lord deputie made a iourneie and voiage into the said Iles, to ioine them into his friendship. In his absence, he constituted sir Henrie Sidneie lord iustice; but after that he had doone his businesse, he returned againe to Dublin, where he remained and continued in his office vntill 1556 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord iustice the fourth time. 1557 The earle of Sussex lord lieutenant. The Oneile taken and kept in prison. 1564 Sir Nicholas Arnold lord iustice. 1565 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie. the death of quéene Marie, and then he passed ouer into England, and left sir Henrie Sidneie to be lord iustice now the fourth time. And after some time spent there, and quéene Elisabeth now setled in the imperiall crowne of England, she sent ouer the said earle as lieutenant of Ireland to performe those seruices, which before he had taken in hand: who did verie great good seruice against the Irishrie, and by meanes he tooke the Oneile, and kept him prisoner in the castell of Dublin: but yet before he could or did bring the same to perfection, he was reuoked into England, and left the land in a verie broken state; which was committed to sir Nicholas Arnold, & he was made lord iustice. But his gouernement being not well liked, choise was made by hir maiestie and the councell of sir Henrie Sidneie, now knight of the honorable order of the garter, to supplie that place, who then was lord president of Wales.

This man had béene before a long seruitour to that realme, hauing for sundrie yeares béene treasuror at warres, which is the second office vnder the lord deputie in that land; as also had béene lord iustice solie and iointlie foure times. Great was his knowledge, wisedome, and experience both of that land, and of the nature, manners, and disposition of the people: wherein the more he excelled anie others in those daies, the more apt and fit was he to haue the gouernement of them. He was therefore called from out of Wales, where he then resided in his gouernement Sir Henrie Sidneie lord president of Wales. vnto the court: and there after conference had with hir highnesse, and with the councell; he was appointed to be lord deputie of Ireland, being the seuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne, in the yeare of our Lord 1565. And then he receiued of hir maiestie a booke of instructions signed with hir owne hand, dated the fift of A booke of articles deliuered to sir Henrie Sidneie for his gouernement. October 1565, the seuenth yeare of hir reigne aforesaid, concerning the principall articles for his gouernement & direction, which chieflie consisted in these points.

First, that there should be a bodie of a councell established, to assist him being A councell to be established. lord deputie, in the gouernement of the same realme in times of peace and of warre; and whose names were then particularlie set downe: and order giuen, that euerie of them should before their admission be sworne by the said lord deputie, according to Euerie councellor to be sworne. the accustomed manner: with an exhortation, that for somuch as hir maiestie had reposed a speciall trust and confidence in their wisedomes, aduises, good counsels, and seruices: he the lord deputie should vse their aduises, assistance, and counsels in all matters of treatie and consultation, concerning the state of that realme.

And they likewise, considering the place and authoritie wherevnto hir maiestie had called the said sir Henrie Sidneie, to hold hir place in that realme: they should yéeld that obedience and reuerence vnto him, as to such a principall officer dooth apperteine. And then they both togither, to haue a speciall care and regard to the gouernement, which was comprised in foure articles that doo orderlie hereafter follow.

    The said foure articles were these.

  1. FIRST, that they should faithfullie and earnestlie regard the due and reuerend Gods lawes to be kept, and christian religion to be vsed. obseruation of all Gods lawes and ordinances, made and established for the maintenance of the true christian faith and religion among hir people; and that all meanes should be vsed, aswell by doctrine and by teaching, as by good examples, that deuotion and godlinesse might increase, and contempt of religion might be restreined, punished, and suppressed. That learning in the scriptures might be Learning of the scriptures to be mainteined. mainteined and increased among the cleargie, and that for the reliefe of the ecclesiasticall state, no alienations nor wasts of the lands perteining to anie church or college, The church lands not to be alienated. should be alienated: neither anie impropriations of benefices be put in vre: besides sundrie other articles incident to this effect.
  2. The second was, that the administration of law and iustice should dulie and The lawes to be dulie administred. vprightlie be executed, without respect of persons: that inquirie be made what notable faults are in anie of the iudges, or other ministers of the law: that vnfit persons maie be remoued from their places, and some sufficient persons of English birth be chosen to supplie the same. That shiriffes be appointed and renewed in Shiriffes to be appointed in euerie shire. euerie countie, and to execute their offices vprightlie, according to the lawes of England.
  3. The third, that the garrisons and men of warre be well ordered to the benefit The garisons to be looked vnto. of the realme, and repressing of disordered subiects and rebels: that they doo line according to the orders appointed, without oppression of the good and true subiects. That there shall be once within a moneth at the least a muster made A muster to be kept euerie moneth. either by the lord deputie, or by such commissioners as he shall appoint méete and indifferent for that purpose; who shall make inquirie of the number of the souldiors vnder euerie capteine; for the sufficiencie of their persons, their horsses, armors, and weapons, and other their necessaries: and how they were paied of their wages, and whether they were Englishmen or not.
  4. The fourth article was, whether there had béene had a due care & regard to the A due regard to be had of hir maiesties reuenues. preseruation of the reuenues of the crowne, & for the recouerie of that which is withdrawne. And whether euerie of the officers appointed for the receiuing of anie part of the said reuenues, as namelie the receiuers of rents, shiriffes, exchetors, That euerie officer of receipts doo yearelie make his account. collectors of the subsidies, customors, clerks of the crowne, of the hamper, and of the first fruits, and the farmers of customes and such others, did yearelie make and answer their accounts; and besides sundrie other articles incident to euerie of these principals.

