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ἀ- , as insep. Prefix in compos.:
I. α στερητικόν (Sch.Od. 3.279, etc., cf. Eust.985.16), expressing want or absence (cf. Arist. Metaph.1022b32), as σοφός wise, ἄσοφος unwise: for n^, the weak form of the negative ne, commonly used in the formation of adjs. and advbs., very rarely in that of vbs. and substs., cf. ἀδώτης, ἀτιμάω, ἀτίω. Before a vowel it usu. appears as ἀν- (exc. where ϝ or spiritus asper has been lost, as ἄ-οινος, ἄ-υπνος, when it sts. coalesces with the following vowel, as ἀργός = ἀ-ϝεργός): the forms ἀνάεδνος, ἀνάελπτος are probably misspelt for ἀν-έϝεδνος, -έϝελπτος. Adjs. formed with it freq. take gen., esp. in Trag., cf. ἀλαμπὲς ἡλίου, = ἄνευ λάμψεως ἡλίου, S.Tr.691. [α^, exc. in adjs. which begin with three short syllables, which have α_ in Ep., and freq. also in Lyr., Trag., and Com.; ἀθάνατος invariably has α_θ.]
II. α ἀθροιστικόν (Eust. 641.61; “τὸ ἄλφα σημαίνει πολλαχοῦ τὸ ὁμοῦPl.Cra.405c), properly ἁ-since it represents sm- (cf. ἅμα, εἷς = sems), and so in ἁπλόος, ἁθρόος: but freq. ἀ- by dissimilation from following aspirate, as ἄ-λοχος, and hence by analogy in ἄ-κοιτις, etc., q.v.: sts. in the form ὀ-, as in ὄπατρος, ὀγάστριος, ὄζυξ. [α^.]
III. α ἐπιτατικόν (Eust. 641.61), strengthening the force of compds., as ἀ-τενής; prob. identical in etymology with 11, from which it is distinguished by Gramm., who sts. confuse it with 1; v. ἀδάκρυτος. [α^.]
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hide References (4 total)
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (4):
    • Aristotle, Metaphysics, 5.1022b
    • Plato, Cratylus, 405c
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 691
    • Homer, Odyssey, 3.279
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