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εἰμί , 2 sing. ἐσσί, εἴς (never εἶ), 1 pl. είμέν, 3 pl. ἔα_σι, subj. ἔω, εἴω, 3 ἔῃσι, ᾖσι, 3 pl. ἔωσι, ὦσι, opt. 2 ἔοις, 3 ἔοι, inf. μμεναι), part. ἐών, ἔου_σα, ἐόν, ipf. ἔα, ἦα, ἔον (ἔην), 2 ἔησθα, ἦσθα, 3 ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν, du. ἤστην, pl. ἔσαν, iter. ἔσκον, fut. ςσομαι, ςσεαι, ςσεται, ςσόμεθα: as copula, meaning to be, forms of the pres. ind. are enclitic, with the exception of ἔα_σι. But they are not enclitic in the meaning exist, be possible; so at the beginning of a sentence, and ἔστι after οὐκ, καί, εἰ, and ὡς. Ζεῦ πάτερ, ῥα ἔτ᾽ ἔστε θεοί, ‘ye do then still exist,’ Od. 24.352 ; εἴ τι<*> που ἔστι, πίθοιό μοι, ‘if it be anywise possible,’ Od. 4.193 . εἶναι is used in Hom. as elsewhere to form periphrastic tenses, τετληότες εἰμέν (=τετλήκαμεν), Il. 5.873 ; βλήμενος ἦν, Il. 4.211; and it is the usual verb to denote possession, εἰσίν μοι παῖδες, Il. 10.170; ὄφρα οἱ εἴη πίνειν, ‘have (a chance) to drink,’ <*> 248; phrases, ἔνδον ἐόντων, ‘of her store’; ὅπως ἔσται τάδε ἔργα, ‘what turn affairs will take’; εἴη κεν καὶ τοῦτο, ‘this might well come to pass’; ἐμοὶ δέ κεν ἀσμένῳ εἴη, ‘it would please me well’; καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι, ‘for future generations,’ ‘for posterity to hear’; εἴ ποτ᾽ ἔην γε, ‘if indeed he ever was’—as if his existence had been but a dream after all.—Ellipsis of ἐστί is freq., of other forms rare, sc. ἔῃ, Il. 14.376.
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