After that he had receiued this booke, and his commission, he prepared himselfe Sir Henrie Sidneie taketh his leaue of the quéene and councell. with all the expedition he could, to follow the great charge committed vnto him: which being doone, he repaired to hir maiestie and tooke his leaue: and to his farewell, she gaue him most comfortable spéeches and good counsels, promising hir fauor and countenance to all his well dooings, and a consideration for the same when as time should serue. The like leaue he tooke also of the lords of the councell, who in like order gaue him the like farewell: and these things doone, he departed towards the sea side, where after he had taried a long time for a good wind and passage, he tooke ship, and arriued in Ireland the thirtéenth of lanuarie, about fiue miles from Dublin, and from thense he trauelled to Dublin; where he was most Sir Henrie Sidneie loifullie receiued into Dublin. honorablie receiued by sir Nicholas Arnold then lord iustice, and the whole councell; togither with the maior and his brethren of that citie. And the people in great troops came and saluted him, clapping and shooting with all the ioie that they could deuise.

The next sundaie then next following, being the seuenth daie of his arriuall, and the twentith of the moneth, he accompanied with the lord iustice and councell, repaired to the high church in the citie named Christes church; where after that the diuine seruice was doone, he tooke his oth, receiued the sword, and assumed vpon him the gouernement: and wherwith he made a most pithie, wise, and eloquent oration, which consisted vpon these speciall points. The first, what a pretious thing The benefit of good gouernement. is good gouernement, and how all realmes, commonwealths, cities, and countries doo flourish and prosper, where the same is orderlie, in equitie, iustice, and wisedome, directed & gouerned. Secondlie, what a continuall care the queenes highnesse The quéenes maiesties continuall care for Ireland. hath had, and yet hath, not onelie for the good guiding & ruling of the realme of England, but also of Ireland; which she so earnestlie desireth, and wisheth to be preserued, as well in peace as in warre: that she hath made great choise from time to time of the most graue, wise, and expert councellors for the one; and the most valiant, skilfull, and expert men of armes for the other: that both in peace and warres, the publike state of the commonwealth, and euerie particular member therein might be conserued, defended, and kept in safetie vnder hir gouernement. And for the performance thereof, hir maiestie ouer and besides the reuenues of the The quéenes maiestie expendeth yearelie out of hir owne cofers for Ireland sundrie thousands of pounds. crowne of Ireland, did yearelie far aboue anie of hir progenitors, expend of hir owne cofers out of England, great masses of monie, amounting to manie thousand pounds. All which hir excessiue expenses and continuall cares she made the lesse account of; so that hir realme and subiects of Ireland might bepreserued, defended, and gouerned.

Lastlie, notwithstanding hir maiestie might haue made better choise of manie others, who were better able to hold hir place in this realme, both for honor, wisedome, and experience: yet hir pleasure was now to cast this heauie charge and burden vpon him. Which he was the more vnwilling to take vpon him, because the greater the charge was, the more vnable & weake he was to susteine the same. Neuerthelesse, being in good hope, and well promised of hir highnesse fauor and countenance in his well dooings, and hauing his confidence in them hir highnesse councellors associated vnto him, to ioine, aid, and assist him in this gouernement: he was and is the more readie to take the sword in hand: in hope that this his gouernement shall be to the glorie of God, the honor of hir maiestie, the benefit of the commonwelth, and the preseruation of the whole realme and people of the same. And so making his earnest request to the said lords present, for their conioining with him, and the aiding and assisting of him in this hir maiesties seruice, he made an end of his speeches.

The said councellors, hauing well considered the great value and weight of this his graue and wise oration, did most humblie thanke his lordship for the same, and promised in all dutifulnesse, faith, and obedience to performe and attend whatsoener to them in anie wise should apperteine. These things doone, they all conducted the said lord deputie in all honorable manner vnto the castell of Dublin: the common people

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